A. 1. A country wishing to limit its population may discourage immigration and encourage emigration.
2. Increasingconcern has been expressed about the continued growth in world population.
3. If land is defined as the total surface area of the planet, includingoceans, lakes and rivers, than its total quantity is fixed.
4. The persons forminga company are required to submit several documents to the Registrar of Companies.
5. Loan capital is more appropriate to firms operating in stable markets.
6. In addition, the University will continue to have graduate studentsworking with them on research projects.
7. Industries producingsteel, paper and chemicals require very large quantities of water and tend to be found near rivers.
8. With increasing numbers enteringthe working population, expandingindustries will have little trouble in recruiting labour.
9. In advanced capitalist societies, advertising is a powerful instrument affectingdemand in many markets.
10. Our organization, including our affiliates, deliver services in four professional areas: audit, tax, consulting, and financial advisory services.
B. 1. Having explored the possible relationship between capacity and expected output, we now examine the behaviour of costs as actual output changes.
2. Having examined the relationships between outputs and costs, we now show how the behaviour of cost may be reflected in the supply curve.
3. Having learnt the first law of supply and demand (i.d. more is demanded at lower prices), many students then automatically associate an increase in price with a fall in the quantity demanded and vice versa.
4. Having obtained the necessary results, we stopped our experimental work.
5. Having calculated the programme, he paid attention to possible changes.
6. Having been repaired, the device began working much better.
1. The quantity of labour derived from a given stock of population depends upon several factors.
2. Put simply, a business process is the set of activities performed to serve a customer.
3. Taxes placedon goods and services are known as indirect taxes as opposed to direct taxes which are placed on income and wealth.
4. The information obtained is very valuable.
5. We enclose the letter received from the beneficiaries requesting details of the above transfer.
6. The letter mentioned above should be sent to the beneficiary.
7. The payment order referred to in your previous letter has been received by the customer.
8. We hope the amount transferred to your bank will be duly (своевременно) received.
14). Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание нанезависимый причастный оборот.
1. For the moment she shop was empty, the mechanic having disappeared into a room at the back.
2.It being pretty late, they decided to postpone their visit.
3. The hour being late, she hastened home.
4. The weather being very warm, the closet window was left open.
5. The next morning, it being Sunday, they all went to church.
6. There being little time left, they took a taxi to get to the theatre in time.
7. There being no chance to escape, the thief was arrested on the spot.
8. You can set your mind at ease, all being well.
9. This been understood, the conference was over.
10. Dinner being over, we assembled in the drawing-room.
11. The treaty having been signed, trade was at once resumed.
12. Electrons moving through a wire, electrical energy is generated.
13. The weather permitting, we shall go to the country.
14. It being very cold, we could not go for a walk.
15. The sun having risen, we continued our way.
16. The article having been translated, the student showed it to the teacher.
17. His work finished, he went home.
18. Other things being equal, an increase in wage rates will increase the cost of labour relative to the cost of other factors.
19. The production of the Liberty ships showed similar effects, the first taking many months to build and the last only three days.
20. In order to simplify the analysis we can consider two firms, one being representative of high-cost producers and the other of low-cost producers.
21. Most industries make use of a variety of machines,each machine carrying out a different operation.
22. The principle of action being rather simple, the new device was widely used for different purposes.
23. The selling price must relate to the production cost, which in turn, depends on the quantity sold, this quantity being dependent upon the sales price.
24. It being too late,they decided to stop working.
25. Other things being equal,the demand for a commodity will tend to vary directly as the price of its substitute.
26. The installation was atomized last year,its capacity rising by 20 per cent.
27. All the problems having been solved,they went home.
28. The goods having been loaded, the dockworkers left the port.
29. Member nations are required to subscribe to the capital stock of the World Bank, each being given a quota which is related to the member's national income and position in the world trade.
30. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has projected world growth at 4.3 per cent with advanced economies growing by 2.7 per cent.