The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a parliamentary monarchy, with the Queen Elizabeth II, as a Head of State. The powers of Queen are hereditary, and not elective. The Queen is considered to be the supreme commander-in-chief of the armed forces, the temporal head of the Anglican Church and the head of the Commonwealth. Juridically the Queen has a lot of rights, but in fact she is only nominal chief of state, the royal powers and prerogatives are almost entirely in the hands of the Cabinet of ministers.
The government of the United Kingdom is composed of three branches: the executive one, the legislative one, and the judicial one.
The legislative power in the country is exercised by the Parliament together with the Queen. The Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. These two Houses are considered independent of each other, they are constructed on different principles, have separate residences and different powers. But in order that laws may be adopted, it is usually necessary that both Houses come to an agreement.
The executive bodies consist of 1) the Cabinet and other ministers of the Crown who are responsible for directing national policy; 2) government departments, who are responsible for administration at the national level; 3) local authorities who administer and control many services at the local level; and 4) statutory boards, who are responsible for the operation of particular nationalized industries or public services.
The highest judicial body in the English judicial system is the House of Lords.
4. Look through the text and say in what meaning these words are used in the text:
To exercise – упражняться, тренироваться, осуществлять
A house – дом, торговая фирма, театр, палата
A branch – ветка, отрасль, филиал, ветвь
A body – тело, группа людей, организация, орган
Power - сила, энергия, власть, способность, держава
5. Find in the text the following verbs and make as many word-combinations as you can.
Выбирать, управлять, состоять, осуществлять, контролировать.
6. Write out the pairs of synonyms:
|| Take place
|| Make amendments
7. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
- глава государства
- конституционная монархия
- наследственная власть
- глава Содружества
- законодательная власть
- верховный главнокомандующий
- министры Короны
- национальная политика
- прийти к соглашению
- местные органы власти
- департаменты правительства
- высший судебный орган
8.Make up different word-combinations using the following words (A, B) and translate them:
House of power
Chief of authority
Ministers of state
9. Make up 6 sentences and try to say each of them by heart:
1. The legislative power 1. Are hereditary, not elective
2. Local authorities. 2. are elected by the people
3. The members of the 3. control many services at the
House of Commons local level.
4. The House of Lords 4. direct national policy
5. The powers of the Queen. 5. is exercised by the Parliament
6. The Cabinet and other ministers 6. is the highest judicial body
of the Crown
10. Say if it is right or wrong. Give a full answer:
1. The British state is a federal republic.
2. There are two branches of power in the Great Britain: the legislature and the executive.
3. The legislative power in the country is exercised by the House of Lords.
4. The Cabinet and other ministers of the Crown direct national policy.
5. The members of the House of Commons are elected by the people.
6. The highest judicial body in the English judicial system is the House of Lords.
7. The powers of Queen are elective, and not hereditary.
11. Put the letters in underlined words in the necessary order, then translate sentences:
1. Britain has a sotntintiolacu noyharcm, which means that the powers and rights of the Queen or King are limited by the basic laws and principles of the country.
2. The name of the current monarch is Queen itaelEhzb II, and she has nidgree the country since 1952.
3. Her official London residence is at miucnBaghk ealPca, but she has other residences around the country that she uses.
4. The monarch’s limited powers and rights are known as the royal pogtrevraie. However, her role is one of a egfiredhua (a leader with no real power or influence) is largely mociaereln.
5. The Queen meets and greets foreign heads of state. Each year she also opens maenrlaPti and gives the sueQn’e hpesce, in which she outlines the ielospic of the government for the coming year.
6. This speech does not express her views: it expresses the views of the meriP stinirMe and the nlguri political party.
7. The monarch must accept any decisions made by the naCited and by Parliament.
Text № 2
1. Some new words to the text:
Treasury казна, казначейство
To run (зд.) управлять
To appoint назначать
To create создавать
To indicate указывать, показывать
To call (upon) вызывать
To initiate вводить, устанавливать
2. Read the text and answer the following questions:
1. What are the major functions of the Prime Minister in the UK?
2. Who can become a Prime Minister?
3. What are the functions of the Cabinet?