Ex. 3. Find in the text and read aloud sentences that prove that...
1. There is little evidence of the Aryans' early history.
2. There was an economic basis for the Aryans to expand their territories.
3. There was a major cultural division between the north and the south as a result of the Aryan invasion.
4. The social structure of the Aryan state was well-developed.
5. The political history of India cannot be understood without reference to brahmanism.
6. The religious priests occupied the leading position in the society.
7. The Vedas were the first songs put into writing in the sacred Sanskrit language.
8. The world of deities described in the Rig Veda was well-structured.
9. The Vedas were not the only written works in Sanskrit.
10. The major tenets of the Brahman religion were described within the Mahabharata.
IV. VOCABULARY SKILLS
Ex. 4. Give Russian equivalents of the following word combinations and reproduce the sentences in which they are used in the text:
to stamp culture to record one's activities
according to one's traditions to offer sacrifices to the deities
the larger chieftains to be (un)favorably disposed towards smb
to provide smb with to be written in a sacred language
promotion of cotton farming and to oversee the universe
cloth making to direct order
to claim divine descent to offer libations
to consult with smb on smth to be of moderate length
to be structured according to classes
Ex. 5. Give English equivalents of the following word combinations and reproduce sentences in which they are used in the text:
определять ход истории вопросы войны и мира
насчитываться (не) равны от рождения
(не) проявлять интереса обучать брахманов
записывать самый могущественный во вселенной
обосноваться в каком-нибудь месте религиозные догмы
Ex. 6. Arrange the pairs of synonyms:
to write down, section, to teach, attempts, matters, brahmans, deity, Hinduism, rulers, part, chieftains, Brahmanism, divinity, priests, issues, efforts, to record, to train.
Ex. 7. Paraphrase the italicized parts:
1. After 600 ВС some of the songs were written down, possibly for the teaching of the young priests.
2. There is no agreement on the exact date of composition, but the present text is considered to be recorded from about the first century AD.
3. Councils of noblemen consulted with the king on the problems of war and peace.
4. After 1200 ВС the larger Aryan rulers began to expand their territories at the expense of their neighbors.
5. Within the Mahabharata there is a part known as the Lord's Song.
6. The brahmans were the only ones who knew how to worship the Indian gods.
Ex. 8. Complete the sentences:
1. In the period after 1200 ВС ...
2. During this age the Aryan invaders...
3. Unfortunately, the Aryans...
4. The larger Aryan chieftains began expanding...
5. The economic basis for territory expand was...
6. Dravidians remained untouched by...
7. Some rulers bore the name raja went so far...
8. Councils of noblemen in a much-structured society...
9. Scribes appeared...
10. The term Hinduism came from ...
11. The brahmans were the only ones who…
12. The Rig Veda is a book of songs ...
13. The primary gods in Brahrfmnism were...
14. Religious ceremonies were held ...
15. In addition to the Vedas ...
Ex. 9. Match the definitions with the words given below:
1. The rulers of the Aryan kingdoms.
2. The religious priests at the very highest level of society in Brahmanism.
3. God of war, the most popular divinity in the early years of the classical period.
4. Songs put into writing and consisted of four collections of the songs in the sacred Sanskrit language.
5. One of the primary gods in brahmanism who gave fire.
6. The oldest of the four collections of the songs for training young brahmans.
One of the primary gods who became incarnate so as to help humans
8. One of the two great epic poems appeared to supplement the Vedas, the longest one in world literature.
9. The Lord's Song that teaches the major tenets of the Brahman religion.
10. The highest god that stood over all the other deities, omnipotent throughout the universe.
11. One of the two great epic poems appeared to supplement the Vedas, tells the story of Rama.
12. One of the primary gods who directed the cosmic order.
(the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, Brahma, the Rig Veda, the Mahabharata, Vishnu, Agni, Varana, Vedas, Indra, brahmans, rajas)
Ex. 10. Now try to give definitions of your own to the proper names and terms-realia listed in Ex. 9 without looking into the text.
Ex. 11. Agree or disagree. Prove your answer:
l. Brahmanism today after the centuries of development is called Buddhism.
2. There was a cultural division between the north and the south of India.
3. Raja was an ultimate and sole ruler of the country.
4. To record the King's activities and to write down the sacred literature of the Aryans scribes appeared.
5. The Aryans left a large number of remains of physical culture.
6. Houses were built in wood and in stone.
7. Aryan society was very much structured according to classes.
8. The only duty of brahmans was to offer sacrifices to the Indian deities.
9. In 600 ВС four collections of holy songs appeared.
10. Religious chants make up the content of the Ramayana, the longest poem in world literature.
11. The major tenets of the brahman religion are taught within the Mahabharata.
12. Along with Indra, the primary gods were Agni, Vishnu, and Brahma.
13. The Vedas were great epic poems and soon became the major literary works of ancient India.
14. The Mahabharata is the longest poem in world literature.
Ex. 13. a) Answer the following questions to see if you understand every word in the text:
1. What are the sources that help historians to draw the threads to weave the story of India?
2. Why is there very little evidence of the Aryans' life and culture?
3. What period does the Aryan chieftains' expansion of their territories date back to?
4. What events took place by 600 ВС on the Ganges and the Indus plains?
5. Why is it possible to speak about a major cultural division between the north and the south of India?
6. Can we define the Aryan kingdoms as well-structured societies? Why?
7. Palaces were the citadels of culture, weren't they?
8. What is the origin of the term "Hinduism"?
9. What accounts for inequality in the Aryan society?
10. What were the social duties of the religious priests?
11. What were the possible reasons for putting some of the religious songs into writing?
12. When did the four collections of the songs appear?
b) Put questions of your own to the rest of the text and ask your classmates to answer them.