Ex. 2. Read the text again and note important details. Divide the text into logical parts, find the key sentences in each part.
Ex. 3. Find in the text and read aloud sentences that prove that...
1. the caste system prevented the Aryans from being assimilated by the native population;
2. the Rig Veda gives a story of human creation;
3. the indigenous Indian people fell outside the Aryan classes;
4. the Aryan classes were subdivided into castes;
5. the caste determined all the sides of a person's life;
6. to get too close to anyone not on a person's level meant defilement;
7. belonging to this or that caste was a result of an earlier life of an individual.
Ex. 4. List the items of Ex. 3 in the order in which they come in the text.
IV. VOCABULARY SKILLS
Ex. 5. Give Russian equivalents of the following word combinations and reproduce the sentences in which these units are used in the text:
a distinctive feature to determine one's occupation
to be conscious of smth to see to smth
to assimilate the population to be punished with beating and ostracism
to fit within classes to associate with smb
to fall outside classes to fall back a step
within the class of untouchables
Ex. 6. Give English equivalents of the following word combinations and reproduce sentences in which these units are used in the text:
предотвратить что-л. иметь арийское происхождение
предопределять свыше иметь дело с
отвечать (нести ответственность) подразделять на
за что-л. подвергаться осквернению
каждая считалась лучше или принадлежать от рождения
хуже другой перейти в другую касту
Ex. 7. Paraphrase the italicized parts:
1. The Aryans were extremely conscious of the possibility of being assimilated by the native peoples of India.
2. Brahmans taught that the caste system was divinely ordained.
3. All who were of Aryan ancestry fit somewhere within these classes.
4. They fell outside the Aryan classes.
5. The caste not only determined one's occupation, but also the rank in society, diet, and choice of marriage partners.
6. They had to drink from their own wells, lest they incur defilement.
7. A person without good karma, even a brahman, could fall back a step.
Ex. 8. Complete the sentences:
1. An emphasis on human differences...
2. The untouchables fell outside ...
3. Within the Rig Veda one of the gods...
4. All who were of Aryan ancestry...
5. The whole society was divided into ...
6. Even within the class of the untouchables, there was a distinction...
7. Classes were subdivided into...
8. Each occupation had its own ...
9. The caste determined one's occupation ...
10.Anyone violating the rules ...
11.The people were considered to incur defilement...
12.Whatever caste a man or woman happened to be born into ...
13.It was possible to ascend into a higher caste or class ...
14.A person could fall back a step if...
Ex. 9. Agree or disagree. Prove your answer:
1. The Aryans adopted the caste system of the Indian people.
2. Each of the Aryan classes subdivided into castes.
3. One's occupation determined the castes and vice versa.
4. The human creation was depicted within the Rig Veda.
5. The society was all in all subdivided into four classes.
6. The Aryan origin was of great importance.
7. Even within the class there were distinctions.
8. The walls between the castes were not rigid.
9. Everyone violating the rules of the caste was punished.
10. People of the higher castes incur defilement if they got too close to someone not of their level.
Ex. 10. Find in the text and write out terms-realia. Match them to the definitions given below:
1. A European name for social groups within classes in the Indian society.
2. The Hindu word for castes.
3. The class of landowners, artisans, and merchants.
4. The class of peasant farmers.
5. The highest class of the Indian society.
6. The priestly class.
7. The class of warriors and rajas.
8. The lowest group of the Indian society, doing the hardest work.
9. The force that is introduced by a person's actions in life which will influence him later or in future lives.
Ex. 11. Without looking into the text give your own definitions of the following terms-realia:
varnas, vaishyas, pariahs, shudras, karma, brahmans, rajas, kshatriyas.
V. SPEAKING SKILLS
Ex.12. First get ready with Ex. 20, then ask your classmates to answer the following questions to see if they understand every word of the text:
1. Что являлось отличительной чертой брахманизма?
2. Для чего ариями была введена система каст в индийском обществе?
3. Что Ригведа рассказывает о том, как был создан человек?
4. Кого называли неприкасаемыми?
5. Существовало ли деление на группы внутри каст?
6. Что такое «каста»?
7. Какую роль в жизни человека играла принадлежность к той или иной касте?
8. Кто следил за тем, чтобы кастовые законы не нарушались?
9. Что происходило, если кто-то нарушал кастовые законы?
10. Чем мог осквернить себя представитель более высокой касты?
11. Возможен ли был переход из одной касты в другую?
12. Какую роль играла «карма» в жизни индуса?