По английскому языку
1 курс 2 семестр
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ВНУТРЕННИХ ДЕЛ
По английскому языку
Печатается по решению
Краснодарского университета МВД России
В.В. Катермина, доктор филологических наук, профессор кафедры английской филологии факультета РГФ Кубанского государственного университета.
И.В. Мятченко, кандидат филологических наук, доцент, зав. кафедрой русского и иностранных языков Краснодарского университета МВД России.
Составитель: С.В. Кулинская, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры русского и иностранных языков (Краснодарский университет МВД России).
Учебное пособие является одним из циклов учебно-методических материалов, предназначенных для обучения английскому языку курсантов, слушателей, студентов, обучающихся по специальностям 030901.65 – правовое обеспечение национальной безопасности и 031001.65 – правоохранительная деятельность.
Пособие позволяет овладеть специальной лексикой, узнать об истории и функционировании государственных, политических и судебных структур России, Великобритании и США.
Предлагаемое учебное пособие предназначено для обучения английскому языку курсантов, слушателей, студентов 2 курса, обучающихся по специальностям 030901.65 – правовое обеспечение национальной безопасности и 031001.65 – правоохранительная деятельность и рассчитано на 70 часов практических занятий.
Пособие строится согласно тематическому плану и рассматривает основные элементы государственных, правовых и судебных структур России, Великобритании и США. Основная цель пособия – обеспечить практическое владение обучающихся всеми видами речевой деятельности по данным темам.
В пособие включены современные профессионально-ориентированные материалы из правовых источников Великобритании и США, которые позволяют овладеть специальной лексикой, узнать о функционировании судебных структур данных стран, о работе полиции Великобритании и США, а также развить столь необходимые для юриста навыки анализа текста и ведения дискуссии. Каждая тема включает тексты для изучающего и синтетического чтения, а так же грамматический и лексический материал, обрабатываемый дифференцированно (для устной речи и чтения). Должное внимание уделяется коммуникативным упражнениям, которые включают:
- подстановочные упражнения, целью которых является правильное коммуникативное использование готовых вариантов;
- ситуационно обусловленные коммуникативные упражнения на завершение ситуации, аргументирование, выражения своего отношения и т.д.;
- упражнения, стимулирующие свободное высказывание, а также задания, которые требуют многократного обращения к тексту.
Данное пособие содержит тематический словарь, тексты для основного чтения и тексты для дополнительного чтения, а также грамматический раздел.
Тема 8.Исполнительная ветвь власти США. Президент и его кабинет -------6
Тема 9. Конгресс США------------------------------------------------------------------ 14
Тема 10.Правительство Великобритании.
Текст 1.The Bodies of Government in the United Kingdom ------------29
Текст 2. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom----------------------35
Тема 11. Парламент Великобритании-----------------------------------------40
Тема 12. Государственное устройство РФ-------------------------------------------58
Тематический словарь к темам № 13, 14------------------------------------------63
Тема 13. Судебная система Великобритании ---------------------------------------74
Supplementary Reading -----------------------------------------------------------91
Тема 14. Судебная система США -----------------------------------------------------99
Supplementary Reading ---------------------------------------------------------108
Simple Tenses -----------------------------------------------------------------124
Continuous Tenses ------------------------------------------------------------132
Perfect Tenses -----------------------------------------------------------------137
Типы вопросов ---------------------------------------------------------------143
Пассивный Залог ------------------------------------------------------------151
Сложные предложения с придаточным условия и времени --------157
Согласование времен. Косвенная речь----------------------------------159
Test Review ------------------------------------------------------------------------------164
Вопросы к зачету--------------------------------------------------------------180
Тема № 8
Исполнительная ветвь власти США.
Президент и его кабинет.
1. Some new words to the text:
Branch отрасль, ветвь
To elect выбирать
To carry out выполнять
To enforce a law проводить закон в жизнь
To negotiate вести переговоры
To conduct проводить
To pardon помиловать
To appoint назначать
To override не принять во внимание
To (dis)approve (не)одобрять
To sign подписывать
To try разбирать (в судебном порядке)
2. Read and translate the text:
House of citizen
7. Give the corresponding verbs of the same root from the following nouns. Translate them:
Government, legislation, election, appointment, recommendation, head, trial, composition, resolution, dependence.
8. Confirm or deny the statements using the following phrases:
I quite agree with it…
I don’t agree with it…
Excuse me but…
On the contrary…
I am afraid it’s not quite so…
1. The government of the USA is composed of three branches.
2. The legislative power is vested in the President.
3. The US President must be 40 years old.
4. The US President carries out and enforces laws made by Congress.
5. In order to become a law all bills and resolutions must only be signed by the President.
6. The Supreme Court is the head of executive branch of power in the United States of America.
7. The district courts are the highest ones in the Federal court system.
9. Read the sentences completing them according to the text:
1. By the Constitution of 1787 (and the amendments to it) the government of the USA is composed of ….
2. The highest executive power in the United States is vested in the President of the United States, who is elected for a term of …
3. … must be a native born citizen, resident in the country for … and at least … years old.
4. … shares in the legislative power through veto.
5. The legislative power belongs to … consisting of two chambers: … and …
6. In order to become a law all bills and resolutions must ….
7. There are about … district courts in the different parts of the USA.
10. Read and translate the sentences paying attention to the pronoun one:
1. The government of the USA is composed of three branches: the executive one, the legislative one, and the judicial one.
2. The district courts are lowest ones in the Federal court system.
3. One can say that lobbyists in the American legislation are more influential than the Congressmen.
4. The USA is divided into 50 states; each one has its own constitution.
5. One should say that politics in the USA as in many other countries is «a commercial enterprise as any other one».
6. In many countries the more money one can pay, the better lawyer one can have.
|| How chosen
Senate (Two senators from each state)
-Writes new laws.
-Sets federal taxes.
-Approves Presidential appointments.
-Overrules Presidential vetoes.
-Impeaches the President.
|| House of Representatives (Numbers of Representatives varies according to state population)
|| State election
|| national election
|| -Enforces federal laws.
-Appoints and remove high federal officials.
-Commands the armed forces.
-Conducts foreign affairs.
-Recommends laws to Congress.
-Approves or vetoes new laws.
|| Executive Departments
|| Presidential appointment
|| No set term
|| -Conducts the administration of the national government
|| Independent Agencies
|| Presidential appointment
|| No set term
|| Oversees government regulations
|| Supreme Court Nine Justices
|| Presidential appointment
|| -Interprets laws according to the Constitution.
-May declare actions of the Executive and Legislative branches unconstitutional
|| Lower federal Courts
|| Presidential appointment
|| -Decides cases that involve the Constitution and federal laws
1. Some new words to the text:
District район, округ
To win выигрывать, побеждать
To set устанавливать
Declare объявить, заявить
Read and translate the text
Congress, the legislative branch of the federal government, is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 100 Senators, two from each state. One third of the Senators are elected every two years for six-year terms of office. A senator must be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the United States for 9 years, and live in the state he or she represents.
The House of Representatives has 435 members. They are elected every two years for two-year terms. They represent the population of «congressional districts» into which each sate is divided. A representative must be at least 25 years old, a citizen for 7 years, and live in the state. The number of Representatives from each state is based upon its population. For instance, California, the state with the largest population, has 45 Representatives, while Delaware has one. There is no limit to the number of terms a Senator or a Representative may serve.
Almost all elections in the United States follow the «winner-take-all» principle: the candidate who wins the largest number of votes in a Congressional district is the winner.
Congress makes all laws, and each house of Congress has the power to introduce legislation. Each can also vote against legislation passed by the other. Because legislation only becomes law if both houses agree, compromise between them is necessary. Congress decides upon taxes and how money is spent. The Congress can also declare war. And the House of Representatives can also impeach the President. This means that the House can charge the President with a crime. In addition, Congress regulates commerce among the states and with foreign countries. It also sets rules for the naturalization of foreign citizens.
3. Translate the following word-combinations:
- «congressional districts»
- almost all elections
- «winner-take-all» principle
- six-year terms
- a citizen of the United States
- the number of representatives
- the largest number of votes
- foreign citizens.
4. Make up as many different word-combinations as you can with the next verbs:
- to make
- to introduce
- to vote against
- to become
- to declare
- to impeach
- to set .
5. Translate from Russian into English using the information of the text above:
Законодательная ветвь власти, состоять из, создавать законы, голосовать против, объявлять войну, обвинить в каком-либо преступлении, налоги, подвергнуть президента импичменту.
6. Complete the sentences according to the text:
1. Congress is made up of … and … ….
2. One third of the Senators are elected … … … for six-year terms of office.
3. The House of Representatives has … … .
4. The number of Representatives from each state is based upon … .
5. Each house of Congress has the power … … .
6. Congress also sets rules for the naturalization of foreign … .
7. How can you call in one word:
a) a member of a congress;
b) a member of a senate.
8. Here is the definition of the word. Guess the meaning:
… is the highest law-making body of the US, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Answer the questions.
1. What are the basic principles which are found at all levels of American government?
2. How do you understand the saying: "The President proposes, but Congress disposes"?
3. Who is the chief executive in each state?
4. What laws do the local police enforce?
Cost of Government
The average cost of all governments - federal, state and local - to each man, woman and child in the United States is $4,539 a year. About two-thirds of all taxes collected go to the federal government.
The individual income tax provides the federal government slightly less than half its revenues. A person with an average income pays about 11 per cent of it to the government; those with very large incomes must pay up to 50 per cent. Many states also have their own income taxes. Many other taxes - on property, entertainments, automobiles, etc. - are levied to provide funds for national, state and local governments.
Federal government spending for defence purposes, including military help to other nations, has fallen as a portion of total government expenditures from 58.7 per cent in 1958 to 25.7 per cent in fiscal year 1981. The remaining
74.3 per cent of the federal budget has gone into public welfare programmes, development of water and land resources, public health and education. As a result of the expansion and increased costs of government services, the national debt has increased greatly since World War II.
TYPES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Local governments are different from state and federal governments because they do not have constitutions. Local governments receive a charter (a plan of government) from the state government. There are different types of local governments: city, county, town and village. The local charter tells us about the organization of the government.
One of the most important functions or duties of local government is the provision of public schools. People often want to take part in making decisions about the schools because they want their children to get a good education. There are special school boards where parents are the members. The school board makes decisions about teachers salaries, the curriculum and other administrative aspects. They give their opinions about what needs to be done at school.
Local governments have a court system which considers local problems, such as traffic laws and small disputes. Sometimes cases may be appealed to the state courts. Judges in local courts are sometimes called justices of peace or judge and magistrate. Local courts usually specialize in one area of law, for ex, family law, to be sure that a judge is very competent on the subject. Local courts provide efficient legal service.
Тема № 10
House of power
Chief of authority
Ministers of state
9. Make up 6 sentences and try to say each of them by heart:
1. The legislative power 1. Are hereditary, not elective
2. Local authorities. 2. are elected by the people
3. The members of the 3. control many services at the
House of Commons local level.
4. The House of Lords 4. direct national policy
5. The powers of the Queen. 5. is exercised by the Parliament
6. The Cabinet and other ministers 6. is the highest judicial body
of the Crown
10. Say if it is right or wrong. Give a full answer:
1. The British state is a federal republic.
2. There are two branches of power in the Great Britain: the legislature and the executive.
3. The legislative power in the country is exercised by the House of Lords.
4. The Cabinet and other ministers of the Crown direct national policy.
5. The members of the House of Commons are elected by the people.
6. The highest judicial body in the English judicial system is the House of Lords.
7. The powers of Queen are elective, and not hereditary.
11. Put the letters in underlined words in the necessary order, then translate sentences:
1. Britain has a sotntintiolacu noyharcm, which means that the powers and rights of the Queen or King are limited by the basic laws and principles of the country.
2. The name of the current monarch is Queen itaelEhzb II, and she has nidgree the country since 1952.
3. Her official London residence is at miucnBaghk ealPca, but she has other residences around the country that she uses.
4. The monarch’s limited powers and rights are known as the royal pogtrevraie. However, her role is one of a egfiredhua (a leader with no real power or influence) is largely mociaereln.
5. The Queen meets and greets foreign heads of state. Each year she also opens maenrlaPti and gives the sueQn’e hpesce, in which she outlines the ielospic of the government for the coming year.
6. This speech does not express her views: it expresses the views of the meriP stinirMe and the nlguri political party.
7. The monarch must accept any decisions made by the naCited and by Parliament.
Text № 2
1. Some new words to the text:
Treasury казна, казначейство
To run (зд.) управлять
To appoint назначать
To create создавать
To indicate указывать, показывать
To call (upon) вызывать
To initiate вводить, устанавливать
2. Read the text and answer the following questions:
1. What are the major functions of the Prime Minister in the UK?
2. Who can become a Prime Minister?
3. What are the functions of the Cabinet?
Charles de Gaulle
Politicians in Britain do not have a good reputation. To describe someone who is not a professional politician as a «politician» means to criticize him or her, just regard them with a high degree of suspicion. Here is a satirical description of a «model» top-rank politician: «… A candidate for a Prime Minister must have the following qualities: he must be malleable, flexible, likeable, have no firm opinions, no bright ideas, not be intellectually committed, and be without the strength of purpose to change anything. Above all, he must be someone who can be professionally guided, and who is willing to leave the business of government in the hands of experts».
It’s interesting to know
The first Prime Minister in the history of England was Sir Robert Walpole during the reign of King George I (1714 – 1727). In fact he was filing the role of the King at Council meetings, that George with his poor grasp of English could not manage (born in Germany the King never learned English and was never happy in England, always preferring his beloved Hanover).
The term Cabinet was first used during the reign of Charles II. At that time the King used to summon a few favoured members of his Privy Council for consultations in his private apartments and such courtiers became known as members of his «Cabinet».
The official residence of the Prime Minister (PM) does not have a special name. Nor, from the outside, does it look special. It is not even a detached house! Inside, though, it is much larger than it looks. It is in this house that the Cabinet meets. The PM lives «above the shop» on the top floor. The Chancellor of the Exchequer lives next door, at No. 11, and the Government Chief Whip at No. 12, so that the whole street is a lot more important than it appears. Still there is something very domestic about this arrangement. After the government loses an election all three ministers have to throw out their rubbish and wait for the furniture vans to turn up, just like anybody else moving house.
Тема № 11
1. Some new words to the text:
Comprise включать в себя
Upper chamber верхняя палата
Lower chamber нижняя палата
Constitute основывать, устанавливать
Safeguard охрана, защита
To scrutinize рассматривать, рассмотреть
Issue вопрос, предмет обсуждения
To attract привлекать
To deliver произносить, высказывать
To draw up составлять, выписывать
2. Read and translate the text:
The UK Parliament
Parliament is the most important democratic institution in the United Kingdom. It comprises the House of Lords (the upper chamber), the House of Commons (the lower chamber) and the Monarch as its head. The House of Lords and the House of Commons sit separately and are constituted on entirely different principles. The legislative process involves both Houses of Parliament and the Monarch.
The main functions of Parliament are:
- To make laws regulating the life of the community;
- To provide, by voting for taxation, the means of carrying on the work of government;
- To protect the public and safeguard the rights of individuals;
- To scrutinize government policy and administration, including proposals for expenditure;
- To debate the major issues of the day;
- To examine European proposals before they become law.
Parliament has a maximum duration of five years. Each term is divided into sessions, which usually last for one year – normally ending in October or November when Parliament is «prorogued», followed shortly by the State Opening of Parliament.
The State Opening of Parliament marks the start of the new parliamentary session. It is the main ceremonial event of the parliamentary year, attracting large crowds, both in person and watching on television. The Queen delivers her speech from the Throne in the House of Lords. The speech is given in the presence of members of both Houses. Although the speech is made by the Queen, the content of speech is entirely drawn up by the Government and approved by the Cabinet. It contains an outline of the Government’s policies and proposed legislative programme for the new parliamentary session. Following the State Opening, the government’s programme is debated by both Houses.
3. Find in the text the words and expressions which mean the following:
- to include
- the upper House
- to be based on principles
- law-making process
- the term of service
- to discontinue a session of the British Parliament
- to protect the rights
- to examine in much detail
- to write a speech
- to pronounce a speech
- a plan/brief review of the Government’s policies.
4. Make up as many word-combinations as you can using the following words (A, B) and translate them:
5. Say if it is right or wrong. Give a full answer:
1. The House of Lords is the most important democratic institution in the United Kingdom.
2. Parliament comprises the House of Commons and the Senate.
3. The executive process involves both Houses of Parliament and the Monarch.
4. Parliament has a maximum duration of five years.
5. The State Opening of Parliament marks the end of the new parliamentary session.
6. The speech is given in the presence of members only of the House of Lords.
7. The House of Lords and the House of Commons sit together and are constituted on similar principles.
The Major Political Parties
British parliamentary democracy has traditionally been dominated by the two-party system, with two main parties forming the government and the official Opposition. Over the years these have been Whigs and Tories, i.e. Liberals and Conservatives and, since the development of the Labour Party at the beginning of the 20th century, Labour and Conservatives. A number of other parties have also won seats in Parliament.
Nowadays there are three major national political parties in the United Kingdom. They are:
- The Labour Party
- The Conservative Party
- The Liberal Democrats.
Observe the topic about UK government and UK Parliament
9.Complete the following text with the verbs from the box, using them in the appropriate form (active or passive).
| Form; determine; govern; support; become; appoint; exercise(2)
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy. This means that Great Britain (1) is governed by Parliament and the Queen is Head of State.
The legislative power in the country (2) … by the House of Parliament. The British parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The executive power (3) … by the Prime Minister and his Cabinet. The government (4) … usually … by the political party which (5) … by the majority in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister is the majority party leader and (6) … by the Queen. The Prime Minister chooses a team of ministers; twenty of the ministers are in the Cabinet.
The second largest party (7) … the official opposition with its own leader and the Shadow Cabinet. The two leading parties in Great Britain are the Conservative Party (the Tories) and the Labour Party.
The judiciary branch of the government (8) … common law and is independent of both the legislative and the executive branches.
There is no written constitution in Great Britain, only precedents and traditions.
10. Choose the right answer:
1. The Chairman in the House of Commons of Great Britain is the …
a)Clerk of the House; b) Lord Chancellor; c) Prime Minister; d) Speaker;
2. The collective decision making body of Her Majesty’s Government in the UK, composed of the Prime Minister and some 22 Cabinet Ministers is called ---
a) the British Parliament; b) the Shadow Cabinet; c) the Cabinet ; d) Ministry of Justice of the UK
3. A British Prime Minister know chiefly for his leadership of the United Kingdom during World War II is …
a) Frankling Roosevelt
b) Clement Richard Attlee
c) James Gordon Brown
d) Sir Winston Leonard Spencer – Churchill
4. The term of the … has a maximum duration of five years
a) Parliament of New Zealand
b) United States Congress
c) Parliament of Australia
d) British Parliament
5. The leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons
a) Lord Chancellor; b) Prime Minister; c) Speaker; d)Her Majesty
6. The highest judicial body in the English judicial system is …
a) House of Lords; b) British Parliament; c) the Cabinet ; d) Ministry of Justice of the UK
7. The powers of Queen are limited by …
a) House of Commons; b) the Cabinet; c) Parliament; d) the Shadow Cabinet
8. The Prime Minister usually takes policy decisions with the agreement of his …
a) Cabinet; b) Lord Chancellor; c) House of Commons; d) Parliament
9. The … is technically appointed by the Monarch
a) Speaker; b) Minister of Justice; c)Home officer; d) Prime Minister
10. The … is composed of hereditary and life peers and peeresses
a) House of Lords; b) House of Commons; c) Parliament; d)Home Office.
11. Complete the following text with the words and expressions from the box.
| Proportional representation; polling day; by-election
Member of Parliament; canvassing; eligible;
Call an election; secret ballot; campaigns;
House of Commons; constituents; turn-out.
Stand for election; constituencies;
General Election polling stations
Middleford Election Result. No. of registered voters: 100,000
Mr. G. Smith (Labour) 30,000 votes
Mrs. R. Green (Conservative) 25,000 votes
Miss L. Jones (Independent) 10,000 votes
Mr. W. Woods (Communist) 5,000 votes
A (a)________ has just taken place all over the United Kingdom, These must take place every five years unless the Prime Minister decides to (b)___________ earlier. Above is the result in Middleford, one of the approximately 650 (c)__________ into which the country is divided for this purpose. (d)_________ was last Thursday, when the election (e)_________ and door-to-door (f) stopped and the people of Middleford went to the (g)__________ to make their choice, in a (h)_________, from the four candidates (anyone over the age of 21 can (i)__________.Voting is not compulsory and the number of people (j)_________ to vote in Middleford (everyone over 18) was 100,000, so the (k)_________was 70 per cent. Now Mr. Smith will become the (l)_________ for Middleford, which means he will represent the people of Middleford in the (m)________ in London. If he should die or be forced to give up his seat, the people of Middleford will have to vote again, in a (n)_________ to replace him. It is a very simple system and Mr. Smith will try to represent all his (o)________ fairly, whether they voted for him or not. However, the fact remains that most voters in Middleford voted for candidates (and parties) other than Mr. Smith, and their votes are now lost. It is seats which are important in Parliament, not votes, and it is easy to see why smaller parties would like a system of (p)___________, in which the number of votes they won was reflected in the number of seats they received in Parliament.
The House of Commons
| Cabinet; benches; Foreign Secretary;
Bask benchers; Budget; Shadow Cabinet;
Prime Minister; Speaker; Home Secretary;
Ministers; Front bench; Leader of the Opposition;
Debates; Opposition; Chancellor of the Exchange
This is the House of Commons, where Members of Parliament take their seats on the green leather (a)________according to their party and position. One of them is chosen to be the (b)________, who acts as a kind of chairman of the (c)_________ which take place in the House. In from of him on his right sit the MPs of the biggest party, which forms the government, and facing them sit the MPs of the parties who oppose them, the (d)___________. The leaders of these two groups sit at the front on each side. MPs without special positions in their parties sit behind their parties sit behind their leaders at the back. They are called (e)____________.
The leader of government, the (f)____________, sits on the government (g)______, of course, next to his or her (h)___________. The most important of these form the (i)______________. The minister responsible for relations with other countries is called the (j)___________. The one responsible for law and security is called the (k)____________. The one who deals with financial matters and prepares the annual (i)__________ speech on the economic state of the country is called the (m)____________. Opposite this group sits the (n)________ (the main person in the largest party opposing the government) and the (o)__________, each member of which specializes in a particular area of government.
It’s interesting to know
Parliamentary Oath: «I … swear by Almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, her heirs and successors, according to law. So help me God».
Members of both Housed of Parliament are required by law to take an oath of allegiance to the Crown on taking their seat in Parliament. Until the oath/affirmation is taken, a Member may not sit in the House or vote, and may not receive salary or make use of the facilities of the House.
To hear the Queen’s speech at the State Opening of Parliament the Commons are summoned by an official known as «Black Rod». In a symbol of the Commons’ independence, the door to their chamber is slammed in his face and not opened until he has knocked on the door with his staff of office.
Before the State Opening, the cellars of the Palace of Westminster are to this day searched by the Yeomen of the Guard – a precaution dating back to the Gunpowder Plot of November 1605.
THE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
Read the text.
In theory, the constitution has three branches: Parliament, which makes laws, the government, which «executes» laws, i.e. puts them into effect, and the law courts, which interpret laws. Although the Queen is officially head of all three branches, she has little direct power.
Parliament has two parts: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Members of the House of Commons are elected by the voters of 650 constituencies. They are known as MPs, or Members of Parliament. The Prime Minister , or leader of the Government , is also an MP, usually the leader of the political party with a majority in the House of Commons.
The Prime Minister is advised by a Cabinet of about twenty other ministers. The Cabinet includes the ministers in charge of major government departments or ministers. Departments and ministries are run by civil servants , who are permanent officials. Even if the Government changes after an election, the same civil servants are employed.
The House of Lords consists of Lords Temporal and the Lords Spiritual. The Lords Spiritual are the Archbishops of York and Canterbury, together with twenty-for senior bishops of the Church of England. The Lords Temporal consist of hereditary peers who have inherited their titles; life peers who are appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Government for various services to the nation; and the Lords of Appeal (Law Lords) who become life peers on their judicial appointments. The latter serve the House of Lords as the ultimate court of appeal. This appeal court consists of some nine Law Lords who hold senior judicial office. They are presided over by the Lord Chancellor and they form a quorum of there to five when they hear appeal cases.
Answer the questions.
1. Which of these people are not elected: a peer, an MP, a civil servant, the Prime Minister?
2. What is the difference between life peers and hereditary peers, Lords Temporal and Lords Spirit?
3. What are civil servants?
4. Which areas of government do these people deal with: the Chancellor of the Exchange, the Home Secretary, the Lord Chancellor?
5. Find two examples executive organizations outside central government?
1. Read the text.
Answer the questions.
1. What are the functions of:
b) The Prime Minister;
c) The Privy Council;
d) The Cabinet;
e) The Government Departments?
2. Who does the cabinet consist of?
3. What is «collective responsibility»?
4. Who is each department headed by? What are their functions?
5. What is a government agency?
Read the text
THE ROYAL FAMILY
Read the texts.
«Her Most Excellent Majesty Elizabeth the Second by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith».
The Queen is the official Head of State and, for many people, a symbol of the unity of the nation. For a thousand years England (and later the whole of the United Kingdom) has been united under one sovereign, a continuity broken only after the Civil War, by the republic of 1649 to 1660. The hereditary principle still operates and the Crown I passed on the sovereign’s eldest son (or daughter if there are no sons).
The Queen has a central role in state affairs, not only through her ceremonial functions, such as opening Parliament, but also because she meets the Prime Minister every week and receives copies of all Cabinet papers. However, she is expected to be impartial or «above politics», and any advice she may offer the Prime Minister is kept secret.
Functions of the Sovereign:
-opening and closing Parliament;
-approving the appointment of the Prime minister;
-giving her Royal Assent to bills;
-giving honours such as peerages, knighthoods and medals;
-Head of the Commonwealth;
-Head of the Church of England;
-Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.
The Queen Elizabeth
The Queen Elizabeth 2 is the official Head of State and for many people she is a symbol of unity of the nation.
Queen Elizabeth 2 is not only the monarch of the United Kingdom but also of Australia, Canada and New Zealand, as well as many other countries in the Commonwealth(an association of States that were once ruled by Britain). She is also Head of the Church of England. However, the Queen has almost no power to influence the church.
As Head of the Commonwealth, the Queen has more freedom from the government. When the Queen was growing up, the British Empire still had colonies, and she watched as they became independent members of the Commonwealth. She has met and knows the leaders of these countries. Although she has no executive powers as Head of the Commonwealth, she takes her role very seriously. However, Britain is now a member of the European Communityand is moving away from its links with the Commonwealth. In addition, people in some of the major Commonwealth countries, such as Australia and Canada, wonder if they should be connected to a monarch so far away.
Queen Elizabeth 2 is married to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburg. The heirto the throne is Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales.
The Queens other children are Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. This group is usually called the royal family, together with Queen Elizabeth’s mother – the Queen Mother who died in 2002 at the age of 101.
The Queens power is limited by Parliament but every week she meets the Prime Minister and receives copies of the all cabinet papers.
Elizabeth is the head of the executive, of the judicial power and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the U.K. She also has to fulfill her ceremonial functions such as opening of Parliament, for example.
The head of state is the monarch, currently the Queen in the UK, but the government carries the authority of the Crown (the monarch). The Westminster Parliament has two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons, which sit separately and are constituted on different principles. The Commons is an elected body of members. Substantial reform is being carried out in the upper house, the House of Lords, where it is proposed that the majority of members be appointed, with a minority elected, replacing the hereditary peers. There is no written constitution, but constitutional law consists of statute law (see Unit 2), common law (see Unit 3),and constitutional conventions.
There are four countries and three distinct jurisdictions in the United Kingdom: England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. All share a legislature in the Westminster Parliament for the making of new laws and have a common law tradition, but each has its own hierarchy of courts, legal rules and legal profession. Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own Assembly and since 1999 Scottish Members of Parliament (SMPs) have sat in their own Parliament. Under an Act of the Westminster Parliament, the Scottish Parliament has power to legislate on any subject not specifically reserved to the Westminster Parliament such as defence or foreign policy. The UK's accession to the European Communities in 1973, authorised by the European Communities Act 1972, has meant the addition of a further legislative authority in the legal system. The UK is also a signatory of the European Convention of Human Rights and this has been incorporated into UK law.
Тема № 12
Some new words to the text
To vest in облекать, наделять
To make treaties заключать договоры
To enforce laws проводить законы в жизнь
To approve одобрять
To observe соблюдать
To defend защищать
To hold занимать
Popular vote всеобщее голосование
Extensive powers широкие полномочия
To reject отклонять
To proceed продолжать
To dissolve распускать
To establish учреждать
To confirm утверждать
A state of emergency чрезвычайное положение
Read and translate the text
Retell the text.
Судебная система США
Study the following terms. Then do some exercises.
Зал суда / Courtroom
Bar – барьер, за которым находиться суд
Bench – место судей
The dock – скамья подсудимых
Jury box – места присяжных
Prisoner’s box – место обвиняемого
Witness box / witness stand – место для дачи свидетельских показаний
Приговор / Sentence
To acquit smb (of/on smth) – оправдать, признать невиновным кого-то (в чем-то)
To adjudge smb guilty – признать кого-либо виновным
To adjudge to die – приговорить к смертной казни
To adjudge to jail – приговорить к судебному заключению
Adjudg(e)ment – вынесение судебного решения, приговора, осуждение
Adjudication – судебное решение, приговор, осуждение
To appeal against a sentence – обжаловать приговор
To be sentenced (to smth) - быть приговоренным (к чему –либо)
To bring in / to give (a verdict) – выносить вердикт
To bring in a verdict of guilty – вынести обвинительный вердикт
To commit a sentence - смягчить приговор
To condemn (to smth) – 1. осуждать, приговорить (к чему-либо)
Condemnation – 1. осуждение 2. конфискация 3. отказ в иске
To convict – объявлять виновным, осудить
Conviction – осуждение, обвинительный приговор
Court ruling / court injunctions – постановление суда, судебное предписание, решение
Fine / penalty - штраф
Judgement – решение суда, приговор
To overrule / to reserve / to quash (a conviction) – аннулировать (обвинение)
To pass a sentence / to impose a sentence – выносить приговор
To pass a judgement (on smb) – выносить приговор (кому-либо)
A reserved judgement – отсроченное решение
Rule of court - судебный приказ, судебное постановление
Sentence – приговор
Suspended sentence - условный приговор
To sum up – обобщать, оценивать, исследовать
Verdict – вердикт, заключение
1. Match the names of participants of legal procedure with their definitions. Translate into Russian:
1) bailiff a) a person who testifies under oath in court regarding what
was seen, heard or otherwise observed
2) coroner b) a public officer whose principal duty is to inquire into
the case of any unnatural death
3) defendant c) a person, company, etc. against whom a criminal charge
or civil claim is made
4) jury d) the party who begins an action, complains or sues
5) juror e) one who is engaged in a lawsuit
6) litigant f) a member of a jury
7) plaintiff g) an act of pursuing a lawsuit or criminal trial; the party
that initiates a criminal case
8) prosecutor h) a specific number of people, usually six or twelve,
selected as prescribed by law to render a decision in a trial
9) prosecution i) a court employee who among other things maintains
order in the courtroom and is responsible for custody of
10)witness j) the public officer who represents the interests of the
state in criminal trials and the county in all legal matters
involving the county in criminal cases; he has the
responsibility of deciding who and whento prosecute.
2. Match the verbs on the left with their meanings on the right. Use topical vocabulary:
1) to be charged (with smth) a) to be found guilty (of anything)
2) to accuse b) to ask all witness involved in a case question
3) to appeal c) to act as a judge
4) to allege d) to charge with an offence; to blame
5) to defend e) to carry on a lawsuit
6) to prosecute f) to testify, to act as legal witness
7) to judge g) to find a defendant not guilty in a criminal trial
8) to litigate h) to request for information, to investigate
9) to plead i) to bring criminal charges against someone
10) to witness j) to say smth happened though the fact hasn’t
been proved yet
11) to acquit k) to take a case to higher court for rehearing
and a new decision
12) to cross-examine l) to act as a legal representative in court; to
maintain by argument in the face of
opposition or criticism
13) to inquire m) to argue a case as an advocate in a court; to
make or answer an allegation in a legal
14) to investigate n) to conduct an official inquiry to make an
examination or study
You must know that the Russian expression СУДЕБНЫЙ ПРОЦЕССhas
the following equivalents in English:
Тема № 13
to follow the case - следовать прецеденту
under the case - в соответствии с судебной практикой
to bring a case - возбудить иск
4. Match the following English expressions with their Russian equivalents:
1) to argue / plead a case a) возбудить иск, обвинение, судебное дело
2) to decide a case b) выиграть дело, выиграть процесс
3) to hear / try a case с) вынести решение по делу
4) to lose a case d) рассматривать судебное дело
5) to win a case e) оспаривать обвинение, выступать в защиту
6) to dismiss a case f) пересмотреть дело
7) to file a case g) подать иск
8) to initiate a case h) прекратить дело
9) to review a case i) проиграть дело / судебный процесс
Text № 1
1. Some new words for the text:
Statute статут, законодательный акт
Common Law and Equity общее право и право справедливости
Case law, judge-made law прецедентное право
Judicial precedent судебный прецедент
Similar подобный, похожий
Judgement судебное решение
Justice of the Peace (JP) мировой судья
Judgemade право, созданное на основе судебной практики
To try разбирать в судебном порядке
Trial судебное разбирательство
Juvenile подросток, несовершеннолетний
Coroner коронер (следователь, специальной функцией
которого является расследование случаев
насильственной или внезапной смерти)
2. Read the text and answer the following questions:
1. How many systems of law are there in the United Kingdom?
2. What sources of law do these systems include?
3. What does the term «judicial precedent» mean?
4. What kinds of courts are there in the United Kingdom?
5. What are their functions?
There are four countries and three separate systems of law in the United Kingdom: the legal system of law and courts of 1.England and Wales; 2.Scotland; 3.Northern Ireland. However, there are some common features to all systems in the U.K.: the sources of law, the distinctions between civil and criminal law.
The sources of law include written law (statutes, Acts of Parliament) and unwritten law (Common law and Equity). Common law is based on judicial precedent. It means that when one judge had decided a point of law, any other judge who has the similar set of facts must decide case in the same way as in the earlier judgement.
The lowest courts are called Magistrates’ courts, or police courts. Magistrates’ courts are presided over by Justices of the Peace (JP), or lay magistrates. They work part-time and are unpaid. The courts consist of between two to seven magistrates. There are about 700 magistrates’ courts and about 30,000magistrates.
More serious criminal cases go to the Crown court, which has 90 branches in different towns and cities. Appeals from Magistrates’ courts are also heard there. The accused have the right to be tried by the jury.
There is the Central Criminal Court of London. It is known as the Old Bailey.
County courts are the main civil courts. The High court hears all those civil cases that cannot be decided by county courts.
The Court of Appeal hears both criminal and civil appeals. But the final criminal appellate tribunal is the House of Lords. Ten judges in the House of Lords are called the «Law Lords».
The legal system also includes juvenile courts (which deal with offenders under seventeen) and coroners’ courts (which investigate violent, sudden or unnatural deaths). There are administrative tribunals which make quick, cheap and fair decisions with much less formality. Tribunals deal with professional standards, disputes between individuals, and disputes between individuals and government departments (for example, over taxation).
3. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
Источник права; различие между уголовным и гражданским правом; основанное на судебном прецеденте; подобные факты; суды низшей инстанции; работать бесплатно; иметь право на судебное разбирательство с судом присяжных; гражданские апелляции; члены палаты лордов, рассматривающие судебные дела, правонарушитель, насильственная смерть.
4. Give as many word combinations as you can with the given words:
To try (уголовное дело, гражданское дело и т.д.);
Court ( низшей инстанции, апелляционный, мировой и т.д.);
Case (возбудить, судебное, решать и т.д.);
To appoint (председателя суда, судью, прокурор