Грамматика. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Типы вопросов.
Текст “Great Britain. London”
Text. Great Britain
The full name of the country the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and a great number of small islands. Their total area is over 314 000 sq. km. The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. Northern Ireland occupies one third of the island of Ireland. It borders on the Irish Republic in the south. The island of Great Britain consists of three main parts: England (the southern and middle part of the island), Wales (a mountainous peninsula in the West) and Scotland (the northern part of the island).
The British Isles are formed of Great Britain, Ireland and a number of small islands situated to the west of the European continent. The total area is about 120.000 square miles. The United Kingdom is composed of four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The east coast is washed by the North Sea and the west coast is washed by the Atlantic Ocean. There are no high mountains in Great Britain. The highest mountains are the Snowdon (3000 ft.) and the Highlands.
The biggest rivers are the Severn and the Thames joined by canals, so that it is possible to travel by water from one end of the country to the other.
The climate of Great Britain is mild. It is never too hot or too cold because of the sea which keeps the island warm in winter and makes the air cool in summer. The worst thing about the climate is the thick fog. If you go to England, you'll find that the fog is very typical feature o: the country.
The population of Great Britain is over 57 million people. About; 20 per cent of the British people live in rural areas, the others live in urban districts, i.e. towns and cities.
Great Britain is no longer the most powerful capitalist state Europe but it has highly developed industries. There are many big и industrial cities there, such as Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow, Cardiff, Sheffield and others. One of the Leading industries in Great Britain is the textile industry. Liverpool and Manchester are the main centers of textile manufacturing.
Great Britain is the country of many great scientists, poets, artists and writers. Among the world-known scientists are Newton, Darwin, Edison, Russel, Reserford and a number of others.
Great Britain is famous for its writers and poets. Among them one can find Shakespeare, Defo, Dickens, Byron, Burns, Green, Aldridge, and many others. The most famous English painters are Hogarth, Gainsborough, Reynolds, Turner and Constable.
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic, and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million.
London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End, and the East End.
The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices, and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange, and the Old Bailey. Few people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them is the St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built in the 17th century by Sir Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace, and a prison. Now it is a museum.
Westminster is the governmental part of London.
Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned in Westminster Abbey. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets, and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling, etc.
Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big bell, known as "Big Ben". Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen.
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs, and theatres are situated there.
The Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square.
On the north side of the Trafalgar Square is the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum — the biggest museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc, and is also famous for its library.
There are a lot of factories, workshops, and docks in the East End.
London is very rich in sights Among them - Westminster Abbey which is famous for its architecture and history. In Westminster Abbey the kings and queens of England are buried. Here is also the Poet's comer where many great writers and poets are buried: Kipling, Dickens, Tennyson and others. My friend said that he had also visited the memorials to Shakespeare and Byron, Scott and Longfellow.
Of no less interest are the Houses of Parliament with Big Ben, the Buckingham Palace — the Queen's residence, the National Art Gallery, the British Museum, St. Paul's Cathedral and the Tower, which was first a fortress, then a prison and which is now a museum.
There are a lot of parks in London, the most famous of them is Hyde Park with its Speaker's Corner. Many streets and parts of London had their own history and traditions. Whitehall, for example, is the political centre of the country. All government departments are situated here.
Trafalgar Square is about a hundred years old. The main feature is the tall Nelson monument, with the figure of the great seaman on the top. Many demonstrations and meetings take place here.
Notes to the text:
1. no longer — больше не
2. it is no wonder — не удивительно
3. e.g. — for example — например
4. i.e. — that is — то есть
5. to come first (second) — занимать первое (второе) место
6. ft — foot (pi. feet) - 30,48 см
7. of no less interest — не меньший интерес
8. all over the world — во всем мире
9. to be associated with — быть связанным с; ассоциироваться
10. to be composed of — состоять из
11. to be full (of)—быть заполненным
12. a number of — ряд
13. one can find — можно найти
14. to be popular (with) — пользоваться популярностью (у)
15. it is possible—возможно
16. to be rich in — изобиловать
17. to go sightseeing (to do sightseeing) — осматривать достопримечательности.
1. Английский язык:учеб. Пособие (1 курс 1 семестр)/ сост. И.В. Мятченко, Т.А. Манина. – Краснодар: Краснодар. Ун-т МВД России, 2012. – 146 с.
2. Справочник по грамматике английского языка для юристов // Смирнова М.И. – Симферополь, 2016
3. Словари: англо-русский, русско-английский.