To stay or cause to stay in a liquid, esp. in order to improve flavor or — КиберПедия

Организация стока поверхностных вод: Наибольшее количество влаги на земном шаре испаряется с поверхности морей и океанов (88‰)...

Общие условия выбора системы дренажа: Система дренажа выбирается в зависимости от характера защищаемого...

To stay or cause to stay in a liquid, esp. in order to improve flavor or

to become soft or clean:[I] Let the tea steep for five minutes.[T] This stain(пятно,окрашивать,пачкать) will come out if you steep the cloth in cold water. \ Leave the cloth to steep in the dye overnight. \We had pears steeped in red wine for dessert.

To be steeped in something is to be filled with it or to know a lot about it:[T] The college is steeped in tradition.


austerity - астЁрити

- [C or U] the condition of living without unnecessary things and without comfort, with limited money or goods, or a practice, habit, or experience that is typical of this:The wartime austerity of my early years prepared me for later hardships. \The austerities of life in a small rural community were not what I was used to.

[U]a difficult economic situation caused by a government reducing the amount of money it spends:People protested in the streets against austerity. \The government today announced new austerity measures. Military spending continues even in periods of austerity.

expose – экспОус

- verb [T] (BE SEEN) to make something covered or hidden able to be seen \ to remove what is covering something so that it can be seen::The plaster was removed to expose the original brick wall. \ He damaged his leg so badly in the accident that the bone was exposed.\ In my cartoons, I try to expose the silly and absurd ways that Americans behave.


to make public something bad or dishonest:The review exposed widespread corruption in the policeforce.The newspaper story exposed him as (= showed that he was) a liar.

- If a man exposes himself, he shows his sexual organs in a public place to people he does not know.

- to publicly show that someone or something is bad or dishonest:He was exposed as a fraud and a liar.


to create a situation or a condition that makes someone likely to be harmed:His behavior on the Senate floor exposed him to ridicule. Be sure your child wears sunscreen whenever she’s exposed to the sun.


to create conditions that allow someone to have the opportunity to learn or experience new things:Kate was exposed to new ideas when she went to college.

noun [C]a public report of the facts about a situation, especially one that is shocking or has been kept secret:Today's newspaper contains a searing exposé of police corruption.

Expository - экспАзитари

adjective [not gradable]

explaining or describing an event or situation:expository writing

curious - кЮриус

adjective (INTERESTED) interested in learning about people or things around you:[+ to infinitive] I’m curious to see what’s going to happen on the political scene.

adjective (UNUSUAL) unusual and therefore worth noticing:A curious figure in a red cape and black boots darted into thebuilding.

Curiosity – кюриОсэти

(INTEREST) an eager desire to know or learn about something:Just out of curiosity(просто из любопыства) I decided to go through the files.


› [C] something that is interesting because it is rare and unusual:The museum had a collection of mummies and Egyptian curiosities.


stern - стЕрн

adj severe, or showing disapproval:a stern look/warning / voice She is her own sternest critic. \ Journalists received a stern warning not to go anywhere near the battleship.

If something, such as a job, is stern, it is difficult:The country's president is facing the sternest test of his authority since he came to power five years ago.

Hard, harsh, or severe in manner or character: a stern disciplinarian.

Difficult to endure; oppressive: stern necessity.

Noun the back part of a ship or boat A rope over the stern towed the little boat.

Adverb He sternly reminded his son to drive carefully.

made of sterner stuff - If someone is described as being made of sterner stuff, they are very strong and determined:I was ready to give up the fight, but Nicky was made of sterner stuff and wanted us to finish.

from stem to stern - from one end of something to the other:We overhauled(оверхОл to repair or improve something so it works well:

They repaired and maintained aircraft and overhauled their engines.) the car from stem to stern. from one end to another. Now, I have to clean the house from stem to stern. I polished my car carefully from stem to stern.

amenable - амИнэбл

adj willing to accept or be influenced by a suggestion:She might be more amenable to the idea if you explained how much money it would save. Do you think the new manager will prove more amenable to our proposals?

meticulous - метИкэлэс

adj giving or showing careful attention to every detail:a meticulous housekeeper \meticulous research

Adverb She meticulously planned every decorating detail.

punctilious - панктИлиос

very careful to behave correctly or to give attention to details:He was always punctilious in his manners.



noun[C] (DIFFICULTY) a difficulty or troubling fact esp. in a situation that is generally positive:I finally did get a job offer that sounded perfect – the only hitch was the low salary. \ The taping at Channel 4 went off without a hitch (= perfectly).

verb Hitch a ride [T] (RIDE) to get a free ride in someone else’s road vehicle as a way of traveling:Nancy hitched a ride with her husband’s cousin. \ I've no car; can I hitch a ride home with you? or He was hoping to thumb a ride to the stadium

verb [T] (FASTEN) to fasten something to another thing, such as a vehicle:We just need to hitch the trailer to the car and then we can go.



Accuse - акьЮз

verb [T] - to say that someone is responsible for a crime or for having done something wrong:He was accused of failing to pay his taxes. \ She accused me of lying. "It wasn't my fault." "Don't worry, I'm not accusing you." \ He's been accused of robbery/murder. \Are you accusing me of lying?The surgeon was accused of negligence.

stand accused of sth formal If you stand accused of doing something wrong, people say that you have done it:The government stands accused of eroding freedom of speech. \ Partly, this is because none wants to stand accused of racial discrimination.

accusation - акьюзЭйшон He denied the accusation, saying he was innocent.


allegation - алигЭйшен

a statement, made without giving proof, that someone has done something wrong or illegal:The allegations of corruption were not true. \ Several of her patients have made allegations of professional misconduct about/against her.[+ that]

Allegations that Mr Dwight was receiving money fromknown criminals have caused a scandal. Are you able to verify your allegation?

Allege to state that something bad is a fact without giving proof:

School districts are alleging the state has not continued to finance schools adequately.

Note: Usually used to describe legal matters. Police arrested at least four alleged drug traffickers and seized4564 cocaine paste wrappings from three houses.


subpoena - сэпИна –

verb to order someone to go to a court of law to answer questions, or to order the appearance of documents in a court of law:to subpoena a witness\ A friend of the victim was subpoenaed as a witness by lawyers representing the accused.[+ to infinitive] They were subpoenaed to testify before the judge.

Noun a legal document ordering someone to appear in a lawcourt:Subpoenas were issued to several government employees.

inquire - инквAэ(You can ask that someone perform an action.
When you inquire you only request information.
You can ask for permission, a favour, or forgiveness, but not inquire for them.
They're not interchangeable, ask is broader.)

to ask for information:Shall I inquire about the price of tickets? [+ question word] She called to inquire when her car would be ready.[+ speech] "Where are we going?" he inquired politely. [I] Officials from around the country have called to inquire about the program.[+ question word] Phil inquired whether I wanted to meet hisroommate.

Adjective You have a very inquiring mind.

inquire into something

to try to discover the facts about something:The committee had no right to inquire into his politics. \ The Coroner's Court is responsible to inquire into the causes and circumstances of certain deaths.

Might I ask/inquire/know

used in questions to show disapproval by being more polite than is expected:And what are you doing in there, might I ask? Might I ask what you are doing with my wallet?

topple - тапл

verb (FALL)

[I or T] to (cause to) lose balance and fall down: The statue of the dictator was toppled (over) by the crowds. \The tree toppled and fell.

to force a leader or government out of power:The church was prominently(прОминентли, отчётливо видно\заметно) involved in the struggle that toppled the dictatorship. \ The government toppled after several large public demonstrations.

venture - вЕнчер

noun [C] an activity or plan of action, often in business, that involves risk or uncertainty :His most recent business venture ended in bankruptcy. \ She advised us to look abroad for more lucrative business ventures.

Verb to risk going somewhere or doing something that might or to risk saying something that might be criticized: be dangerous or unpleasant:[I always + adv/prep] He wanted to venture into the mountainous wilderness of the countryside. \She rarely ventured outside, except when she went to stock up on groceries. \ As we set off into the forest, we felt as though we were venturing(forth) into the unknown. \She tentatively ventured the opinion that the project would be too expensive to complete, but the boss ignored her.

To venture something is to attempt it when you arelikely to be wrong or to be criticized:[T] I wouldn’t venture an opinion about that.

climate - клАймэт

[C/U] the general weather conditions usually found in a particular place:[C] My parents like the warm, dry climate of Arizona.

a general attitude, opinion, or feeling:There’s never been a climate of trust between labor andmanagement in this industry.


agitate - Аджитэйт

verb (ARGUE) [I] to argue energetically, esp. in public, in order to achieve a particular type of change:Telephone companies began to agitate for permission to compete in long distance services.

(MAKE NERVOUS)[T] to make someone become nervous because of worry or fear that is difficult to control:Any mention of his son agitated him.

noun [U] He arrived home in a state of agitation.

AgitatorThey blamed the protest on political agitators.

audacity - одАсити

noun unusually strong and esp. rude confidence in yourself:[+ to infinitive] Our mayor has the audacity to claim credit for improvements he had nothing to do with.\ [+ to infinitive] It took a lot of audacity to stand up and criticize the chairman.\ disapproving He had the audacity to blame me for his mistake!

audacious - одЭйшес

adjectiveshowing an unusual willingness to take risks:The car maker's audacious goal is to compete with the luxury cars of other manufacturers.

perplex - перплЕкс (ставить в тупик\озадачивать)

verb to cause someone to be confused or uncertain over something that is not understood:The symptoms of the disease have continued to perplex her doctors.

Adjective Just when it appeared that interest rates were headed up, they fell,leaving some analysts clearly perplexed.

Ample - Эмпл

enough, or more than enough, or (esp. of body size)large:There will be ample opportunity for everyone here to speak. \ There's ample evidence that the lawyer knew exactly what she was doing.\ They had ample warning of the factory closure.

Amply adverb The research was amply funded.

precise - пресАйз

exact and accurate in form, time, detail, or description:The precise recipe is a closely guarded secret. \

very careful and accurate, especially about small details:Years of doing this research had made her very precise in her working methods. \There was a good turnout for the meeting – twelve of us, to be precise. \ The bunker's precise location is a closely guarded secret. \ He caught me at the precise moment that I fainted(упала в обморок)

precisely exactly:

The fireworks begin at eight o'clock precisely. \ What do you think the problem is, precisely?

occurrence - окОрэнс

noun[C/U] (HAPPENING) an event, esp. one that happens unexpectedly:[C] Break-ins are an everyday occurrence in this neighborhood. \ Street-fights are an everyday occurrence in this area of the city.


the existence or presence of something:The tests can detect the occurrence of certain cancers. \ The study compares the occurrence of heart disease in various countries.

content - контЕнт

adjective pleased with your situation and not needing or desiring it to be better:Skating this year with a sprained ankle, he said he was content just to make the Olympic team. \ He seems fairly content with (his) life. \ [+ to infinitive] They're content to socialize with a very small circle of people. \ I'd be content with a modest income. \ They were content with second hand clothes.

Contented adjective Our dog leads a happy and contented life.

Contentment (контЕнтмент)Her greatest happiness and contentment was found in being a devoted wife, mother, and grandmother.

Verbto make yourself accept something as satisfactory, although it could be better:We had to content ourselves with watching the sea lions from the shore.

Noun – кАнтент the subject or ideas contained in something written, said, created, or represented:academic/educational content. \ It’s easy to update the content of the Web site.

[U] (AMOUNT) the amount of a particular substance contained in something:This type of milk has a lower fat content.

Regimen\regimе - рЕджимэн\режИм - режим

a set of rules about food, exercise, or behavior that you follow, esp. in order to improve your health:His doctor put him on a strict regimen of exercise and low-fat food. \ After his heart attack the doctor put him on a strict regimen.


able to be seen or understood:

[ + that clause ] It was becoming increasingly apparent that he could no longer look after himself.

Apparent also means seeming to be true:

The apparent cause of death was drowning(Драунинг), but further tests were needed.

apparently - апЭрэнтли - по всей видимости, видимо

according to what seems to be true or what is likely,based on what you know:The computer trouble was apparently caused by a programming error. \ Apparently it's going to rain today.


enterprise - Энтерпрайс

an organization, esp. a business, or a difficult and important plan, esp. one that will earn money:[U] private enterprise \ [C] The road is bordered by shopping centers, restaurants, retail outlets, and other commercial enterprises. \ Don't forget this is a commercial enterprise - we're here to make money.\ Those were the years of private enterprise (= businesses being run privately, rather than by the government), when lots of smal lbusinesses were started. \ Her latest enterprise (= plan) is to climb Mount Everest.

Enterprise is also the willingness and energy to do something new that takes a lot of effort:[U] They’ve showed a great deal of enterprise in setting up this project. \ We need someone with enterprise and imagination to design a marketing strategy.

expropriate – икспрOприэйт(присваивать публичные средства\имущество)

verb to take and keep money or property belonging to someone else \ to take away money or property especially for public use without payment to the owner, or for personal use illegally:: \ Demanding the government expropriate more of other people's money is another matter. \ He was discovered to have been expropriating company funds.



deprive - дипрАйв (лишать)

to take something, especially something necessary or pleasant, away from someone:They were deprived of food for long periods of time. \ Its intent was to deprive a class of people of rights afforded to another class. \ The move will deprive American diplomats of their main protection force in Iraq. \ Closing the station would deprive both tribes of free energy-and a lot of money. \ Some parents deprive themselves of many pleasures so that their children can have the best of everything.



salvage - сАлвидж

to save something valuable from damage, destruction, or loss:After the storm, we were able to salvage some of our belongings, but the house was destroyed.

descent - дисЕнт

[U] the origin of people in your family background:Their mother is of Irish descent (= family origin).

noun (ARRIVAL)

› [C usually sing] the arrival of something or someone, esp. when it is unpleasant or unwanted:The descent of dozens of motorcycles terrified local residents.

noun (A WAY DOWN) [C] a way down, such as a path, or an act of coming down:A steep descent from the peak brings you to a meadow. \ The plane is making its final descent into the airport.


decree - дикрИ

an official statement that something must happen:The decree stopped short of a full declaration of independence. \ More than 200 people were freed by military decree. He refused to carry out the board’s decree.

to officially decide or order that something must happen:They decreed an end to discrimination on grounds of age.[+ that] After the earthquake, the government decreed that all newbuildings must be built according to the new standards.

arrangement - арЕйнджмент


a plan for how the parts of a piece of music can be played by a particular instrument or instruments:an arrangement for trumpet and cello

noun [C] (POSITION)

a particular way in which things are put together or placed:a flower arrangement


a plan or preparation for something, esp. for something to happen in a particular way:She had an arrangement to work at home two days a week.\ Since the hotel was full, we had to make other arrangements. \ They'd made all the arrangements for the party. \ [+ to infinitive] Arrangements were made to move the prisoners to another jail.

an agreement between two people or groups about how something happens or will happen:[+ that] We had an arrangement that he would clean the house and I would cook. \ I'm sure we can come to an arrangement (= reach an agreement).\ You can only withdraw money from this account by (prior)arrangement (= after making plans to do so) with the bank. \ He has some special arrangement with his supplier, which means he's able to sell his goods more cheaply.



competitive – компЕтитив

adjectiveeager to do better than others in an activity, esp. trying to win in a sports activity:a competitive person \ We will be facing weaker teams, which should give us a competitive advantage/edge.

Competitive also means able to compete at the same level:If we have to lower our prices to remain competitive, we will.

involving competition:

competitive sports \ a highly competitive industry \ Acting is very competitive - you've got to really push yourself if you want to succeed.

wanting very much to win or be more successful than other people:You're very competitive - it's meant to be a friendly match! \I could never play team sports - I lack the competitive spirit (= astrong wish to beat others).

Adverb Competitively -competitively priced goods

Noun Competitiveness- They will have to regain their competitiveness and to attract private investors.

competitive advantage - the conditions that make a business more successful than the businesses it is competing with, or a particular thing that makes it more successful:The question is how to leverage technology to create competitive advantage in the marketplace. \These mandates can make it difficult for corporations t differentiate their products and gain a competitive advantage.

Verb compete - кэмпИт to do an activity with others and try to do better than they do:Two TV stations are competing for the top spot in the state of Iowa.

To compete is also to be part of a sports activity in which you are trying to win:He will compete in track this spring and play football next fall.

Competition - кОмпетишенan activity done by a number of people or organizations, each of which is trying to do better than all of the others:[U] Competition for the job was fierce. \ [U] Traditional booksellers face stiff competition from companies selling via the Internet.

competitor - компЕтитор - He’s a tough competitor and will probably do well in business.


shortcoming - шОрткомин (недостаток)

a fault of someone or something:My father had some shortcomings as a businessman, but he was a good father.

a fault or a failure to reach a particular standard:Whatever his shortcomings as a husband, he was a good father to his children.Like any political system, it has its shortcomings.


embarrass – имбЭрэс

to cause someone to feel anxious, ashamed, or uncomfortable:He knew that letter would embarrass him and later he tried to get rid of it.


adjective They sat in embarrassed silence.

Embarrassing adjective

›[+ to infinitive] It’s embarrassing to be caught telling a lie.

EmbarrassinglyAdverb an embarrassingly poor performance

Embarrassmentnoun (недразумение,неловкая ситуация, лёгкий позор) She forgot her lines and blushed with embarrassment. \ Heavily polluted air during the Olympics would be a huge embarrassment to China.


omit - омИт

to fail to include or do something:I’d be upset if my name were omitted from the list of contributors. \ She was omitted from the list of contributors to the report. \The Prince's tour conveniently omitted the most deprived areas of the city.[+ to infinitive] formal She omitted to mention that she would be away next week. \ Of course, they omit the fact that it was Clinton who pushed for and signed it.

omission - омИшен - Parents are upset by the omission of music from the school’s courses. \ After a number of people questioned that omission, her name finally was included.



plot - плат

(STORY) the plan or main story of a book, film, play, etc.:The novel has a complicated plot that is sometimes difficult to follow.


a secret plan to do something that is wrong, harmful, or illegal:The police discovered a plot to rob the bank.


a small piece of land that has been marked or measured for a particular purpose:a garden plot


› mathematics [T] to mark a paper or use a computer to show the position of a number or represent a solution to an equation (=mathematical statement) and create a graph (=drawing)

[T] To plot something is also to mark or draw lines showing a route on a piece of paper or a map, or to put numbers on a piece of paper to show how amounts are related:He plotted a course between Hawaii and Tahiti. \ We measured and plotted the amounts of chemicals that were released in the countryside.


outlook - Aутлук

noun [C usually sing] (FUTURE SITUATION)

the likely future situation:The economic outlook is good \ The outlook for today is cloudy and dry at first with showers later.


a person’s general attitude or way of thinking about something:He has a positive outlook on life.


› [C usually singular] formal what you can see from a particular place:From the top of the tower, the outlook over the city was breathtaking.



impervious - импЁрвиэс

(SUBSTANCE) not allowing liquid to go through:How does glue bond with impervious substances like glass andmetal?


If someone is impervious to something, they are not influenced or affected by something:He is impervious to criticism and rational argument.


contention - контЕншэн


› [U] the disagreement that results from opposing arguments:There's a lot of contention about that issue - for every person firmly in favour, there's someone fiercely against it.The issue has been settled - it's no longer in contention.

noun (OPINION)

› [C] formal an opinion expressed in an argument:[+ that] It is her contention that exercise is more important than diet if you want to lose weight.


› [U] the act of competing in order to win something or to achieve a position of leadership:The big names slowly dropped out of contention at the tournament


curtail – кётЭил

verb [T]

US /kərˈteɪl/

to reduce or limit something, or to stop something before it is finished:He had to curtail his speech when time ran out.


noun [U] US /kərˈteɪl·mənt/


insolent - Инсэлент


US /ˈɪn·sə·lənt/

(of a person or a person’s behavior) intentionally and rudely showing no respect:Students were often inattentive, sometimes even insolent, and showed relatively little interest in their work.

InsolenceThe first nanny was dismissed for insolence and the second for abusing(абьЮзинг) the children.

InsolentlyThe party breaks up when Myrtle insolently starts shouting Daisy's name, and Tom breaks her nose with a blow of his open hand.

Inattentive - инатЕнтив

Adjectivenot listening to what is being said or giving your attention to what is happening:Barbara has been inattentive in class lately.

InattentivelySure, it's idiotic to bike without a helmet, just as it is to cross the street inattentively while on a cellphone.


listening carefully:

an attentive audience

If someone is attentive, they are very helpful and take care of you:

He was very attentive to her when she was ill.

A good teacher is always attentive to their students' needs.

Attentivelyhe children sat listening attentively to the story. Read them attentively and understand them.

dignify - дИгнифай - удастаивать

to cause something to be respected and considered important when that is not deserved:I'm not even going to dignify that stupid question with an answer.

self-esteem– селф -эстИм

noun [U]

US /ˌsel·fəˈstim/

respect for yourself:The program is intended to build students’ self-esteem. \ Does he suffer from low self-esteem?


adjust - аджАст

verb (MAKE CHANGES(чЕнжес))

to change something slightly to make it fit, work better, or be more suitable:[T] Adjust the angle of your monitor so you can easily read it.[I] You need time to adjust to a new situation.

to arrange your clothing to make yourself look tidy:She adjusted her skirt, took a deep breath, and walked into the room.


B2 [I] to become more familiar with a new situation:I can't adjust to living on my own. \ Her eyes slowly adjusted to the dark. \The lifestyle is so very different - it takes a while to adjust.

AdjustableThe height of the steering wheel is adjustable.

AdjustmentOnly a few adjustments were needed to make her dress fit perfectly.

internecine - интернЕсин - кровопролитный

adjective Internecine war or fighting happens between members of the same group, religion, or country:internecine war/warfare

atrocity – атрАсити\атрОсити(UK) - зверство

noun [C/U]

US /əˈtrɑs·ɪ·t̬i/

an extremely cruel act, or the committing of such acts:[C] The commission reports that atrocities were committed by all sides during the struggle.


estimation - Эстимэйшен

noun (OPINION)

[S] your opinion of someone or something: In my estimation a lot of other banks are going to have the same problem. \ He sank in my estimation (= my opinion of him fell) when I saw how he treated his wife. \ The first novel was successful, whereas the second, in my estimation, was not.

Whereas – верЭз в то время как \ тогда как


UK /weərˈæz/ US /werˈæz/

compared with the fact that; but:He must be about 60, whereas his wife looks about 30. \ You eat a huge plate of food for lunch, whereas I have just a sandwich. \ She actually enjoys confrontation, whereas I prefer a quiet life.



trademark - трЕйдмарк


a name or symbol on a product that shows it was made by a particular company, and that it cannot be used by other companies without permission:Velcro is a registered trademark.


something very noticeable that a person typically has or does:He was wearing one of the brightly coloured ties that are his trademark.She gave one of her trademark smiles. \With his trademark sense of humour, physicist Stephen Hawking announced plans to search for alien life.

Important – импОртант

of great value, meaning, or effect:an important discovery[+ that clause] It’s important that you tell the doctor all your symptoms.

Important also means having great influence:an important modern artist

Importance - импОтанс – важность He stressed the importance of fruits and vegetables in the diet.

Importantly -
She has a pleasant personality, but more importantly, she is well qualified for the job.


noun (WORRY)

[C/U] worry caused by a difficult situation, or something that causes this condition:[U] Luis is under a lot of stress right now.[C] \ It’s hard to cope with the stresses of raising a family.

noun (FORCE)

› [C/U] a force that tends to change the shape or strength of an object:[U] If a metal object experiences constant stress, it may bend or break.


the pronouncing of a word or syllable with greater force than other words in the same sentence or other syllables in the same word:[C] The main stress in the word "command" is on the secondsyllable.


› [U] special importance or emphasis that is given to something:There’s constant stress on status in this community.

Stressful adjective Working in the emergency room of a major hospital is highly stressfull work.

(GIVE IMPORTANCE) (подчекрунть)

to give special importance or emphasis to something:I’d like to stress the differences between our opinions.


› English to pronounce a word or syllable with greater force than other words in the same sentence or other syllables in the same word:In the word "engine," you should stress the first syllable.

interstellar- интастЕла - межзвёздный

adjective between the stars:interstellar space


collision - колИжен

the violent coming together of two or more moving objects, such as vehicles:The collision involved a pickup truck and a car .


transmit - трансмИт - передать сигнал знания болезнь информацию


C1 [I or T] to broadcast something, or to send out or carry signals using radio, television, etc.:Radio Seven transmits on 201 medium wave (= uses those particular radio waves to broadcast on).The information is transmitted electronically to the central computer.

verb (PASS)

C2 [T] to pass something from one person or place to another:a sexually transmitted disease \ Cholera is transmitted through contaminated water. \ Some diseases are transmitted from one generation to the next. \ Somehow your panic and fear transmits itselfto the horse that you're riding. \ Germs transmit disease.[I] To avoid delay, transmit by fax.


Breakthrough - Брикзру - прорыв

noun [C]

US /ˈbreɪkˌθru/

an important discovery or development that helps to solve a problem:The Polaroid camera was a technological breakthrough\ Scientists are hoping for a breakthrough in the search for a cure for cancer. \ A major breakthrough in negotiations has been achieved.

commit - коммИт - совершить

verb (PROMISE)(посвятить себя)

US /kəˈmɪt/ [I/T] -tt- to promise to give yourself, your money, your time, etc., to support something:[I/T] They wouldn’t commit (to giving) enough time or money to the project. \ Like so many men, he has problems committing himselfto a relationship. \ The government must commit itself to improving healthcare. \ Once we have committed to this course of action there is no going back. \ We have committed ourselves to stamping out racism in our organization.


commit himself to express an opinion or to make a decision that you tell people about: Neither candidate would commit himself on the issue of tax reform. \ I think I can come but I won't commit myself till I know for sure.


› /kəˈmɪt/ [T] -tt- to actively put information in your memory or write it down:These rules must be committed to memory. \ I wouldn't want to commit these comments to paper.

verb (CRIME)

US /kəˈmɪt/ [T] -tt- to do something illegal or considered wrong:He committed a crime in providing the information to a reporter.

verb (SEND)

› [T] formal to send someone officially to prison or hospital:He's been committed to prison for fraud. \ He was once committed to a state mental hospital.



Dozen - дАзен

a group or collection of twelve:a dozen eggsI brought home a half dozen/half a dozen (= six) eggs.

fair - adjective (RIGHT)

› [-er/-est only] treating someone in a way that is right or reasonable, or treating people equally and not allowing personal opinions to influence your judgment:All he asks is a fair chance to prove his innocence. \ I’m willing to do my fair share of the work (= equal part).

If a game or competition is fair, it is done according to the rules:It was a fair fight.


Adjective [not gradable] neither very good nor very bad:He’s good in physics but only fair in math.\ Films are rated on a scale of poor, fair, good and excellent. \ I was fair at science but it was never my thing.


[before noun] large or great in comparison::We've had a fair amount of rain this week. \ We've had a fair number of applicants. \ It's a fair-sized garden. \ We've come a long way, but there's still a fair way (= quite a long distance) to go.


› [not gradable] likely to be correct; accurate:The architect’s drawing will give you a pretty fair idea of what the completed house will look like.

If something is fair, it is reasonable and is what you expect or deserve:I thought it was a fair price that she was offering. \ I'm willing to do my fair (= equal) share of the work.All the workers want is a fair wage for the work that they do.

it is only fairused for saying that a particular action is correct or reasonable

it is only fair (that): It’s only fair that I should pay half of the cost.

it's fair to sayI think it's fair to say (that) you've done less of the work than I have.

to be fair considering everything that has an effect on a situation, so that a fair judgment can be made:He's done the job badly but, to be fair, I gave him very little time to do it.

fair enough something you say to show that you understand why someone has done or said something:"I'm just annoyed with him because he's behaved so badly." "Fair enough."

fair and square - honestly and according to the rules:She won the election fair and square.


› [-er/-est only] (of weather) pleasant and dryFair weather was forecast for the following day.


› [-er/-est only] (of skin) pale, or (of hair) light in color:If you have fair skin, you’ll get a sunburn easily.


› [before noun] (of an idea, guess, or chance) good, but not excellent:I think I've got a fair idea of (= I understand reasonably well) what you want.\ She's got a fair chance of winning (= there is a reasonable chance that she will win).


› old use or literary (of a woman) beautiful:a fair maiden

all's fair in love and war (There is no Rules) All's fair in love, war and Christmas shopping.

A fair crack of the whip

Noun a large public event where goods are bought and sold, usually from tables that have been specially arranged for the event, and where there is often entertainment:I bought a wooden salad bowl at the local craft fair.

a large show at which people who work in a particular industry meet, and sell and advertise their products:a book/antiques/toy faira trade fair

insure\ensure - иншУр


› also ensure to make something certain, or to be certain about something:[+ (that) clause] Because of the importance of the game, we wanted to insure (that) it would be televised. \ [T] We had reporters check to insure the accuracy of the story.\ The airline is taking steps to ensure safety on its aircraft. \ [+ (that)] The role of the police is to ensure (that) the law is obeyed. \ [+ two objects] Their 2–0 victory today has ensured the Italian team a place in the Cup Final / ensured a place in the Cup Final for the Italian team. \ The company's sole concern is to ensure the safety of itsemployees. \ You have a legal obligation to ensure your child receives a propereducation.


› [T] to protect yourself or your property against damage or loss by making regular payments to a company that will pay for the damage or loss if it happens:We’ve insured our house for $100,000.


unlawful - онлAфл

adjective not according to or acceptable to the law:unlawful behavior/business practices/discrimination


exodus - Экседес

the movement of a lot of people from a place at the same time:The hurricane warning caused a mass exodus. \ There has been a mass exodus of workers from the villages to the towns.

Resent - ризЕнт

verb [T] to dislike or be angry at something or someone because you have been hurt or not treated fairly:\ to feel angry because you have been forced to accept someone or something that you do not like:She resented being treated like a child. \ She bitterly resented her father's new wife.[+ -ing verb] He resents having to explain his work to other people. \ He resents the way his ideas have been hijacked by others in the department. \ I resent paying extra for my drink just because it's in a posey bottle!

Resentful -adjective Marshall was resentful that he had made almost nothing from his discovery.

Resentment noun [U] There is some community resentment toward the school’s new policy. \ He feels/harbours (a) deep resentment against/towards his parentsfor his miserable childhood.

merrily - мЕрили

adverbshowing happiness or enjoyment:Her eyes sparkled merrily.

informal without thinking about the result of what you are doing or about the problems it might cause:The factory has been merrily pumping chemical waste into theriver for the past ten years.

Merry – мЭри happy or showing enjoyment:

the merry sound of laughter She's a merry little soul.

convenient - конвИниент

adjectivesuitable for your purposes and needs and causing the least difficulty: Our local shop has very convenient opening hours. \ A bike's a very convenient way of getting around. \ [+ that] It's very convenient that you live near the office. \ [+ to infinitive] I find it convenient to be able to do my bankingonline. \ I shop here because it’s convenient.

adverb convenientlyOur house is conveniently located near the station.

near or easy to get to or use:a very convenient bus serviceOur new house is very convenient for (= near to) the kids' school. \ It's not really convenient for you to come this afternoon.

inconvenient - инконВиниент causing problems or difficulties:an inconvenient time/place \ It will be very inconvenient for me to have no car.


experience – икспИриенс

noun [U] (the process of getting) knowledge or skill from doing, seeing, or feeling things:Do you have any experience of working with kids? (= Have you ever worked with them?)\The best way to learn is by experience (= by doing things). \ I know from experience that Tony never keeps his promises. \ I don't think she has the experience for the job (= enough knowledge and skill for it).

something that happens to you that affects how you feel:

I had a pretty unpleasant experience at the dentist's. \ It was interesting hearing about his experiences as a policeman. \I did meet him once and it was an experience I shall never forget.

Verb to have something happen to you, or to do or feel something:The community has experienced rapid residential growth. \ She began to experience sharp pains in her elbow.

omniscient - омнИшент всезнающий

adjectivehaving or seeming to have unlimited knowledge:They give the impression that the magazine is omniscient.

Omniscience nounOne would have to be omniscient to know whether or not omniscience exists.

amusement – эмъЮзмент - развлечение

the feeling of being entertained or made to laugh:She looked at him with amusement. \ I play the piano just for my own amusement (= to entertain myself, not other people).

something that entertains you, or the state of being amused by something that entertains you:For the children’s amusement, Elizabeth helped them put on a play.

something that amuses you by making you smile orlaugh, or the state of being amused by something that makes you smile or laugh:We watched the clown with great amusement.


amuse verb

to entertain someone, especially by humorous speech oraction or by making them laugh or smile:I've brought an article from yesterday's paper that I thought might amuse you.[+ obj + to infinitive ]\ I think it amuses him to see people make fools of themselves. \ Apparently these stories are meant to amuse.

to keep someone happy, especially for a short time:We amused ourselves by watching the passers-by. \ Shall I put on a DVD to amuse the kids?

to make someone smile or laugh:His subtle humor amused me.Her ability to hack into computer systems did not amuse hersuperiors.

Amusing adjective One amusing story after another kept the audience laughing.

sycophantic - сикофАнтик

(of a person or of behaviour) praising people in authority in a way that is not sincere, usually in order to get some advantage from them:There was sycophantic laughter from the audience at every one of his terrible jokes.

Sycophancy – сикафанси

Sycophant -The prime minister is surrounded by sycophants.

Outage- Aутедж

[C] a period when a service, such as electricity, is not available:The radio news reported power outages affecting 50 homes.


whine - увАйн - ныть, нытьё

to make a high, complaining sound, or to complain continually:If you don’t stop whining, we won’t go at all!

to make a long, high, sad sound:Leon's dog was sitting by the door whining, so I thought I'dbetter take it for a walk.

Ensue – инсъУ

Verb to happen after something else, especially as a result of it:The police officer said that he had placed the man under arrest and that a scuffle had ensued.\ Chaos ensued when 60 charter schools run by one company were all suddenly closed.\ After his outburst, a long silence ensued. \ If his nation follows Greece into a debt crisis, financial disaster could ensue.

relief -релИф - облегчение, рельеф


[U] a feeling of happiness that something unpleasant has not happened or has ended:She breathed a sigh of relief when she finished her exams. \ After the exam, I felt an incredible sense of relief.

Relief also means the reduction or end of pain:Aspirin may give you some relief.


› [U] food, money, or services for people in need:disaster relief \ an international relief operation \ relief agencies/supplies


› [U] a method of raising shapes above a flat surface so that they appear to stand out slightly from it:Coins have pictures on them in relief.

a sculpture made from a flat surface in which the forms are raised above the surface:stone reliefs

Кормораздатчик мобильный электрифицированный: схема и процесс работы устройства...

Механическое удерживание земляных масс: Механическое удерживание земляных масс на склоне обеспечивают контрфорсными сооружениями различных конструкций...

Индивидуальные и групповые автопоилки: для животных. Схемы и конструкции...

Поперечные профили набережных и береговой полосы: На городских территориях берегоукрепление проектируют с учетом технических и экономических требований, но особое значение придают эстетическим...

© 2017-2020 - Не является автором материалов. Исключительное право сохранено за автором текста.
Если вы не хотите, чтобы данный материал был у нас на сайте, перейдите по ссылке: Нарушение авторских прав

0.153 с.