By the Constitution of 1787 (and the amendments to it) the government of the USA is composed of three branches: the executive one, the legislative one, and the judicial one.
The highest executive power in the United States is vested in the President of the United States, who is elected for a term of 4 years by electors of each state. The Presidential election is held every four year in November. The President of the USA must be a native born citizen, resident in the country for 14 years and at least 35 years old.
The President is to carry out the programmes of the Government, to recommend much of the legislation to the Congress.
The President is also responsible for:
- carrying out and enforcing laws made by Congress;
- nominating people for federal offices;
- negotiating treaties with other nations;
- conducting wars.
In addition, the President is given the power:
- to pardon people convicted of crimes;
- to send and receive ambassadors to and from other countries.
Veto. The president shares in the legislative power through veto. Although the president can veto a bill passed by Congress, the bill can still become a law if two-thirds of both houses of Congress vote to override the veto.
Appointments. The power to appoint executive branch officials and federal judges is shared with Congress. The president has the power to nominate persons to fill those positions, but the Senate has the right to approve or disapprove of the persons nominated. To prevent corruption of Congress, members of Congress are not allowed to hold another federal office.
The legislative power belongs to the Congress of the United States consisting of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate is composed of two members from each state elected for a term of 6 years, one third being elected every two years. The number of representatives from each state to the House of Representatives depends on the number of people in each particular state.
In order to become a law all bills and resolutions must pass both the Houses and must be signed by the President.
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the United States and the head of the judicial branch of power. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the USA and a number of Associate Justices.
There are about 90 district courts in the different parts of the USA. The district courts are lowest ones in the Federal court system. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts.
3. Read and translate the international words without dictionary:
Civil, constitution, Congress, criminal, control, department, Senate, bills, resolution, President, resident, programmes, system, to recommend, secretaries.
4. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
- по конституции 1787 года и поправкам к ней
- исполнительная ветвь власти
- президентские выборы
- Конгресс США
- Палата Представителей
- на срок 4 года
- выполнять программу
- помиловать осужденных
- послы в другие страны
- для того, чтобы стать законом
- Верховный судья
- разбирать в судебном порядке уголовные и гражданские дела.
5. Make up as many different word-combinations as you can with the next verbs:
to carry out
6. Make up different word-combinations using the following words (A, B) and translate them:
House of citizen
7. Give the corresponding verbs of the same root from the following nouns. Translate them:
Government, legislation, election, appointment, recommendation, head, trial, composition, resolution, dependence.
8. Confirm or deny the statements using the following phrases:
I quite agree with it…
I don’t agree with it…
Excuse me but…
On the contrary…
I am afraid it’s not quite so…
1. The government of the USA is composed of three branches.
2. The legislative power is vested in the President.
3. The US President must be 40 years old.
4. The US President carries out and enforces laws made by Congress.
5. In order to become a law all bills and resolutions must only be signed by the President.
6. The Supreme Court is the head of executive branch of power in the United States of America.
7. The district courts are the highest ones in the Federal court system.
9. Read the sentences completing them according to the text:
1. By the Constitution of 1787 (and the amendments to it) the government of the USA is composed of ….
2. The highest executive power in the United States is vested in the President of the United States, who is elected for a term of …
3. … must be a native born citizen, resident in the country for … and at least … years old.
4. … shares in the legislative power through veto.
5. The legislative power belongs to … consisting of two chambers: … and …
6. In order to become a law all bills and resolutions must ….
7. There are about … district courts in the different parts of the USA.
10. Read and translate the sentences paying attention to the pronoun one:
1. The government of the USA is composed of three branches: the executive one, the legislative one, and the judicial one.
2. The district courts are lowest ones in the Federal court system.
3. One can say that lobbyists in the American legislation are more influential than the Congressmen.
4. The USA is divided into 50 states; each one has its own constitution.
5. One should say that politics in the USA as in many other countries is «a commercial enterprise as any other one».
6. In many countries the more money one can pay, the better lawyer one can have.