Adjectiverelating to the circumstances in which something happened, but not to the thing itself:The report said most of the data was circumstantial, so no conclusions could be drawn from it. \ The judge reminded the jury that circumstantial evidence is information that may be important but is not proof of guilt.
pine - пАин
[C or U] also pine tree an evergreen tree (= one that neverloses its leaves) that grows in cooler areas of the world:a plantation of pinesa pine forest
[U] the wood of pine trees, usually pale in colour:pine furniturePine is a softwood.
Verb also pine away to become increasingly thin and weak because of unhappiness, especially after the death of a loved person:Carter died in 1904 after an accident and Leno pined away and died six months later.
undergo - андегО
verbpresent tense undergoes, present participle undergoing, past tense underwent /ˌʌn·dərˈwent/ , past participle undergone /ˌʌn·dərˈɡɔn, -ˈɡɑn/
to experience something that is unpleasant or has a strong effect:He recently underwent heart bypass surgery. \ I had to undergo a medical examination when I started my pension scheme.
strain – стрЭин
[C/U] something that causes anxiety, worry, or difficulty:[U] Loss of funding has put a lot of strain on the day-care center.[C] The benefits of keeping our daughter at home make the strains of having only one income worthwhile.
› [U] physical pressure:The bookcase collapsed under the strain.
› [C] an injury caused by working the muscles too hard:Running puts a strain on your heart.
noun (DIFFERENT TYPE)
› [C] an animal or plant that is only slightly different from other animals or plants of the same type:A new strain of the virus has been found.
A strain is also a quality that gives something a particular character:There has long been a populist strain in American politics.
A strain is also a particular sound:Strains of piano music drifted across the room.
› [I/T] to separate solid pieces from a liquid by pouring it through a utensil with small holes at the bottom of it or through a cloth:[T] Strain the liquid and discard the vegetables.
verb (CAUSE WORRY)
› [T] to cause anxiety or problems:This relationship has been strained almost to the breaking point.These extra costs have strained our financial resources.
› [I] to create pressure or use effort:The dog strained at the leash, pulling his master along.[+ to infinitive] I had to strain to hear the audio.
verb (CAUSE INJURY)
› [T] to cause an injury by working the muscles too hard:I strained my back carrying those boxes.
Strainer a kitchen utensil with a lot of holes in it for separating liquid from solid:a tea strainer
Mere – мир
Adjectiveused to emphasize that something is not large or important:The plane crashed mere minutes after take-off. \ It cost a mere 20 dollars.
used to emphasize how strongly someone feels about something or how extreme a situation is:The mere thought of it (= just thinking about it) makes me feel sick. \ People became excited at the mere mention of his name. \ The mere idea/possibility/prospect of something. \ The city receives a mere 20% of the parking revenues.
merely – мИрли
adverb [not gradable] only; and nothing more:
I merely said that I was tired. \These columns have no function and are merely decorative.
used to emphasize that you mean exactly what you are saying and nothing more:I wasn't complaining, I merely said that I was tired.I didn't say that you had to go - I merely suggested that you might want to go.
angle - Энгл
noun [C] (MEASUREMENT)
› geometry the space measured in degrees between two lines or surfaces from the point where they meet:The angles of a square are 90 degrees.
› a position from which something is seen, or a way of seeing something:The photographer kept moving around to find the best angle for the picture. \ Look at this from another angle.
At an angle
not straight:The picture was hanging at an angle, so I straightened it.
angle for something to try to get or achieve something, esp. without saying what your goal is:The way he hangs around, he must be angling for a job.
bold – бОулд
adjective [-er/-est only] (BRAVE)
brave, or without fear:He is a qualified politician with bold ideas.
Bold can also mean not shy, and almost rude:She was friendly without being bold.
bold adjective [-er/-est only] (NOTICEABLE)
likely to attract your attention; showy:The costumes were in beautiful, bold colors.
B1 strong in colour or shape, and very noticeable to the eye:They painted the kitchen in bold colours.
Noun He is famous for the boldness of his business methods.
if I may be/make so bold (as to) a polite way of asking for or suggesting something when you do not want to offend someone:If I may be so bold, you still haven't mentioned why you're here.
Adverb He dealt boldly with the problem and hoped he was right.
daring – дЭрин
adjectivebrave and taking risks:a daring escape \ This is a daring new film (= one willing to risk criticism) by one of our most original modern directors.\She was wearing a fairly daring (= short) skirt that barely covered her bottom.
adverb Daringly -a daringly short skirt
noun the quality of being brave and willing to take risks:He showed great daring on the battlefield.
perilous - пЭрэлис
adjectiveextremely dangerous:The country roads are quite perilous.
Perilously – adverb She came perilouslyclose to getting herself killed in her attempt to break the world record.
heighten - хАйтен
verb to increase or make something increase, especially an emotion or effect:The strong police presence only heightened the tension among the crowd. \ [I] As the excitement heightened, the audience began stamping their feet. \[T] The high winds heightened concerns about forest fires.
Awe - А (Uk(о))
noun[U]a feeling of great respect sometimes mixed with fear or surprise:I've always held musicians in awe.As children we were rather in awe of our grandfather. \ You can't help but stand in awe of (= respect greatly and fearslightly) powerful people.\I was too much in awe of him to address him directly.
Verb to cause someone to feel awe:I was awed but not frightened by the huge gorilla. \ Her paintings have awed and amazed the public for half a century. \ The audience was awed into silence by her stunning performance.
Adjective awed We stood there in awed silence. \ "How does she manage to run so fast at her age?" he asked in awed tones.
awe-inspiring – a – инспАйрингadjective causing you to feel great respect or admiration:Niagara Falls really is an awe-inspiring sight. \ Her knowledge of computers is quite awe-inspiring..
transcend - трансEнд
to go beyond or rise above a limit, or be greater than something ordinary:The group makes music that transcends traditional pop categories.
to go further, rise above, or be more important or better than something, especially a limit:The best films are those which transcend national or cultural barriers.\ The underlying message of the film is that love transcends everything else.
Adjective greater, better, more important, or going past or above all others:transcendent power/beauty/love \ He describes seeing Pelé play football as one of the transcendent moments of his life.
surpass - сурпАс
to do or be better than:His time for the 100 metres surpassed the previous world record by one hundredth of a second. \ The book's success has surpassed everyone's expectations. \ The director has really surpassed himself (= done better than he has done before) with this new film.
to do or be better or more than something else:Our team’s achievements surpass those of teams in earlier years.
Adjective surpassing extremely great:a face of surpassing beauty
to give something, especially money, in order to provide or achieve something together with other people:Aren't you going to contribute towards Jack's leaving present? \ Come to the meeting if you feel you have something to contribute. \ Her family has contributed $50,000 to the fund.
C1 to write articles for a newspaper, magazine, or book:She contributes to several magazines
to help by providing money or support, esp. when other people or conditions are also helping:[I] Tourism contributes substantially to the local economy.
If you contribute something you wrote or created, you allow it to be published or shown with pieces by other people:[T] She soon began to contribute articles to newspapers and magazines.
contribute to sth to help to cause an event or situation:Smoking contributed to his early death.
money, support, or other help:[C] He made a substantial contribution to the building fund.
vitriolic - витриОлик
adjectiveintentionally unkind or causing hurt:He launched a vitriolic attack on the senator, accusing him ofshielding corrupt friends.
Vitriol violent hate and anger expressed through severe criticism:He is a writer who has often been criticized by the press but never before with such vitriol.
arouse – арАуз
to cause someone to have a particular feeling:He works hard to arouse his students’ curiosity(кюриОсати). \ It's a subject that has aroused a lot of interest. \Our suspicions(саспИшен) were first aroused when we heard a muffled scream.
a state of (sexual) arousal (= being sexually excited)
Aroused sexually excited
rouseverb to wake someone up or make someone more active or excited:He roused himself (from a pleasant daydream) and got back to work. \ The speaker attempted to rouse the crowd with a cry for action. \ She roused him from his sleep.
apprise – апрАйс
to tell or inform someone about something:The parents were apprised of their son’s injuries. \ The president has been apprised of the situation.
appraise - апрЭйс
to examine someone or something in order to judge their qualities, success, or needs:At the end of each teaching practice, trainee teachers are asked to appraise their own performance. \ In cooperation with other professionals, social workers will appraise the individual's needs. \ He coolly appraised the situation, deciding which person would be most likely to succeed.
Appraise also means to judge the worth of something:A professional appraised my jewelry.