Revise Grammar: change the sentences using Passive Voice. — КиберПедия 

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Revise Grammar: change the sentences using Passive Voice.



Model: The district court try most of the criminal and civil cases.

Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by the district court.

1. The executive, legislative and judicial branches of power compose the government of the USA.

2. A Federal Court of Appeals serves each judicial circuit.

3. So-called «lobbyist» play an important role in the American legislation.

4. Electors from each state elect the President of the USA.

5. The President recommends much of the legislation to the Congress.

6. The President appoints Federal Judges, ambassadors to other countries.

Read, translate and reproduce he dialogue.

Two students speak about executive branch of power in the USA.

A: The President is the head of the executive branch of power, isn’t he?

B: That’s right.

A: What term of office is the President elected for?

B: For a term of 4 years. He may be reelected but no longer than for two terms.

A: Who can be elected a President?

B: Any native-born citizen at least 35 years old and a resident of the country for 14 years can.

A: What are the President’s functions?

B: The President is empowered to recommend legislation to the Congress, he appoints Federal Judges, heads of government departments, ambassadors to other countries and so on.

Complete the following text with the words and phrases from the box, using them in the appropriate form

voter; responsibility; to govern;

to name; violation; to be elected (2)

to be appointed; to be removed from office

 

All government in the USA is «of, by and for people». Members of Congress, the President, state officials and those who (a)___ counties and cities (b) __ by popular vote. The President (c) ___ the heads of federal departments while judges are either (d) ___ directly by the people or (e) ___ by elected officials. (f)___ mark unsigned ballots in private booths, so that no one else can find out for whom a citizen (g)__. Public officials may (i) __ for failing to perform their duties properly, as well as for serious (j) ___ of law.

14. Answer the following questions:

1. What branches is the government of the USA composed of?

2. Who does the highest executive power in the USA belong to?

3. What kind of person must the President of the USA be?

4. What are some of the functions of the President?

5. Who is the legislative power vested in?

6. How many chambers does the Congress consist of?

7. What must all bills and resolutions pass in order to become a law?

8. What is the head of judicial branch of power?

9. Where are most of the criminal and civil cases tried?

Retell the text with the help of the table.

US Government

Branch Member How chosen Term Powers
1 legislative (Congress)- Senate (Two senators from each state)   State election years -Writes new laws. -Sets federal taxes. -Approves Presidential appointments. -Overrules Presidential vetoes. -Approves treaties. -Declares war. -Impeaches the President.
  House of Representatives (Numbers of Representatives varies according to state population) State election years  
Executive President national election years -Enforces federal laws. -Appoints and remove high federal officials. -Commands the armed forces. -Conducts foreign affairs. -Recommends laws to Congress. -Approves or vetoes new laws.
  Executive Departments Presidential appointment No set term -Conducts the administration of the national government
  Independent Agencies Presidential appointment No set term Oversees government regulations
Judicial Supreme Court Nine Justices Presidential appointment Life -Interprets laws according to the Constitution. -May declare actions of the Executive and Legislative branches unconstitutional
  Lower federal Courts Presidential appointment Life -Decides cases that involve the Constitution and federal laws

 

Тема №9

Конгресс США

1. Some new words to the text:

District район, округ

Election выборы

To win выигрывать, побеждать

Winner победитель

Compromise компромисс



Tax налог

To set устанавливать

Naturalization акклиматизация

Declare объявить, заявить

 

Read and translate the text

Congress

Congress, the legislative branch of the federal government, is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 100 Senators, two from each state. One third of the Senators are elected every two years for six-year terms of office. A senator must be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the United States for 9 years, and live in the state he or she represents.

The House of Representatives has 435 members. They are elected every two years for two-year terms. They represent the population of «congressional districts» into which each sate is divided. A representative must be at least 25 years old, a citizen for 7 years, and live in the state. The number of Representatives from each state is based upon its population. For instance, California, the state with the largest population, has 45 Representatives, while Delaware has one. There is no limit to the number of terms a Senator or a Representative may serve.

Almost all elections in the United States follow the «winner-take-all» principle: the candidate who wins the largest number of votes in a Congressional district is the winner.

Congress makes all laws, and each house of Congress has the power to introduce legislation. Each can also vote against legislation passed by the other. Because legislation only becomes law if both houses agree, compromise between them is necessary. Congress decides upon taxes and how money is spent. The Congress can also declare war. And the House of Representatives can also impeach the President. This means that the House can charge the President with a crime. In addition, Congress regulates commerce among the states and with foreign countries. It also sets rules for the naturalization of foreign citizens.

 

3. Translate the following word-combinations:

- «congressional districts»

- almost all elections

- «winner-take-all» principle

- six-year terms

- a citizen of the United States

- the number of representatives

- the largest number of votes

- foreign citizens.

 

4. Make up as many different word-combinations as you can with the next verbs:

- to make

- to introduce

- to vote against

- to become

- to declare

- to impeach

- to set .

 

5. Translate from Russian into English using the information of the text above:

Законодательная ветвь власти, состоять из, создавать законы, голосовать против, объявлять войну, обвинить в каком-либо преступлении, налоги, подвергнуть президента импичменту.

 

6. Complete the sentences according to the text:

1. Congress is made up of … and … ….

2. One third of the Senators are elected … … … for six-year terms of office.

3. The House of Representatives has … … .

4. The number of Representatives from each state is based upon … .

5. Each house of Congress has the power … … .

6. Congress also sets rules for the naturalization of foreign … .

 

7. How can you call in one word:

a) a member of a congress;

b) a member of a senate.



 

8. Here is the definition of the word. Guess the meaning:

is the highest law-making body of the US, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

 






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