The House of Commons
| Cabinet; benches; Foreign Secretary;
Bask benchers; Budget; Shadow Cabinet;
Prime Minister; Speaker; Home Secretary;
Ministers; Front bench; Leader of the Opposition;
Debates; Opposition; Chancellor of the Exchange
This is the House of Commons, where Members of Parliament take their seats on the green leather (a)________according to their party and position. One of them is chosen to be the (b)________, who acts as a kind of chairman of the (c)_________ which take place in the House. In from of him on his right sit the MPs of the biggest party, which forms the government, and facing them sit the MPs of the parties who oppose them, the (d)___________. The leaders of these two groups sit at the front on each side. MPs without special positions in their parties sit behind their parties sit behind their leaders at the back. They are called (e)____________.
The leader of government, the (f)____________, sits on the government (g)______, of course, next to his or her (h)___________. The most important of these form the (i)______________. The minister responsible for relations with other countries is called the (j)___________. The one responsible for law and security is called the (k)____________. The one who deals with financial matters and prepares the annual (i)__________ speech on the economic state of the country is called the (m)____________. Opposite this group sits the (n)________ (the main person in the largest party opposing the government) and the (o)__________, each member of which specializes in a particular area of government.
Complete the following text with the words and expressions from the box and translate them into Russian.
| Cabinet; alliance; right-wing; prime minister; split;
Coalition; majority; left-wing; opposition; one-party states.
In most countries, except (a)_________, there are several different political parties. The one with the (b)_________ of seats normally forms the government, and the parties which are against the government are called (c)________. Sometimes no single party wins enough seats, and several parties must combine together in a (d)__________ to form a government. The principal ministers in the government from a group are called the (e)________. The leader of this group, and of the government, is the (f)________. Of course, there are many different kinds of parties and governments. A socialist or communist party is often described as (g)_______. A conservative party on the other hand, is usually said to be (h)_________. Political situations are always changing. Sometimes in a party or between two parties there is a big argument or deep difference of opinion. This is called a (i)__________. When, on the other hand, two parties work together, this is sometimes called an (j)___________.
Complete the following sentences with the words from the box.
| With; for; against; to; in; between
(a) I voted_________________ the Liberal candidate.
(b) Put your voting papers_______________ the ballot box.
(c) He’s very right-wing, so he’s______________ the socialists.
(d) She belongs____________ the Communist Party.
(e) The Liberals formed an alliance__________ the Social Democrats.
(f) There’s a split___________ the two parties.
(g) There’s a spilt___________ the party.
It’s interesting to know
Parliamentary Oath: «I … swear by Almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, her heirs and successors, according to law. So help me God».
Members of both Housed of Parliament are required by law to take an oath of allegiance to the Crown on taking their seat in Parliament. Until the oath/affirmation is taken, a Member may not sit in the House or vote, and may not receive salary or make use of the facilities of the House.
To hear the Queen’s speech at the State Opening of Parliament the Commons are summoned by an official known as «Black Rod». In a symbol of the Commons’ independence, the door to their chamber is slammed in his face and not opened until he has knocked on the door with his staff of office.
Before the State Opening, the cellars of the Palace of Westminster are to this day searched by the Yeomen of the Guard – a precaution dating back to the Gunpowder Plot of November 1605.
THE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT
Read the text.
In theory, the constitution has three branches: Parliament, which makes laws, the government, which «executes» laws, i.e. puts them into effect, and the law courts, which interpret laws. Although the Queen is officially head of all three branches, she has little direct power.
Parliament has two parts: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Members of the House of Commons are elected by the voters of 650 constituencies. They are known as MPs, or Members of Parliament. The Prime Minister , or leader of the Government , is also an MP, usually the leader of the political party with a majority in the House of Commons.
The Prime Minister is advised by a Cabinet of about twenty other ministers. The Cabinet includes the ministers in charge of major government departments or ministers. Departments and ministries are run by civil servants , who are permanent officials. Even if the Government changes after an election, the same civil servants are employed.
The House of Lords consists of Lords Temporal and the Lords Spiritual. The Lords Spiritual are the Archbishops of York and Canterbury, together with twenty-for senior bishops of the Church of England. The Lords Temporal consist of hereditary peers who have inherited their titles; life peers who are appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Government for various services to the nation; and the Lords of Appeal (Law Lords) who become life peers on their judicial appointments. The latter serve the House of Lords as the ultimate court of appeal. This appeal court consists of some nine Law Lords who hold senior judicial office. They are presided over by the Lord Chancellor and they form a quorum of there to five when they hear appeal cases.
Answer the questions.
1. Which of these people are not elected: a peer, an MP, a civil servant, the Prime Minister?
2. What is the difference between life peers and hereditary peers, Lords Temporal and Lords Spirit?
3. What are civil servants?
4. Which areas of government do these people deal with: the Chancellor of the Exchange, the Home Secretary, the Lord Chancellor?
5. Find two examples executive organizations outside central government?
1. Read the text.