The (законодательная ветвь) - (конгресс) – consists of the (Сенат) and the (Палата Представителей). Each (сенатор) is elected for six years and each (представитель) for two years, with no limitation on the number of (сроков).
Each of the 50 states elects two (сенатор) under a system in which one-third of the (Сенат) is elected every two years. A (сенатор) must be (старше) 30 years old and must have been an American citizen for (по меньшей мере) years.
The (Палата Представителей) has 435 members. Each state is divided into congressional districts of roughly (равное) population, and the (избиратели) of each district elect one (представитель) to (Конгресс). A member must be (старше) 25 years of age and must have been an American citizen for at least seven years.
Both (палата) of (Конгресс) must (одобрить) bills before they become law. The (Сенат) alone (утверждает) the President’s (кандидаты) for high-level official positions and (ратифицирует) treaties with other nations.
10. Read, translate and reproduce the following dialogue:
Two students speak about the US state structure before the lesson
A: Can you tell me, what is the legislative body in the USA?
B: It’s US Congress.
A: Does it consist of two or three chambers?
B: Congress is composed of two chambers: Senate and the House of Representatives
A: What is the number of Congressmen?
B: The Senate consists of 2 members from each state. The number of Representatives in the House depends on the people in each particular state.
A: And how are laws adopted?
B: In order to become a law all bills must pass both the Houses and must be signed by the President.
Retell the text about US Congress.
The President and Federal Departments
The President of the United State is elected every four years to a four years term of office, with no more than two full terms allowed. As is true with Senators and Representatives, The president is elected directly by the voters (through state electors). In other words, the political party with the most Senators and Representatives does not choose the President. This means that the President can be from one party, and the majority of those in House of Representatives or Senate (or both) from another. This is not uncommon.
Thus, although one of the parties may a majority in the midterm
Elections (those held every two years), the President remains President remains President, even though his party may not have a majority in either house. Such a result could easily hurt his ability to get legislation through Congress, which must pass all laws, but this is not necessarily so. In any case, the President’s policies must be approved by the House of Representative and the Senate before they can become law. In domestic as well as in foreign policy, the President can seldom count upon the automatic support of Congress, even when his own party has a majority in both the Senate and the House. Therefore, he must be able to convince Congressmen, the Representatives and Senators, of his point of view. He must bargain and compromise. This is a major difference between the American system and those in which the nation’s leader represents the majority party or parties, that is parliamentary system.
Within the Executive Branch, there are a number of executive departments. Currently these are the departments of State, Treasury, Defence, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labour, Health and Human Resources, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, and Education. Each department is established by law, and, as their names indicate, each is responsible for a specific area. The head of each departments is appointed by the President. These appointments, however, must be approved by the Senate. None of these Secretaries, as the department heads are usually called can also be serving in Congress or in another part of the government. Each is directly responsible to the President and only serves as long as the President wants him or her to. They can best be seen, therefore, as Presidential assistants and advisers. When they meet together, they are termed «the President’s Cabinet». Some Presidents have relied quite a bit on their Cabinets for advice, and some very little.