Ex. 2. Choose the right word. — КиберПедия 

Организация стока поверхностных вод: Наибольшее количество влаги на земном шаре испаряется с поверхности морей и океанов (88‰)...

Общие условия выбора системы дренажа: Система дренажа выбирается в зависимости от характера защищаемого...

Ex. 2. Choose the right word.



1. He asked me if I had visited my friends (yesterday, the day before).

2. They said the conference in Criminal Law would take place (tomorrow, the next day)

3. I was asked when I was going to return (here, there).

4. I am sure that (this, that) is well-known all over the world.

5. He said he would take part in scientific work (next, the next) year.

6. They knew their friends were going to Kiev (now, then).

7. She said she had been to the city of Smolensk a year (ago, before).

8. We are told that we shall take our English exam (next, the next year).

9. He said that the lecture in Criminalistics would take place (today, that day).

10. She said that we could find the articles in (these, those) journals.

11. They didn’t know it they would watch the football match (tomorrow, the next day).

Ex. 3. Make the following sentences indirect.

He said,

“The students need more practice in speaking”

“These exercises are too difficult for me”.

“I don’t fell well today”.

“Nobody can do this work as well as my friend”

“I’ll come back in a few minutes”

“ I have already seen this film”.

He asked me,

“Where does your sister live?”

“How old are you?”

“What time is it?”

“Where are you going?”

“How long have you studied English?”

“Do you like to study at the Moscow Law Institute?”

I didn’t know,

“Where does she work?”

”Where did your brother go?”

“Does he know history well?”

“What is her husband’s name?”

“When will he visit his friends?”

4. I said to him,

“Wait for me outside”;

“Come back in an hour”.

“Don’t tell anybody about it”.

“Go to the cinema by bus”.

“Bring me the textbook in economy”.

TEST REVISION

Choose the right answer

1) The person who thinks that a judge has made a mistake may -------- to a higher court.

a) adjudicate; b) authorize; c) administer; d) appeal;

2) The -------- branch of a government decides whether laws are good and whether people have disobeyed these laws

a) executive; b) legislative; c) judicial; d) fiscal

3) The person who thinks that a judge has made a mistake may ---- to a higher court

a) appeal; b) authorize; c) administer; d) adjudicate

4) All twelve members of the ------- were convinced of Davidson’s guilt

a) bystanders; b) court; c) jury; d) police

5) The sign says that all shoplifters will be ….

a) prosecuted; b) persecuted; c) disproved; d) prohibited

6) The body of law called … law deals with the private relations between members of a community

a) land; b) criminal; c) administrative; d) civil;

7) A trial is a legal process in which a … examines a case to decide whether someone is guilty of crime

a) court of law (суд); b) college of advocates; c) legal aid office; d) legislative board

Try to do some tests up to the topics ‘’Court system of the United Kingdom’’, ‘’Court system of the USA’’

TEST №1

1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения:

Court

Legal system

Sources of law

Written Law

Judge

Civil Law

Magistrates’ court

Civil case

County court

House of Lords

Accused

2. Дополните следующие предложения:

1. There are some common features to all systems in the UK …

2. The sources of law include …

3. The lowest courts are called …

4. Magistrates’ courts are presided over by …

5. Court of Appeal hears …

3. Выполните следующий тест:

1. The lowest courts are:

a) Courts of Appeals

b) Magistrates’ courts

c) Crown courts

2. Magistrates’ court consists of between:

a) Two to seven magistrates

b) One magistrate

c) Twenty magistrates

3. The final criminal appellate tribunal is :

a) The House of Commons

b) District court

c) House of Lords

4. Common Law is based on:

a) Personal opinion of a judge

b) Judicial precedent

c) On the Queen’s opinion

5. Central Criminal Court of London is known as:

a) Supreme Court

b) Old Bailey

c) Crown Court

4. Переведите следующий отрывок из текста:



The sources of law include written law (statutes, Acts of Parliament) and unwritten law (Common law and Equity). Common law is based on judicial precedent. It means that when one judge had decided a point of law, any other judge who has the similar set of facts must decide case in the same way as in the earlier judgment.

The lowest courts are called Magistrates’ courts, or police courts. Magistrates’ courts are presided over by Justices of the Peace (JP), or lay magistrates. They work part-time and are unpaid. The courts consist of between two to seven magistrates.

The Crown court deals with all more serious criminal cases. Appeals from Magistrates’ courts are also heard there. The accused have the right to be tried by the jury.

County courts are the main civil courts. The High court hears all those civil cases that cannot be decided by county courts.

The Court of Appeal hears both criminal and civil appeals. But the final criminal appellate tribunal is the House of Lords.

5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What does the sources of law include?

2. What courts are the lowest ones?

3. What cases does the Crown court deal with?

4. Does the Court of Appeal hear both criminal and civil cases?

 

Test II

1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения:

Jurisdiction

Federal Court of Appeal

Chief Justice

Court of last resort

Minor trial court

Major trial court

State courts

To be appointed for life

District court

Circuit court

2. Дополните следующие предложения:

1. The American court is complex, mainly because of …

2. The state’s minor trial courts have various names: justice courts …

3. Federal courts are also organized in three tiers: …

4. … are appointed for life.

5. The decisions of the Supreme Court are …

3. Выполните следующий тест:

1. The structure of state courts:

a) Are fixed in all states

b) Varies from state to state

c) Are not complex

2. The state’s minor trial courts are called:

a) The courts of last resort

b) Circuit courts

c) Justice courts, small-claim courts, police courts, traffic courts, municipal courts, mayors’ courts

3. Federal courts are organized in:

a) Two tiers

b) One tier

c) Three tiers

4. All federal judges are appointed for:

a) Life

b) Two months

c) Ten years

5. The district courts are:

a) The highest ones

b) The lowest ones

c) Intermediate appellate ones

4. Переведите следующий отрывок из текста:

Federal courts are also organized in three tiers, like a pyramid: district courts, courts of appeals and the Supreme Court. All federal judges are appointed for life.

There are about ninety four district courts in different parts of the United States. The district courts are the lowest ones in the Federal court system. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts. The district court is the only Federal court where trials are held, juries are used, and witnesses are called. There are about two hundred district judges in the USA.

All cases resolved in the district courts and all decisions of federal administrative agencies can be appealed to one of the thirteen federal circuit courts. There are no jurors, witnesses, cross-examinations and other features of the trial courts here. The judges sit in panels made up of three judges each, examining rulings made and procedures followed in the trial courts.



For most cases the circuit courts are the end of the line, but in some cases an appeal may be made to the highest court in the land: the U.S. Supreme Court.

5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. In what way are federal courts organized in the USA?

2. How many district courts are there in the USA?

3. What cases are tried by district courts?

4. What cases can be appealed to federal circuit courts?

 

Test III

1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения:

Original jurisdiction

US Courts of Appeal

Government

Signed opinions

Judge

Municipal court

Murder

Lawyer

Supreme Court

Jury

2. Дополните следующие предложения:

1.… hear civil cases involving larger amounts of money than in minor trial courts.

2.Federal courts are organized in three tiers …

3.The structure of state courts varies …

4.All cases resolved in the … and all decisions of … can be appealed to …

5.The Supreme court has … headed by Chief Justice.

3. Выполните следующий тест:

1. There are major trial courts for …

a) Less serious cases

b) More serious cases

c) Small-claim cases

2. Some states have Justices of the Peace - :

a) Men and women who have never taken bar exams

b) Lawyers of high qualification

c) Senior pupils

3. The states with big or middle-sized population have a

a) Three-tier system

b) One-tier system

c) Two-tier system

4. The only Federal court where trials are held, juries are used, witnesses are called is:

a) The Supreme court

b) The Appellate court

c) The district court

4.Переведите следующий отрывок из текста:

The American court system is complex, mainly because of the federal system of government in the USA. Each state runs its own court system, and no two are identical. In addition, there is a separate system of federal courts, which operates alongside the state courts.

The structure of state courts varies from state to state. Usually there are minor trial courts for less serious cases, major trial courts for more serious cases, intermediate appellate courts and courts of last resort. The state’s minor trial courts have various names: justice courts, small-claim courts, traffic courts, police courts, municipal courts, mayors’ courts. The judges in these courts are usually quite professional, but some states still have Justices of the Peace – men and women who have never gone to law school and never taken the bar exam.

The next level of the pyramid is made up of state’s courts of general jurisdiction, which are the basic trial courts. These courts hear civil cases involving larger amounts of money than in minor trial courts. They also handle cases of serious crime, such as burglary, rape and murder. The judges are always lawyers.

5.Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. Why is the American court system complex?

2. What are the main courts in the USA?

3. What are the various names of the state’s minor trial courts?

4. Who works at the state’s minor trial courts?

 

Test IV

1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения:

Statute

Common law and Equity

Judgement

Magistrate

To try

County

Crown court

Jury

Written law

Lay magistrate

2. Дополните следующие предложения:

1. There are four countries and three separate system of law in the United Kingdom: …

2. Common law is based on …

3. The Crown court deals with all …

4. The accused have a right …

5. Ten judges in the House of Lords are …

3. Выполните следующий тест:

1. There are some common features of law in the United Kingdom:

a) Acts of Parliament

b) The sources of law and the distinctions between civil and criminal law

c) Judgments

2. The sources of law include:

a) Written law and unwritten law

b) Judicial precedent

c) Judgments

3. The lowest courts are:

a) County courts

b) Crown court

c) Magistrates’ courts

4. County courts are the main :

a) Civil courts

b) Criminal courts

c) The district court

5. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by:

a) Policemen

b) District courts

c) Government officials

4. Переведите следующий отрывок из текста:

The American court system is complex, mainly because of the federal system of government in the USA. Each state runs its own court system, and no two are identical. In addition, there is a separate system of federal courts, which operates alongside the state courts.

The structure of state courts varies from state to state. Usually there are minor trial courts for less serious cases, major trial courts for more serious cases, intermediate appellate courts and courts of last resort. The state’s minor trial courts have various names: justice courts, small-claim courts, traffic courts, police courts, municipal courts, mayors’ courts. The judges in these courts are usually quite professional, but some states still have Justices of the Peace – men and women who have never gone to law school and never taken the bar exam.

The next level of the pyramid is made up of state’s courts of general jurisdiction, which are the basic trial courts. These courts hear civil cases involving larger amounts of money than in minor trial courts. They also handle cases of serious crime, such as burglary, rape and murder. The judges are always lawyers.

5.Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. Why is the American court system complex?

2. What are the main courts in the USA?

3. What are the various names of the state’s minor trial courts?

4. Who works at the state’s minor trial courts?

Test V

1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения:

Major trial court

State courts

To be appointed for life

Sources of law

Written Law

Judge

Civil Law

Magistrates’ court

Civil case

Original jurisdiction

US Courts of Appeal

Government

Signed opinions

2. Дополните следующие предложения:

1. The lowest courts are called …

2. Magistrates’ courts are presided over by …

3. Court of Appeal hears …

4. The American court is complex, mainly because of …

5. The state’s minor trial courts have various names: justice courts …

3. Выполните следующий тест:

1. Common Law is based on:

d) Personal opinion of a judge

e) Judicial precedent

f) On the Queen’s opinion

2. Central Criminal Court of London is known as:

d) Supreme Court

e) Old Bailey

f) Crown Court

3. The state’s minor trial courts are called:

d) The courts of last resort

e) Circuit courts

f) Justice courts, small-claim courts, police courts, traffic courts, municipal courts, mayors’ courts

4. Federal courts are organized in:

d) Two tiers

e) One tier

f) Three tiers

5. All federal judges are appointed for:

d) Life

e) Two months

f) Ten years

6. Some states have Justices of the Peace - :

d) Men and women who have never taken bar exams

e) Lawyers of high qualification

f) Senior pupils

4. Переведите следующий отрывок из текста:

The sources of law include written law (statutes, Acts of Parliament) and unwritten law (Common law and Equity). Common law is based on judicial precedent. It means that when one judge had decided a point of law, any other judge who has the similar set of facts must decide case in the same way as in the earlier judgment.

The lowest courts are called Magistrates’ courts, or police courts. Magistrates’ courts are presided over by Justices of the Peace (JP), or lay magistrates. They work part-time and are unpaid. The courts consist of between two to seven magistrates.

The Crown court deals with all more serious criminal cases. Appeals from Magistrates’ courts are also heard there. The accused have the right to be tried by the jury.

County courts are the main civil courts. The High court hears all those civil cases that cannot be decided by county courts.

5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What does the sources of law include?

2. What courts are the lowest ones?

3. What cases does the Crown court deal with?

4. Does the Court of Appeal hear both criminal and civil cases?

Test VI

1. Переведите следующие слова и выражения:

Court

Legal system

Sources of law

Written Law

State courts

To be appointed for life

District court

Circuit court

2. Дополните следующие предложения:

1. … hear civil cases involving larger amounts of money than in minor trial courts.

2. Federal courts are organized in three tiers …

3. The American court is complex, mainly because of …

4. The state’s minor trial courts have various names: justice courts …

5. All cases resolved in the … and all decisions of … can be appealed to …

6. The Supreme court has … headed by Chief Justice.

3. Выполните следующий тест:

1. The lowest courts are:

d) Courts of Appeals

e) Magistrates’ courts

f) Crown courts

2. Magistrates’ court consists of between:

d) Two to seven magistrates

e) One magistrate

f) Twenty magistrates

3. The final criminal appellate tribunal is :

d) The House of Commons

e) District court

f) House of Lords

4. The state’s minor trial courts are called:

g) The courts of last resort

h) Circuit courts

i) Justice courts, small-claim courts, police courts, traffic courts, municipal courts, mayors’ courts

4.Переведите следующий отрывок из текста:

Federal courts are also organized in three tiers, like a pyramid: district courts, courts of appeals and the Supreme Court. All federal judges are appointed for life.

There are about ninety four district courts in different parts of the United States. The district courts are the lowest ones in the Federal court system. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts. The district court is the only Federal court where trials are held, juries are used, and witnesses are called. There are about two hundred district judges in the USA.

All cases resolved in the district courts and all decisions of federal administrative agencies can be appealed to one of the thirteen federal circuit courts. There are no jurors, witnesses, cross-examinations and other features of the trial courts here. The judges sit in panels made up of three judges each, examining rulings made and procedures followed in the trial courts.

For most cases the circuit courts are the end of the line, but in some cases an appeal may be made to the highest court in the land: the U.S. Supreme Court.

6. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

5. In what way are federal courts organized in the USA?

6. How many district courts are there in the USA?

7. What cases are tried by district courts?

8. What cases can be appealed to federal circuit courts?

Прочитайте текст и решите, какой из трех предлагаемых вариантов А, В или С соответствует каждому из двадцати пропусков. Запишите ваш ответ в таблицу ответов. Вначале задания дан пример (0).

The police(0)_______a man and a woman. They are in court now. A girl called Miss Exter (1)__ ___ the robbery. She (2)_______in the witness box. The judge and the 12members of the jury(3)_______her. A lawyer is asking her(4)_______questions.

«Now, Miss Exter. You saw the bank robbery, (5)_______?» −«Yes, I did.» «You saw a man, didn’t you?»−«Yes,(6)_______I saw him when he went (7)_______ and when he (8)_______».

«Now, (9)_______ the court. Can you see that man?»− «Yes, he is the man I saw.» − «He wasn’t (10)_______ when he went into the bank, (11)_______?» −«No, he was with a woman.»

«Now, look around the court again. Can you see that woman?» − «Yes, she is the woman».− «(13)_______Miss Exter?» − «Yes, absolutely, they are the people I saw». – « Now, look at the man and the woman again. This is very important. What (14)_______ when he went into the bank?» – «I don’t remember it (15)_______. But I remember his hat and his bag.»

«Look at the hat on the table. Is that the hat he (16)_______ …?» «Yes, and that is the bag he was(17)_______».– «Do you I remember (18)_______ about the woman?.» −«Yes, she was wearing a blond wig and black shoes» –« How do you know (19)_______ a wig, Miss Exter?» −«Because it fell off then she (20)_______to the car»

 

№ Пропускa Вариант А ВариантB Вариант С

 

Ответ

0. A. arrest B. arrests C. arrested C(образец)

1. A. have seen B. saw C. was seeing

2. A. stand B. has stood C. is standing

3. A. listen at B. are listening to C. have listened by

4. A. any B. some C. none

5. A. haven’t you B. wasn’t you C. didn’t you

6. A. that’s right B. it’s right C. it’s good

7. A. at B. into C. near

8. A. out B. into C. from

9. A. look into B. look around C. see at

10. A. alone B. single C. one

11. A. didn’t he B. wasn’t he C. was he

12. A. was seeing B. saw C. had seen

13. A. are you sure B. Were you sure C. Do you sure

14. A. did the man wear B. was the man C. the man wore

wearing

15. A. very much B. very well C. very good

16. A. wore B. was worn C. was wearing

17. A. wearing B. carrying C. keeping

18. A. anything B. something C. nothing

19. A. it is B. it was C. was it

20. A. runs B. was running C. is running

Вопросы к зачету

Семестр

1. What kind of state is Great Britain?

2. In what way do the monopolists achieve their power over the government in Britain?

3. What are the branches of power in the United King­dom?

4. What is the highest legislative body in the United Kingdom?

5. What do the executive bodies of Great Britain consist of?

6. What kind of organ is the House of Lords?

7. Who is responsible for directing national policy in Great Britain?

8. Who is responsible for the operation of public services in Great Britain?

9. What are local authorities responsible for?

10. What can you say about the Prime Minister of Great Britain?

11. Where is the residence of the British Prime Minister?

12. What does the British Parliament consist of?

13. How often are British Parliamentary elections held?

14. What kind of government does each state in the USA have?

15. What is the President of the USA?

16. How often do Americans choose their new President?

17. Who of the US presidents was elected for a fourth term?

18. What is the seat of the US Congress?

19. What are the two chambers of the American Congress?

20. How often do elections in the House of Representatives take place?

21. Who was the first President to live in the White House?

22. Who does the highest executive power in the United States belong to?

23. What kind of person must the President of the USA be?

24. What are some of the functions of the President?

25. Who is the legislative power vested in?

26. How many chambers does the Congress consist of?

27. How many members are there in the Senate? in the House of Representatives?

28. What must all bills and resolutions pass in order to be­come a law?

29. What can you say about lobbyists?

30. What is the head of the judicial branch of power in the United States?

31. Who does the Supreme Court of the United States consist of?

32. Where are most of the criminal and civil cases tried?

33. How often are general elections held in Russian Federation?

34. When was the last general election held?

35. Can you name the last three Prime Ministers?

36. Can you name the Minister of Internal Affairs?

37. Can you give an example of the recent change of government?

38. How many political parties are there in Russian Federation?

39. How many systems of law are there in the United Kingdom?

40. What sources of law do these systems include?

41. What does the term «judicial precedent» mean?

42. What kinds of courts are there in the United Kingdom?

43. What are their functions?

44. What is the structure of the US criminal justice system?

45. What are the components of the criminal justice system?

46. Does the criminal justice system function effectively?

47. Can you give any examples to prove it?

48. What is necessary for its efficient functioning?

49. What is an attorney in the US? How is he appointed?

50. When does an attorney resign?

51. What does the number of assistant attorneys in federal judicial districts depend on?

52. What makes attorneys so important in American communities?

53. How do attorneys in the US realize their political ambitions?

54. What is the job of a juror?

55. What is a job of a judge?

56. What qualities should a good juror have?

57. What requirements should one meet to be eligible for jury service?

58. What are the reasons for a person to be excused from jury service?

59. What is a jury pool?

60. Who is responsible for making laws in the US?

61. Name American courts in the descending order.

62. In what way are the federal courts organized?

63. Where does litigation begin?

64. What does the word «to appeal» mean?

Литература:

1. Байбурина Р.З., Галиева Д.А., Петрова Е.А. и др. Английский язык для курсантов общеобразовательных учреждений МВД России. – Москва, 2011.

2. Куценко А.И., Тимофеева Г.И. Английский язык – Учебное пособие для юридических учебных заведений. - Москва, 2008.

3. Куприянчик Т.В., Поварисова Е.Б., Четверухина Н.А. Английский язык для юристов. – Москва, 2009.

4. Соловей С.С. Учебник английского языка для профессионалов правоприменительной деятельности / English for Law Enforcement Professionals – Омск, 2004.

5. Гуманова Ю.Л., Королева В.А., Свешникова М. Л., Тихомирова Е.В. Just English / Английский для юристов – Москва, 1998.

6. Гуманова Ю.Л., Королева – МакАри В.А., Свешникова М.Л., Тихомирова Е.В. Just English // Английский для юристов. Базовый курс – Москва, 2008.

7. Гуманова Ю.Л., Королева-МакАри В.А., Свешникова М.Л. Just English. The state of Britain / Английский для юристов и политологов. Углубленный курс – Москва, 2006.

8. Горшенева И.А., Кузнецова Н.Н., Смоленцева Л.Г., Шевелева С.А. Английский язык для юристов. Закон. Общественный порядок – Москва, 2004.

9. Сущинский И.И., Сущинская С.И. Практический курс современного английского языка для юристов – Москва, 2004.

10. Зеликман А.Я. Английский для юристов. Учебное пособие – Ростов-на- Дону, 2002.

11. Кравченко А.П. Англо-русский и русско-английский юридический словарь – Ростов-на-Дону, 2001.

12. John and Liz Soars. New Headway (Pre-Intermediate) / English Course. – Oxford University Press, 2007.

13. John and Liz Soars. New Headway (Intermediate) / English Course. – Oxford University Press, 2010.

14. Raymound Murphy. Essential Grammar in Use / A self-study reference and practice book for elementary students of English – Cambridge University Press, 2009.

15. Gillian D. Brown, Sally Rice. Professional English in Use // Law – Cambridge University Press, 2009.

16. Elizabeth Sharman. Across cultures. – Longman Pearson Education Limited, 2009.






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