1) a) -A is dropped and -IAN is added in: -IAN is added in most cases:
Canada — Canadian Egypt — Egyptian
b)-A is dropped and-AN is added in: Babylon - Babylonian
America — American ! But Laos – Laotian
Cuba — Cuban Honduras – Honduran
Assyria — Assyrian
! But Ghana — Ghanaian
2) -E is kept and -AN is added in:
Europe — European
Chile - Chilean
3) -I is kept and -AN is added in:
Mali — Malian
4) -U at the end:
Peru — Peruvian
5) -Y at the end:
a) consonant + Y (Y - I + AN):
Italy — Italian
Hungary — Hungarian
b) vowel + Y (+ AN):
Paraguay — Paraguayan
III. READING SKILLS
Ex. 1. Read the text and get its central idea. Among the statements below choose the one that tells the main idea of the text best.
1. The unification of the Upper and Lower Egypt was central to Egyptian ideas of kingship.
2. Much of what we know about the ancient Egyptians derives from their tombs and artifacts placed in them.
3. The people of the Nile Valley took a different cultural path from the rest of Africa.
Ex. 2. Read the text again and note important details. Divide the text into logical parts. Find key sentences in each part.
Ex. 3. Find in the text and read aloud sentences that prove that...
1. ... Egypt became increasingly involved in the cultural and political world of the Greek Mediterranean.
2. ...people of the Nile Valley began to take a different cultural path from the rest of Africa.
3. ...the tombs were modeled on the homes of the living.
4. ...written history began with the list of thirty Dynasties by Manetho.
5. ...the unification of the Valley and the Delta was central to Egyptian ideas of kingship.
6. ...cultural and political alignments often changed.
7. ...the conquerors were less concerned with Egypt's religion and culture than its wealth.
8. ...much of what we know about the ancient Egyptians derives from their tombs and the artifacts placed in them.
9. ...at different periods pharaohs preferred tombs cut into the ground or hillside to enormous stone pyramid complexes.
10....complex funerary beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians are illustrated in paintings and reliefs inside the royal tombs.
Ex. 4. List the items from Ex.3 in the order in which they come in the text.
IV. VOCABULARY SKILLS
Ex. 5. Give Russian equivalents of the following word combinations and reproduce the sentences in which they are used in the text:
to turn one's attention to
vehicles for royal propaganda
to be regarded as
decipherment of the accompanying
to be tailored to political expediency
to enjoy prominence
to enjoy smth. in the afterlife
to be preserved intact
to be painted with
Ex. 6. Give English equivalents of the following word combinations and reproduce the sentences in which they are used in the text:
перемещение административных центров
основать новую династию
устроить по образу и подобию
все необходимое для жизни
жизнь после смерти
в современном понимании
торговля экзотическими товарами
Ex. 7. Match the words and their definitions:
2. "Two Lands"
3. Lower Egypt
4. Upper Egypt
8. "Intermediate periods"
a) the Delta of the Nile
b) the Lord of the Underworld
c) the first known historian
d) a priest who compiled a list of thirty dynasties
e) "Great House"
f) a king of Egypt
g) periods characterized by war or political fragmentation
h) a construction above the grave
i) a prototype of a pyramid
j) the son of the sun-god Ra
k) Upper and Lower Egypt
l) periods of relative stability
m) the Valley
Ex. 8. Paraphrase the italicized parts:
1. The names of individual kings began to be written, including those of Narmer and Aha.
2. Known as "Pharaoh", the king in Egypt was considered as both human and divine.
3. Temples of the gods were exploited as means of royal propaganda.
4. A priest called Manetho made up a list of thirty dynasties.
5. Thebes in Upper Egypt occupied an important position for extended periods during the Middle and the New Kingdoms.
6. Conquest of Persia put an end to native Egyptian rule.
7. With a new capital in Alexandria, Egypt enjoyed prominence in the cultural and political world of the Greek Mediterranean.
8. The Persian, Greek and Roman rulers were more interested in Egypt's wealth than in its religion and culture.
9. The artifacts were placed in the tombs for their owners to use them after death.
10. During the Early Dynastic period, mastaba tombs were designed as the homes of the living.
11. Tombs were full of everything required for the afterlife.
12. All the necessities of life were not damaged by Egypt's dry climate.
Ex. 9. Complete the sentences:
1. The unification of the Valley and the Delta...
2. A priest called Manetho ...
3. Much of what we know about the ancient Egyptians...
4. The tombs were modeled on ...
5. Written history began with ...
6. The funerary beliefs of Egyptians are illustrated...
7. Pharaohs preferred tombs...
8. In the 6 millennium ВС, people of the Nile Valley...
9. About 3600 ВС the pre-dynastic Egyptians were ...
10.Long king-lists were tailored to ...
11.With a new capital in Alexandria ...
12.Very little material survives outside tombs and temples, but...
V. SPEAKING SKILLS
Ex. 10. Agree or disagree. Prove your answer:
1. The cultivation of the rich Nile silt made it possible for the people of the Nile Valley to take a different cultural path from the rest of Africa.
2. The earliest Egyptian writing developed into the largely phonetic hieroglyphic script.
3. The first national capital was established at Thebes around 3100 ВС.
4. Pharaoh was regarded as a deity.
5. Osiris was the sun-god in the Egyptian pantheon.
6. To get rid of the discredited kings was simply to remove their names from the official record.
7. No attempts at recording history in modern sense is known to have been made until around 250 ВС.
8. A priest called Manetho grouped the history of Egypt into "Kingdoms" and "Intermediate periods".
Ex. 11. a) Answer the following questions to see if you understand every word in the text:
1. What indicated frequent changes in cultural and political alignments?
2. What provides valuable information about Egypt?
3. When did Egypt become increasingly involved in the cultural and political world of the Greek Mediterranean?
4. When was the period of climax for Egypt's power?
5. In what way were the pharaohs' tombs modeled at different periods of the Egyptian history?
6. What do paintings and reliefs inside the royal tombs demonstrate?
7. What was the path of a human soul after death according to the ancient beliefs?
8. Were carvings and paintings of the tombs with vivid scenes of everyday life only decorations?
b) Put questions of your own to the rest of the text, ask your groupmates to answer them.