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Индивидуальные и групповые автопоилки: для животных. Схемы и конструкции...


Have you ever dreamed of having a long weekend every weekend? If so, now may be the time to turn that fantasy into a reality. How? By convincing your boss to let you cram five days work into just four. It won’t be easy. So, to help you out, here’s a three-step guide.

Step 1:………………………………………………………………………………

Remind yourself of your company’s key objectives. Remind yourself, too, of your own role and responsibilities. Now think about how could do a four-day week and still meet all those targets. Go for creative solutions. But never lose sight of the practicalities.

Step 2:………………………………………………………………………………

After listening to your well thought-out plans, your boss will probably have a couple of objections. The key to getting him or her on your side is to predict the objections and prepare counter arguments in advance. Here is some advice on what to say when your boss makes objections:

‘Customer service will suffer.’

I can train my customers to call me only when I’m in the office. And I can tell my colleagues how to handle my customers’ requirements if something comes up when I’m out.

‘What if something urgent happens?’

I’ll get a mobile, and a pager.

‘Colleagues who depend on you won’t be able to function without you.’

I will brief them fully on what I am doing and how I am doing it.

‘It will mean more work for others.’

I’ve devised a system to ensure that all my work will be done on time, every time, so no one will have to carry any extra responsibilities.

‘If I allow you to work a four-day week, I’ll have to do it for everyone.’

Surveys indicate that workers who have flexible hours are more loyal and more dedicated and take less sick leave. This could be a positive move for the company.

‘It will cost us money.’

Reports prove that flexible workers contribute up to a third more than regular workers. If anything, I will be more productive than ever.

Step 3:……………………………………………………………………………….

Of course, it’s not just what you say that matters, but also how you sat. To improve your chances of winning over your boss, speak in a calm and controlled voice. Even if you feel like shouting or walking out, don’t. Instead, quietly and confidently repeat why a four-day week would be good for you and the company. Show that you understand your boss’s point of view and stress that this is in his or her interests as well.



1. The article gives three simple steps to a four-day week. Which of the phrases below matches each of the three steps?

Step 1:…………………………………………………………………………….

Step 2:…………………………………………………………………………….

Step 3:…………………………………………………………………………….

Be calm and confident.

Research the background.

Consider possible objections.

Look for practical solutions to problems.


2. Your boss’s objections may be that you will not be able to …

(Mark all the points that you are given in the article.)

go on long business trips.

keep a good standard of customer service.

deal with important thing immediately.

help your colleagues when they have problems.

go to all the meetings.

take on extra work when other people are sick.

Do all the work that you are responsible for.


3. Which of these are positive arguments for a four-day week?

(Mark all the points that you are given in the article.)

are more productive.

don’t stay with the company very long.

are not ill so often.

take advantage of the system by doing less work.


4. What does it mean if workers are “loyal”?

a) They care about the company.

b) They take a lot of interest in the work.

c) They are ready to take on more responsibility.

d) They want to do well in their careers.


Accountancy (profession) or accounting (methodology) is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about information that helps managers and other decision makers make resource allocation decisions. Financial accounting is one branch of accounting and historically has involved processes by which financial information about a business is recorded, classified, summarized, interpreted, and communicated. Auditing, a related but separate discipline, is the process whereby an independent auditor examines an organization's financial statements in order to express an opinion -- that conveys reasonable but not absolute assurance -- as to the fairness and adherence to generally accepted accounting principles, in all material respects.

Practitioners of accountancy are known as accountants. Accountancy attempts to create accurate financial reports that are useful to managers, regulators, and other stakeholders such as shareholders, creditors, or owners. The day-to-day record-keeping involved in this process is known as bookkeeping.

At the heart of modern financial accounting is the double-entry book-keeping system. This system involves making at least two entries for every transaction: a debit in one account, and a corresponding credit in another account. The sum of all debits should always equal the sum of all credits. This provides an easy way to check for errors. This system was first used in medieval Europe, although claims have been made that the system dates back to Ancient Greece.


A bank is an institution that provides financial service, particularly taking deposits and extending credit.

Currently the term bank is generally understood as an institution that holds a banking license. Banking licenses are granted by bank regulatory authorities and provide rights to conduct the most fundamental banking services such as accepting deposits and making loans. There are also financial institutions that provide certain banking services without meeting the legal definition of a bank, a so called non-banking financial company.

Banks have a long history, and have influenced economies and politics for centuries.

The word bank is derived from the Italian banca, which is derived from German language and means bench. The terms bankrupt and "broke" are similarly derived from banca rotta, which refers to an out-of-business bank, having its bench physically broken. Money lenders in Northern Italy originally did business in open areas, or big open rooms, with each lender working from his own bench or table.

Traditionally, a bank generates profits from transaction fees on financial services and from the interest it charges for lending. In recent history, with historically low interest rates limiting banks' ability to earn money by lending deposited funds, much of a bank's income is provided by overdraft fees and riskier investments.

Banks in the Economy

A bank raises funds by attracting deposits, borrowing money in the inter-bank market, or issuing financial instruments in the money market or a capital market. The bank then lends out most of these funds to borrowers.

However, it would not be prudent for a bank to lend out all of its balance sheet. It must keep a certain proportion of its funds in reserve so that it can repay depositors who withdraw their deposits. Bank reserves are typically kept in the form of a deposit with a central bank. This behaviour is called fractional-reserve banking and it is a central issue of monetary policy. Some governments (or their central banks) restrict the proportion of a bank's balance sheet that can be lent out, and use this as a tool for controlling the money supply. Even where the reserve ratio is not controlled by the government, a minimum figure will still be set by regulatory authorities as part of bank regulation.

Worldwide assets of the largest 1,000 banks grew 15.5% in 2005 to reach a record $60.5 trillion. This follows a 19.3% increase in the previous year. EU banks held the largest share, 50% at the end of 2005, up from 38% a decade earlier. The growth in Europe’s share was mostly at the expense of Japanese banks whose share more than halved during this period from 33% to 13%. The share of US banks also rose, from 10% to 14%. Most of the remainder was from other Asian and European countries.

The US had by far the most banks (7,540 at end-2005) and branches (75,000) in the world. The large number of banks in the US is an indicator of its geographical disparity and regulatory structure resulting in a large number of small to medium sized institutions in its banking system. Japan had 129 banks and 12,000 branches. In Western Europe, Germany, France and Italy had more than 30,000 branches each. This was twice the number of branches in the UK.


Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses and organizations raise, allocate and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. The term finance may thus incorporate any of the following:

The study of money and other assets

The management and control of those assets

Profiling and managing project risks

As a verb, "to finance" is to provide funds for business.

The activity of finance is the application of a set of techniques that individuals and organizations (entities) use to manage their financial affairs, particularly the differences between income and expenditure and the risks of their investments.

An entity whose income exceeds its expenditure can lend or invest the excess income. On the other hand, an entity whose income is less than its expenditure can raise capital by borrowing or selling equity claims, decreasing its expenses, or increasing its income. The lender can find a borrower, a financial intermediary, such as a bank or buy notes or bonds in the bond market. The lender receives interest, the borrower pays a higher interest than the lender receives, and the financial intermediary pockets the difference.

A bank aggregates the activities of many borrowers and lenders. A bank accepts deposits from lenders, on which it pays interest. The bank then lends these deposits to borrowers. Banks allow borrowers and lenders of different sizes to coordinate their activity. Banks are thus compensators of money flows in space since they allow different lenders and borrowers to meet, and in time, since every borrower will eventually pay back.

Finance is used by individuals (personal finance), by governments (public finance), by businesses (corporate finance), etc., as well as by a wide variety of organizations including schools and non-profit organizations. In general, the goals of each of the above activities are achieved through the use of appropriate financial instruments, with consideration to their institutional setting.

Taxes and Tariffs

Most modern governments use taxes to fund welfare and public services, such as:

education systems,

healthcare systems,

pensions for the elderly,

unemployment benefits,

energy, water and waste management systems,

public transportation.

Colonial states and modern states have also used cash taxes to draw or force reluctant subsistence producers into cash economies.

Governments use different kind of taxes and vary the tax rates:

to distribute the tax burden between individuals or classes of the population involved in taxable activities, such as business,

to redistribute resources between individuals or classes in the population. Historically, the nobility were supported by taxes on the poor; modern social security systems are intended to support the poor, the disabled or the retired by taxes on those who are still working,

to influence the macroeconomic performance of the economy (the government's strategy for doing this is called its fiscal policy) (see also tax exemption),

to modify patterns of consumption or employment within an economy, by making some classes of transaction more or less attractive.

An import or export tariff (also called customs duty or impost) is a charge for the movement of goods through a political border. Tariffs discourage trade, and they may be used by governments to protect domestic industries. A proportion of tariff revenues is often hypothecated to pay government to maintain a navy or border police. The classic way of cheating a tariff is smuggling.

Kinds of Taxes

Tax is an officially specified amount, which is necessary to be paid by every individual or firm at a fixed place at a fixed date.

Dozens of taxes are imposed in every economy. They provide governments and local authorities with financial resources necessary for their activities. According to the level at which taxes are raised they are divided into state, regional and local. State taxes (such as income tax or value-added tax fill the whole country's budget. They are used to finance economic and social programmes of governments. State taxes are usually supplemented by taxes assessed on property values or household size. Regional taxes exist in federal republics (such as Russian federation, USA or Switzerland).

According to the method of collection taxes are divided into direct and indirect. Direct taxes are assessed on some values directly (like profit tax). The taxpayers are certain. Indirect taxes are included in goods' prices (like VAT or excise duties). Some people do not even noticed that they have paid these taxes.

According to the percentage of income taxes are divided into progressive, proportional and regressive.

Progressive tax taken a greater percentage of income from the higher-income groups than from the lower-income groups. In this case the marginal rate of taxation is higher than the average rate.

Proportional tax the same percentage of all taxpayers' income and wealth. Corporation tax collected in the UK is an example of proportional tax.

Regressive taxes make the poor groups suffer greater sacrifices than the rich do. Flat rate taxes such as excise duties or VAT act repressively since the amount of the tax included in the prices of these goods represents a greater percentage of the incomes of the lower-income groups.

So you see that progressive taxes are the most equitable kind of tax.

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