C O N T E N T S
| The Present Indefinite Tense…………………………………………………….
| The Present Continuous Tense…………………………………………………..
| The Present Perfect Tense……………………………………………………….
| The Present Perfect Continuous Tense…………………………………………..
| Revision Exercises on Present Tenses…………………………………………...
| The Past Indefinite Tense………………………………………………………..
| The Past Continuous Tense………………………………………………………
| The Past Perfect Tense…………………………………………………………..
| The Past Perfect Continuous Tense……………………………………………...
| Comparing the Past Indefinite and the Present Perfect Tenses………………….
| The structure “Used to do”………………………………………………………
| The Future in the Past……………………………………………………………
| Revision Exercises on Past Tenses………………………………………………
| The Future Indefinite Tense……………………………………………………..
| The Future Continuous Tense……………………………………………………
| The Future Perfect Tense………………………………………………………..
| The Future Perfect Continuous Tense……………………………………………
| Revision Exercises on Future Tenses……………………………………………
| Revision Exercises on all the Tenses…………………………………………….
The Present Indefinite
We use the Present Simple for:
1. permanent states:
Pattern I. He works in an office.
2. general truths or laws of nature:
Pattern II. The sun rises in the east.
3. repeated actions or daily routines:
Pattern III. She always drinks a cup of coffee in the morning.
4. actions going on at the present moment with verbs which are not used in the present continuous:
Pattern IV. Listen! Do you hear this noise?
5. future actions connected with the time-table ( usually with verbs of motion: to go, to came, to leave, to start, to arrive, to set off):
Pattern V. The train leaves at 5 tomorrow.
Markers: every day, usually, never, always, from time to time
The Forms of the Present Indefinite Tense:
Note 1: In Present Simple: We add `-s` to verbs in third person, singular.
|| Positive form
|| Interrogative form
|| Negative form
|| I (you) ask.
He (she, it) asks.
|| Do I (you) ask?
Does he (she, it) ask?
|| I (you) do not ask
He (she, it) does not ask.
|| We (you, they) ask.
|| Do we (you, they) ask?
|| We (you, they) do not ask.
Exercise 1. Write these verbs in Present Simple, third person, singular. Comment on the rules of writing and reading.
Model: read – reads [z]; put-puts [s], wash-washes[z]
Leap, make, see, excuse, kiss, try, stay, power, feel, beg, laugh, think, live, say, change, dress, copy, employ, do, wear, cast, hate, cook, snow, go, jump, push, ride, skate, ring, carry, finish, stand, close, show, understand, drink, taste, resemble, exist, consist of, include, play, listen, want, brush, have, help, park, start, write, get, visit, work.
Note 1: The verb ‘to be’ has a special formation of the Present Indefinite tense forms:
|| Singular forms
|| Plural forms
| 1 person
I am a student.
We are students.
You are pupils.
They are doctors.
| 2 person
You are a pupil.
| 3 person
He (she, it) is a doctor.
Exercise 2. Define the meaning of the Present Simple in these sentences.
1. I live in Nizhniy Novgorod.
2. Every summer my family goes to the seaside.
3. He doesn’t play tennis well.
4. Tom seems sad today. I think he’s got bad news.
5. The play begins at 5 tomorrow.
6. Magnet attracts iron.
7. He travels a lot.
8. I usually go shopping on Sunday.
9. I remember that day.
10. The plane arrives in 5 minutes.
A. Answer the following questions. Then ask your partner.
1. What time do you usually have breakfast?
2. How often do you go shopping?
3. Do you have a washing mashing?
4. What time do you usually arrive home from the University?
5. How often do you read newspapers?
6. Do you listen to music every day?
7. Are you always on time for meetings?
8. Can you get up easily in the morning?
9. Do you borrow money from time to time?
10. Do you rarely drop litter?
B. Say what does your partner usually do?
A. Change the plural form of the subjects in these sentences into the singular.
1. The children have too many toys.
2. Those people always ignore traffic lights.
3. The boys often forget their good manners.
4. These women tell little white lies from time to time.
5. Generally we like to go to the theatre.
B. Change the singular form of the subjects in these sentences into the plural.
1. He lives in London.
2. She likes cooking.
3. She never pays the bills.
4. He is always late for our meetings.
5. He earns a lot.
Exercise 5. Ask all types of questions.
1. The students study American English.
2. Children usually show their toys to everybody.
3. Mrs. Brown spends too much money on her clothes.
4. They live in Russia.
5. Tom likes watching football matches.
6. She comes from France tomorrow.
7. The sisters change their jobs too often.
8. I can play the piano.
9. My mother always waters the flowers.
10. Every day he watches the news on TV.
Exercise 6. Make up sentences using the substitution table. Say what they do.
|| to have breakfast
|| in the evening
| Jane and Nick
|| to comb one’s hair
|| to read books
|| at 7 in the morning
|| to take a bath
|| to go skiing
|| about twice a week
| My family
|| to do homework
|| every morning
|| to go to bed
|| every winter
|| to prefer to drink tea
|| at 10 p.m.
|| to spend weekends in the country
|| to play football
Exercise 7. Make up a dialogue. Tell each other about your daily routine.
Exercise 8. Organize these mixed up words into correct sentences.
1. Up / occasionally / get / early / I.
2. Mary / in / never / the / coffee / evening / drinks.
3. Always / must / so / you / your / play / loud / music?
4. About / help / rarely / the / their / children / mother / house.
5. A / always / day / teeth / you / brush / must / twice / your.
6. Work / usually / 8 / they / start / do / at?
7. America / are / from / they?
8. Your / does / what / like / friend / your / look?
9. The / to / Ann / belong / carpets.
10. Well / the / basketball / boys / play / very.
Exercise 9. Translate into English.
1. Вечерами я люблю смотреть телевизор, но иногда я читаю интересные книги.
2. Вы говорите по-русски? – Нет, но я говорю по-английски. Я из Лондона, я – англичанин.
3. Он – врач. Он работает в больнице.
4. Поезд прибывает в 5 утра.
5. Каждое лето я еду к морю.
6. В котором часу вы встаете? Вы никогда не приходите на работу вовремя.
7. Мой старший брат – студент. Как правило, он всегда занят. Он часто читает в библиотеке, а на дискотеки ходит очень редко. Он лучший студент в группе. Ему нравится изучать английский язык и общаться с детьми. Он хочет быть учителем английского языка.
8. Моя сестра – ученица. Ей 10 лет. Она ходит в музыкальную школу. Мне кажется, что ей очень нравится играть на пианино.
9. У меня есть большая и дружная семья. Мы часто собираемся вместе.
Exercise 10. Write about yourself and your family. What do you and your relatives usually /seldom do.
The following spelling rules should be observed in the formation of Participle I:
1. The mute –e is dropped before adding the suffix –ing: to take – taking.
2. The final consonant is doubled (before the suffix –ing) if it is preceded by a vowel expressing a short stressed sound: to get – getting.
3. The final –l is doubled if it is preceded by a vowel expressing a short sound: to travel – travelling.
4. In the verbs to die, to lie and to tie the letters ie are replaced by y before the suffix –ing: to die- dying; to lie- lying; to tie- tying.
5. The final -y is not changed before adding the suffix –ing no matter whether it is preceded by a consonant or a vowel: to say – saying; to dry – drying.
6. The letter r is doubled if the final syllable is stressed: prefer – preferring; but offer – offering.
The Forms of the Present Continuous Tense:
writing a letter.
playing the piano.
reading a newspaper. playing football.
|| am not
writing a letter.
playing the piano.
reading a newspaper. playing football.
|| is not
|| are not
|| his wife
working in the garden?
standing at the window?
working in the room?
|| the students
§ You look so serious. What are you thinking about? (=What is going on your mind?)
§ I am thinking of giving up my job. (= I am considering)
When have means ‘possess’ etc., do not use the continuous:
o We’re enjoying our holiday. We have a nice room in the hotel. (not ‘we’re having’)
§ We’re enjoying our holiday. We’re having a great time.
We normally use the present simple (not continuous) with these verbs:
See hear smell taste
o Do you see that man over there? (not ‘are you seeing’)
o This room smells. Let’s open the window.
We often use can + see/hear/smell/taste:
Listen! Can you hear something?
But you can use the continuous with see (I’m seeing) when the meaning is ‘having a meeting with’ (especially in the future): I’m seeingthe manager tomorrow morning.
He is selfish and He is being selfish
The present continuous of be is I am being / he is being / you are being etc.
I’m being = ‘I’m behaving / I’m acting’. Compare:
o I can’t understand why he’s being so selfish. He isn’t usually like that.
(being selfish = behaving selfishly at the moment)
o He never thinks about other people. He is very selfish. (not ‘he is being’)
(he is selfish generally, not only at the moment)
We use am/is/are being to say how somebody is behaving. It is not usually possible in other sentences:
o It’s hot today. (not ‘it’s being hot’)
o Sarah is very tired. (not ‘is being tired’)
Look and feel
You can use the present simple or continuous when you can say how somebody looks or feels now:
o You look well today. or You’re looking well today.
o How do you feel now? or How are you feeling now?
§ I usually feel tired in the morning. (not ‘I’m usually feeling’)
Exercise 1.Give Participle I of the following verbs:
To give, to study, to make, to ask, to pack, to stand, to get, to cancel, to look, to fly, to be, to see, to go, to prove, to come, to cut, to catch, to build, to bring, to bind, to begin, to know, to have, to put, to grind, to forbid, to fall, to eat, to dig, to leave, to ride, to lose, to throw, to wake, to spit, to spoil, to tear, to split, to steal.
Exercise 2.Make up interrogative and negative variants of the sentences:
Model: He is reading a book.
Is he reading a book?
He isn’t reading a book.
1. She is typing a letter.
2. They are talking about the international situation.
3. The children are sitting under the tree.
4. She is waiting for me.
5. I am listening to the music over the radio now.
6. At this moment he is catching a bird.
7. She is watering flowers now.
8. Now she is cooking dinner for her children.
9. Miss Brown is playing with her son in the garden.
10. At the moment the students are studying new words.
Exercise 3.Translate into English.
Сейчас мы со старшей сестрой помогаем маме по дому. Мама готовит наше любимое блюдо. Я подметаю пол, а моя сестра стирает пыль с мебели. Наша бабушка смотрит телевизор, а младший брат старается смастерить игрушку из бумаги. Наш папа сейчас работает. Он строит новый дом. Наш дядя помогает ему в этом. Моя подруга сейчас читает книги в библиотеке. Она готовится к экзаменам. Она собирается поступать в институт.
Exercise 4.Write what all your friends are doing now.
Exercise 5.Open the brackets and put the verbs into the correct form.
- Don’t make any noise, he (to sleep).
- We (to buy) a new radio set soon.
- You (not to do) it properly.
- My parents (to build) a new house in the country.
- She (to come) to see us tonight.
- You (not to come) with us.
- Look! It (to rain) outside.
- What (to do) she on Friday evening at 7 p.m.?
Exercise 6.Write what they are doing now.
Model: They usually stay at home at weekends. They are staying at home tonight.
- Every weekend he writes a letter to his parents.
- Peter works on a farm.
- He asks her for her company.
- They usually help me about the house.
- He usually peppers everything he eats.
- She passes her exams successfully.
- Every morning my mother drinks a cup of coffee.
- They spend their holiday in the countryside.
- Nick usually has a glass of water with his dinner.
- Tom plays tennis every day.
Exercise 7.Use Present Simple or Present Continuous.
- My sister and I (to like) listening to music.
- That villa (to belong) to a rich businessman.
- Mrs. Grades (to play) puzzle with my brother now.
- Where Bob (to be)? – He (to work) in the garden.
- She always (to make) delicious coffee.
- I (to live) in a small town in the north of England.
- Sometimes it (to occur) to Ann that she may be wrong.
To be going to do something
I’m going to dosomething = I have already decided to do something, I intend to do it.
A: There’s a film on television tonight. Are you going to watch it?
B: No, I’m tired. I’m going to have an early night.
We normally use I’m doing (present continuous), when we say what we have arranged to do (for example: arranged to meet somebody, arranged to go somewhere)
Example: I’m leaving tomorrow. I’ve got my plane ticket in my pocket.
We use I’m going to do, when we’ve decided to do it (but perhaps not arranged to do it).
Example: I’ve decided not to rent the flat anymore. I’m going to look for a new apartment.
Exercise 1.Discuss with your partner: what you are going to do tonight; what your mother is going to do tomorrow; what your friend is going to do at weekends; what Mary and John are going to do on Sunday.
Exercise 2.The people in the sentences below are all thinking about their future summer vacation. Complete the sentences about what they plan to do. Use the verbs in the box.
travel teach read stay walk lie play do cycle swim
Model: I’m going to stay with my niece all day.
1. We ... gardening.
2. I ...lots of books.
3. He ...in the sun.
4. We ...round the world.
5. I ... to Brighton on my new bike.
6. I ... lots of sport.
7. We ... English in a summer school.
8. I ... in the sea every day.
The Present Perfect Tense
Formation: The Present Perfect is formed with the auxiliary verb “to have” in the present simple (have, has) and the Past Participle form of the notional verb (asked, been).
Contracted forms: I’ve, we’ve, they’ve, you’ve, he’s, she’s, haven’t, hasn’t.
We use the Present Perfect to denote:
1. An action which began and ended in the past, but is connected with the present moment indirectly, by its result.
Pattern I. She has cleaned her room. Now it’s tidy.
2. An action which began in the past, is still going on at the present moment and will go on for some time.
Pattern II. I have lived in Nizhniy Novgorod since my childhood.
Markers: adverbials: already, yet, just, lately, of late, recently, never, so far; prepositional phrases: since 5 o’clock, since childhood, since 2000, for ages, for 15 years, since there, ever since and so on.
Note 1. There are some fixed grammatical structures in which we use other tense forms, though the meaning seems to be that of the Present Perfect.
Example: What did you say? I didn’t hear your question. I didn’t understand you /I didn’t get you.
Note 2. In when – and where - questions we usually use the Past Simple.
- Have you ever been to London?
- Yes. I have.
- When were you there?
- I was there last month.
Note 3. The usage of still, yet, already.
“Still” is used to say that smth is continuing and has not stopped yet. “Still” is used in mid – position.
Example: It is still snowing – The Present Continuous.
“Yet” is used to talk about smth that is expected. “Yet” is used at the end of questions and negative sentences.
Example: Has he done all his work? – No, not yet.
“Already” is used in affirmative sentences in mix-position to say that smth has happened earlier than expected.
Example: He has already done all his work.
Pattern III.He has already washed the dishes.
Exercise 1. Say what he / she/ you /they has/ have already done.
Model: She hasn’t brought the book for me yet.
Exercise 2. Say what you / she/ he/ they haven’t/ hasn’t done yet.
Model: I have never spoken to our president.
Exercise 3. Say what you / your friend have/ has never done.
Model: Ann has always wanted to have a car.
Exercise 4. Say what you /they/ the man have/ has always wanted to do.
You may use the following.
- speak to a famous person; - see a pop-star with your own eyes;
- fall in love; - be arrested by police;
- have an unpleasant experience; - settle everything;
- hurt one’s ankle; - teach a little child;
- behave like a courageous man; - cook a very tasty dinner.
Model: I haven’t visited my grandparents since I bought a computer.
The Forms of the Present Perfect Tense:
|| Sub have V3.
(He / She / it has V3)
|| Helen has already washed the dishes.
|| Sub have not (haven’t) V3.
(He / She/ It has not (hasn’t) V3)
|| Helen has not washed the dishes yet.
|| Have Sub V3?
(Has He / She / it V3 ?)
|| Has Helen washed the dishes?
Yes, she has.
No, she has not (hasn’t).
Exercise 5. Complete these sentences with since and for.
1. I haven’t seen Ann …
2. I haven’t cleaned my flat …
3. It has been very hot …
4. I have been a student …
5. Tom hasn’t watched TV …
6. Ann and Jack haven’t bought new clothes …
7. The students haven’t gone to the disco …
8. Mary hasn’t got any debs …
9. Nick hasn’t traveled abroad …
10. Mary hasn’t looked so upset …
Exercise 6. Answer the questions in the negative and say if the action is on the process or is going to happen in the nearest future.
- Have you learnt all the new words?
- No, not yet. I’m still learning them. I’m going to learn them soon.
1. Have you put the dishes on the table?
2. Have you read this interesting story?
3. Has she made a new dress for her birthday party?
4. Have you recorded your favorite film on your video recorder?
5. Has he translated this article from English into Russian?
6. Has she written a letter to her friend?
7. Have you found the book?
8. Has he told her an interesting story?
9. Have they asked the star a lot of questions?
10. Have you read any stories by Jack London?
Exercise 7. Ask your partner all types of questions to the given sentences:
1. He hasn’t come back home.
2. I have seen him this week.
3. I have been to London.
4. He has already finished his work.
5. Ann has already woken up.
6. Tom has made this mistake before.
7. They’ve never seen this film.
8. You have bought many books this month.
9. I have already had my dinner.
10. Irene has already sung the song.
Exercise 8. Put the verbs in the Present Perfect or in the Present Continuous.
1. What’s the matter? Why he (to stop)?
2. What you (to study) now?
3. They just (to give) me that interesting book.
4. What you (to plant) now?
5. How long you (to be) sick?
6. You (to see) any good movies recently?
7. The rain (to stop) and the sun (to shine) in the sky again.
8. The wind (to change) in the morning and the weather (to improve) now.
9. Todd knows so much because he (to travel) a lot.
Exercise 9. Translate into English.
1. Мы уже навестили своих бабушек.
2. Концерт еще не начался.
3. Я только что закончила работу.
4. Он уже сделал свои уроки.
5. Энн еще не читала этой книги.
6. Я только что была у зубного врача и сейчас я чувствую себя намного лучше.
7. – Вы уже переехали на новую квартиру?
- Еще нет.
8. За последние полгода я не видел своего брата.
9. С тех пор как он переехал в Лондон, у него не стало свободного времени, чтобы сходить в кино.
10. - Вы уже окончили институт?
- Еще нет.
Exercise 10. Express surprise or disbelief and proceed the conversation as you are able to.
-I have been to London recently.
- Have you?
- Yes. I have and you? Have you ever been to London?
- No, I haven’t been there.
1. We have just read the book.
2. I haven’t had dinner yet.
3. Mr. Brown has found a new clerk.
4. We have already discussed the problem.
5. She has already cooked dinner.
6. He has just entered the University.
A) Use the prompts to write sentences in the Present Perfect Continuous with “since” or “for”.
Model: Ann is studying English. She started studying it in 1998.
Ann has been studying English since 1998.
1. It is snowing. It started snowing at five o’clock.
2. They are traveling. They started traveling in June.
3. My mother is cooking dinner. She started cooking at twelve o’clock.
4. He is reading “The Man of Property”. He started reading the book a month ago.
5. Mrs. Smith is writing a book. She started it some time ago.
6. Tom is waiting for his taxi. He called the taxi service 10 minutes ago.
7. I’m doing my home task. I started it at 4 o’clock.
B) Ask many questions to your sentences as possible.
Exercise 4. Write “How long?” questions and answer them with “for” or “since”, using the prompts.
Model: Q: Ann / sit/ in the armchair.
A: An hour.
Q: How long has Ann been sitting in the armchair?
A: She has been sitting in the armchair for an hour.
1. Q: Todd / live/ in London A: about 10 years.
2. Q: Ann /drive/ a car A: about 2 months
3. Q: Nick / ride/ bicycle A: early morning
4. Q: They / travel/ by car A: about a week.
5. Q: I / lie/ in the sun A: four o’clock
6. Q: it rain A: 10 o’clock
7. Q: We / watch/ TV A: Six o’clock.
Exercise 5. Complete the following sentences, using the Present Perfect Continuous:
1. I have been driving …
2. She has been studying …
3. They have been looking after …
4. He has been waiting …
5. Have they been traveling …?
6. Has she been pondering over …?
7. Has Tom been looking for …?
Exercise 6.Read the situations and write two sentences using the words in brackets.
1. Тоm started reading а book two hours ago. Не is still reading it and now he is on page 53. (read / for two hours). (read / 53 pages so far).
2. Linda is from Australia. She is travelling round Europe at the moment. She began her tour three months ago. (travel for three months); She (visit / six countries so far).
3. Jimmy is а tennis player. Не began playing tennis when he was ten years оld. This year he is national champion again – for the fourth time. (to win the national championship four times); (to plау tennis since he was ten).
4. When they left college, Mary and Sue started making films together. They still make films. (to make ten films since they left college); They (to make films since they left college).
Exercise 7. For each situation, ask а question using the words in brackets.
1. You have а friend who is learning Arabic. You ask: (how long / learn / Arabic?)
2. You have just arrived to meet а friend. She is waiting for you. You ask: (how long/ to wait?)
3. You see somebody fishing by the river. You ask: (how many fish/to catch?)
4. Some friends of yours are having а party next week. You ask: (how many people / invite?)
5. А friend of yours is а teacher. You ask :( how long / teach?)
Exercise 8. Put the verb into the more suitable form: present perfect simple (I have done etc.) or continuous (I have been doing etc.).
1. Where have yоu been? (you/play) tennis?
2. Look! Somebody (break) that window.
3. You look tired. (you /work) hard?
4. (you /ever /work) in а factory? 'No, never.'
5. “Jane is away on holiday”. “Oh, is she? Where (she/go)?”
6. Mу brother is an actor. Не (appear) in several films.
7. “Sorry I’m late.” “That's all right. I (not /wait) long.”
Exercise 9.Make up a dialogue. Ask and tell each other about what have you been doing and since our lesson started/ since you finished school/ since you decided to enter the university.
The Past Indefinite Tense
Pattern:Yesterday Jane went to the cinema.
This tense is used to denote actions or facts, taking place in the past.
Markers: yesterday, last week, a month (year, week, two days) ago, on Sunday, in 1995, the other day.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was an Austrian musician and composer. He lived from 1756 to 1791. He started composing at the age of five and wrote more than 600 pieces of music.
was, lived, started, wrote – are all Past Indefinite (Simple)
The forms of the Past Indefinite Tense:
|| Sub V2
|| Helen went to school yesterday.
|| Sub did not V1
|| Helen did not go to school yesterday.
|| Did Sub V1 ?
|| Did Helen go to school yesterday?
Yes, she did.
No, she did not. (No, she didn’t)
The form of the Past Indefinite Tense is made up with the help of the second form of the verb.
| The Past Simple Tense is formed
| Regular verbs
|| Irregular verbs
patted, learned, started, lived, expected, noticed, liked, studied, agreed, created.
|| The forms of such verbs must be learnt by heart: to begin (began), to forgive (forgave), to fall (fell), to catch (caught), to hold (held), to shoot (shot), to speak (spoke), to meet (met), to think (thought)
Spelling Rules of Past Form of Regular Verbs:
1. PAT + ED = PATTED
(we double the letter “t” to preserve the closed syllable, otherwise the word would have a different variant of pronunciation from that of the infinitive )
BUT: in the word OPEN, there is no use to change anything as the first syllable is stressed and the addition of –ed doesn’t influence anything.
OPEN + ED = OPENED
2. STUDY + ED = STUDIED
In such verbs as to study, where Yis the last letter, the letter Y is replaced by I
3. CLOSE + ED = CLOSED
If there is “E” at the end of a verb, it shouldn’t be preserved after the addition of - ed
Exercise 1.Consult the dictionary and give 4 forms of the following verbs:
To stand, to sit, to depart, to get, to write, to give, to work, to walk, to cry, to leave, to expect, to manage, to have, to try, to understand, to close, to draw, to choose, to succeed, to wonder, to mean, to sell, to swim, to buy, to greet, to fill, to feel, to progress.
Exercise 2.Make up interrogative and negative variants of the sentences:
Model: I watched the film two years ago.
Did I watch the film two years ago?
No, I didn’t. I didn’t watch the film two years ago.
1. She worked at the library last year.
2. He spent his winter vacation in Moscow.
3. She brought me three magazines yesterday.
4. My sister studied French at school.
5. My pupils asked me a lot of questions at the last lesson.
6. My mother bought a new trouser-suit last week.
7. My brother left for Karelia yesterday.
8. He got up at ten o’clock yesterday.
9. My uncle taught me to swim in my childhood.
Exercise 3.Read what 11-year-old Helen is saying about her typical working day.
a) Write out all the verbs and put down 4 forms of each of the verbs.
I usually get up at seven o’clock and have a substantial breakfast. After that, I go to my bed-room and make my bed. I study in the first shift and that is why I have quite enough time before I go to school. I always try to do my best to help my mother about the house. So I clean my room, sweep the floor, dust the furniture, water the flowers, collect the dirty linen and take it to the laundry, which is situated just round the corner. I am a hardworking and brisk person, and I can do everything in no time, that is why I even have some time to read a book before I start for school. Usually I have four classes a day, and when I return home, I do not feel tired, as I love to study. After a short rest, I call my best friend Stacy and we go for a walk together.
b) Yesterday was a typical day for Helen. Write what she did and didn’t do yesterday.
Model: Yesterday Helen got up at seven o’clock and had a substantial breakfast…
Exercise 4.Read Jason’s story about his going shopping with his girlfriend.
a) Open the brackets and put the verbs into the correct form:
Model: Last Saturday my girlfriend and I spent much time in the shopping center.
Last Saturday my girlfriend and I (to spend) much time in the shopping center. Jessica (to want) to renew her wardrobe according to the latest fashion, and we (to be going) to spend the whole day in the supermarket. First we (to make up) our minds to go to a shoe department. My girl friend (to be afraid) to buy footwear of the wrong size. She (to try on) many pairs of shoes. All of them (to suit) her perfectly well, at last she (to decide) on high-heeled stiletto shoes. I (to get) tired in the end. Then Jessica (to understand) that she (to need) to find a new handbag to match her new shoes. She (to buy) it only 30 minutes later as the choice (to surprise) her immensely. No wonder Jessica (to be puzzled) what to take. It (to be) late evening when we (to leave) the store.
b) Jason’s girl-friend, Jessica, adores to contradict her friend, that’s why her version of their going is an opposite one. Make up her version.
Remember that she is eager to deny everything Jason says:
Model: Last Saturday my boyfriend and I didn’t spend a lot of time in the shopping center.
Exercise 5.Read the story about the Browns’ housecleaning, using the Past Indefinite tense.
a) Open the brackets:
Ann and her mother (to get up) early in the morning on Saturday. They (to change) bedclothes and (to make) the beds. After that they (to open) the windows and (to let in) some fresh air and (to get down) to tidying the rooms. They (to dust) and (to polish) the furniture, (to wash) the floor, (to clean) the carpet, (to beat out) the door mat.
As for the father and the son, they (not to do) much. Ann’s brother (to put) all his toys into a special box. Ann’s father (to fix) electrical appliances and (to hang) a marvelous picture on the wall.
b) Make up all types of questions to the text:
The Past Continuous Tense
Pattern: I was writing a composition at 7 o’clock.
a) The Past Continuous Tense is used to denote an action, taking place at a concrete moment in the past, when we want to say that somebody was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time and had not finished.
Markers: at 8 o’clock, at the same time
Example: Two days ago at the same time I was reading for my exam, but now I’m free as a bird, as I’ve passed all the exams successfully.
b) This tense is used to show the action, lasting for some period of time in the past
Markers: from 6 till 7 o’clock, all day long last Monday, the whole evening yesterday.
Example: Florence was speaking over phone the whole evening yesterday.
a) The tense is used to denote actions, happening in the past simultaneously.
Example: While I was doing my homework, my mother was cooking supper.
b) The Past Continuous and the Past Simple are often used together to say that something happened in the middle of some other action.
Example: Tomas burnt his hand when he was cooking dinner.
Past Perfect Tense
Pattern: I had been to London before, so I know the city quite well.
a) The Past Continuous Tense is used to denote an action, that happened before some concrete moment in the past
Markers: by 5 o’clock, before (the meeting, the dinner party…), by the end of the year (month, week), by that time, in reported speech: never, ever.
Example: I had left for Kiev by the first of June.
b) This tense is used to show the action, which completed before another action in the past:
Markers: already, by the time, by the moment.
Example: I had already cooked the dinner by the time my mother came.
Past Perfect Continuous
Pattern: When I looked out through the window, I saw that the ground was still wet, as it had been raining hard the whole night.
a) The Past Perfect Continuous Tense is used to denote an action, that had been happeningfor a certain period of time before something else happened.
Markers: for 5 hours (some time, years…), for a long time …
Example: I had been waiting for a bus for twenty minutes before the bus cameat last.
b) Using the structure we want to underline that the action took some time and it may have been unfinished, by the time another action started.
Example: He had been painting the walls for 3 hours by the time Helen came to help him. After a short rest, they decided to continue their work.
Read the statements and explain the situation, using the prompts, given in the brackets.
Model: Ted’s hands were aching (to dig the soil/ since early morning). – Ted’s hands were aching, as he had been digging the ground since early morning.
1. You were hardly breathing. (to run very fast/ a ling time)
2. His eyes were red and he felt sleepy (to work on the computer/ eight hours/already).
3. The children were rather tired and excited (to play football/ all day long)
4. There was nobody in the room, but it was full of smoke (to discuss acute problems/ to smoke/ 3 hours)
5. His clothes and face were dirty (to clear the old attic/ the whole morning)
6. Stephanie could answer any question, concerning the Russian history (to read the material/ during the summer holidays)
7. When I got home, mike was sitting in front of the TV set. He had just turned it off. (he/ to watch/ a science-fiction/ 3 hours)
Exercise 3.Disagree with the explanations, given to the following statements and give your own versions.
Model: When Vanessa returned home, she was trembling with cold, as she had been waiting for her boy-friend for 40 minutes. – When Vanessa returned home she was trembling with cold. In fact, she hadn’t been waiting for her boy-friend for 40 minutes, but she had been walking from the bus station to the house on foot in such frosty weather.
1. The friends returned from the tennis-court too quickly as they had been playing for an hour when Jack got a very important call from his work and they had to go home.
2. Fill decided to drop into a café. He had been working for 5 hours and felt as hungry as a hunter.
3. Helen was late for the date at the restaurant. She had been sitting in the lift, stuck between the floors in her house.
4. Mr. Osmond was known as the most experienced teacher in our school, as he had been teaching his subject for 35 years.
5. Norman’s clothes were all covered with paint. He had been painting the ceiling all day long.
6. Little bobby was very tired, having returned from the park.
7. Cecil understood that she needed some rest as she couldn’t memorize anything she was reading at the moment. She had been reading it for 3 hours already.
Exercise 4.Ask as many questions to the sentences as it is possible:
1. Jennifer had been going shopping for 4 hours before she found an evening gown to her liking.
2. Andy had been dusting the furniture for some time until he got down to mopping the floor.
3. In the morning Hanky could hardly open the door, because it had been snowing the whole night.
4. Jake and Lucy had been dating for 2 months before they got married.
5. Steven had been cooking a festive dinner for his housewarming party all day before the quests came.
6. The students had been making a report on history the whole day until the library closed.
7. Eddy had been looking for the material for his course work for a long time before he found it at last.
Exercise 5.Use the verbs given in brackets in the Past Indefinite, the Past Perfect, the Past Perfect Continuous.
1. He (to work) there some time when the dreadful accident (to happen).
2. He told us they (to love) in his district since they had left Paris.
3. The poor woman complained she (not to meet) her elder son for a long time. She (to live) in the huge castle alone for some years.
4. The waiter assured me that the personnel (to look for) my lost watch everywhere.
5. They (to walk) in the garden or an hour, when the storm broke out.
6. When we (to return) home, we (to find), that somebody (to break) into the garage and (to steal) the car.
7. By the time mother (to come) the twins already (to sleep) for two hours.
8. When he (to come) back to England from India, where he (to spend) 4 years, he (to learn), that his old mother (to die) and his sister (to leave) England and (to go) to America.
9. When they (to open) the safe, they (to find) that somebody already (to take) all the important documents.
Complete the sentences with the structure “used to” and use the prompts, given in the brackets.
Model: Helen gave up drinking alcohol. (Wine, whisky) – Helen gave up drinking alcohol. Though she used to drink much wine and whisky a day some years ago.
1. We became vegetarians, and it was rather difficult for us as … (sausages, rissoles, and beefsteak).
2. The Ramonds live in a big apartment in the centre of the city now. It was no easy matter for them to settle down there, because … (village, quiet life)
3. I do not like sweets now, in spite of the fact … (chocolate bars/ childhood)
4. Jake let me seriously down, that’s why we decided to split, but (to rely on/ to trust)
5. Getting ready for our masked ball, we went to our granny’s attic to look for original costumes. It was the best way to surprise everybody as the granny … (to create.../ to dream of a career of a designer).
6. I do not like to go to the Puppet theatre with my children, though when I was a child… (to frequent)
7. I bought a car and now I adore driving it. It is not a surprise for my friends, as they know, that being a child… (a bicycle).
Exercise 2.Alexander has changed his style of life after entering the university greatly. Describe Alexander’s style of life before and after his entrance examinations, using the structure “used to” and “didn’t use to”:
Model: He used to live with his parents and he did not use to live at a hostel
| Before he entered the university
|| After he entered the university
| 1. he lived with his parents
2. he went to bed early
3. he woke up rather late
4. he didn’t cook himself
5. he spent little time on his home task
6. he didn’t wash his dirty clothes
7. he went to the library very seldom.
|| 1. he lives at a hostel
2. he sits up late very often
3. he gets up early
4. he learns to cook
5. he spends all his time on reading
6. he does the washing himself
7. he spends many hours making notes.
Exercise 3.Tell, how your life has changed since the moment you entered the University, using the structure “used to”.
The Future in the Past
The tense is used to denote an action, taking place later than some other past action.
Example: Nick was sure that Frank would come to the meeting in time and they would spend good time together.
Thus, would/wouldn’t is the past of will/won’t
| Tom: I’ll phone you on Sunday.
|| Tom said he would phone me on Sunday.
| Ann: I promise I won’t be late
|| Ann promised that she would not be late.
| Liz: I will get wet through because of the rain
|| Liz was angry because she would get wet through because of the rain.
Use the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, the Past Perfect, the Present Perfect instead of the infinitives in brackets:
- He (to come) home late yesterday.
- She is very glad: she (to finish) her composition at last
- He (to translate) the whole text by eleven o’clock.
- I (to be) in Rome
- Last year we (to work) very much.
- When I (to have) breakfast, I went to school.
- I (not to see) you for ages! I am very glad to see you.
- When you (to see) the “Swan Lake”?
- My sister already (to graduate) from the institute.
- He repaired the toy which his brother (to break) the day before.
- I (to see) an interesting TV program this week.
- You ever (to be) to Trafalgar Square?
- They (to cook) the whole day yesterday.
- I just (to see) Jack.
- She (to wash) the dishes from five till six.
- Look! She (to draw) a very nice picture.
- At that time yesterday I (to talk) to my friend.
- The TV program (to begin) before I (to come) home.
- I (not to eat) ice cream since summer.
- I understood that she (not to read) my letter.
- She (to do) the rooms when I (to come) home.
- It’s all right: she (to find) the way out of the situation.
Exercise 2.Use the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, the Past Perfect, the Present Perfect instead of the infinitives in brackets:
- Last summer we (to live) in the country and (to go) to the river every day.
- My sister (to spend) a lot of money yesterday.
- She is so upset: she (to lose) the key to the front door.
- By the first of September all the children (to return) from the country.
- Columbus (to discover) America 500 years ago.
- Columbus (not to know) that he (to discover) America.
- I already (to read) five English books.
- He (to discuss) the problem with a lot of people before he (to take) a decision.
- Mother (to bake) a delicious cake! Sit down at the table and let’s eat it!
- She (to read) an English book the whole evening yesterday.
- I never (to be) to Greece.
- They (to tell) me yesterday that you (to get) an excellent mark.
- Our grandmother (to cook) dinner from 12 till 3 o’clock yesterday.
- Look! What beautiful flowers she (to buy)!
- They (to travel) along the coast of Africa last year.
- We (not to see) each other for ages.
- They (to eat) all the apples which I (to bring).
- When the children (to have dinner), they (to go) for a walk.
- You ever (to be) to the Niagara Falls?
- At this time yesterday they (to sit) on the sofa and (to listen) to their grandmother who (to tell) them fairy tales.
- My friend just (to ring) me up from London.
- I (to stand) at the tram stop when it (to begin) raining.
- We (not to skate) since last winter.
Exercise 3. Use the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, the Past Perfect, the Past Perfect Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets:
- Antonia (to stand) smiling in the doorway. She (to know) that they just (to talk) of her.
- They (not to go) far when the girl suddenly (to cry): “Why, we are in the garden!” Without knowing how, they (to enter) a large garden.
3. Early that morning, when we just (to leave) the house we (to meet) the man, that we (to look) for since Monday.
4. But still he (to sit) there motionless. He (to be) tired, he (to be) so very tired. It (to seem) to him that he (to be) tired for a very long time.
5. I (to find) that I (to be) too late to catch the London train. Hailing the first taxy that (to pass), I (to reach) the station at ten minutes to three, only two minutes later the train (to leave) it.
6. Sir George, who (to talk) in a loud voice, (to turn) round sharply.
7. Mrs. Meadows (to tell) me that he (to talk) about all the things that (to happen) to him in his long life.
8. It (to be) four o’clock when she (to hear) the sound she (to wait) for over an hour: the door at the bottom of the stairs (to creak).
9. It (to be) all so sudden that for a moment no one (to know) what (to happen).
10. She (to say) to herself all the way up from Oxford that she must have somebody to talk it over.
11. When I (to come) to see him the next day I (to learn) that he (to die) in his sleep.
12. Tony (not to know) that the man they (to talk) about (to be) Michael’s friend.
13. The moon (to rise) now and the lake (to be) fully visible.
The Future Indefinite Tense
a)I (you) shall (will) go to the University tomorrow.
We use the Future Simple Tense to denote actions of facts in the future.
Markers: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next year, in a week (month, year)
b) I shall (will) go there if (when) you come.
Mind! The Future Simple Tense is not used in adverbial clauses of time and condition.
The clauses usually begin with the following conjunctions:
a) The clauses of condition begin with:
if, in case, on condition that
b) The clauses of time begin with:
when, till, until, as soon as, after, while, unless
The Forms of the Future Indefinite Tense:
|| Sub will V1.
(I/We shall V1)
|| Helen will go to school next year.
|| Sub will not (won’t) V1.
(I/We shall not (shan’t) V1)
|| Helen will not (won’t) go to school next year.
|| WillSub V1 ?
(Shall I/We V1?)
|| Will Helen go to school next year?
Yes, she will.
No, she will not. (No, she won’t)
Exercise 1.Say that the same will take place tomorrow, on Sunday, next week, etc.
T.: Tom comes home at 8 o’clock every day.
St.: Tom will come home at 8 o’clock tomorrow.
1. Tom gets up at 8 o’clock.
2. He does his morning exercises at 8.05.
3. Tom washes up at 8.10.
4. He dresses at 8.15.
5. After that he has breakfast.
6. He is ready to go to his classes at 8.30.
7. Tom catches a bus at 8.38.
8. He comes to the University at 8.55.
9. Tom listens to the lectures from 9 to 2 o’clock.
10. He has dinner at 3 o’clock.
Exercise 2.Disagree with the following according to the model:
T.: Tom will get up at 7 o’clock.
St.: No, he won’t. Tom will not get up at 7 o’clock.
Use the sentences from Ex. 1.
Exercise 3.Make the following sentences interrogative using the model.
a) Model I
T.: Tom will get up at 8 o’clock.
St.: Will Tom get up at 8 o’clock?
Use the sentences from Ex. 1.
b) Model II
T.: Tom will get up at 8 o’clock.
St.: Tom will get up at 8 o’clock, won’t he?
Use the sentences from Ex. 1.
Exercise 4.Ask special questions according to the model.
a) Model I
T.: Tom will get up at 8 o’clock.
St.: Who will get up at 8 o’clock?
b) Model II
T.: Tom will get up at 8 o’clock.
St.: What will Tom do at 8 o’clock?
c) Model III
T.: Tom will get up at 8 o’clock.
St.: When (at what time) will Tom get up?
Use the sentences from Ex. 1.
Exercise 5.Respond to the statements according to the model. Use the given suggestions.
T.: I can’t do this work myself. (help you)
St.: Shall I help you?
1. We want to listen to the news. (switch on the radio)
2. I want to go to the cinema today. (buy the tickets)
3. I don’t know where the library is. (take you there)
4. I have no pen. (give you mine)
5. It is dark in the room. (switch on the light)
6. I haven’t got a dictionary. (bring my dictionary)
7. I have no time to post my letter today. (do it)
8. I don’t understand this rule. (explain it to you)
9. I know you have a new TV-set. (show it to you)
10. Pete doesn’t know the words. (tell him)
T.: I am tired. (go home)
St.: Shall we go home?
1. I don’t remember the way to the station. (walk there together)
2. I like music. (listen to my new records)
3. I’m afraid we’ll be late. (take a taxi)
4. He is late, as usual. (wait for him a minute or two)
5. I am sure she is hungry. (take sandwiches for her)
6. It is rather stuffy in the room. (open the window)
7. We know the rules badly. (go through them again)
8. He arrives at 7 in the evening. (meet him)
9. I am very tired. (have a rest)
10. They are not ready. (wait for them)
Exercise 6.Complete the sentences using the given suggestions.
T.: I’ll phone you as soon as… (to arrive)
St.: I’ll phone you as soon as I arrive.
1. If I have time I … (to go to the Art Museum)
2. He will get a good mark if … (to work hard at his English)
3. They will win the competition if they … (move quicker)
4. We’ll go to the theatre when we … (to have spare time)
5. He will phone me when he … (to come here)
6. She will come in time if she … (to catch a bus)
7. He will buy these gloves if they … (not to cost much)
8. She will tell him everything when he … (to meet her)
9. They will give you the book when you … (to come)
10. They will help you if … (to want)
11. He will go to the concert if … (not to be busy)
12. She will post the letter when … (to write it)
Exercise 7.Join the following sentences using the suggested conjunctions.
Model I(use the conjunction as soon as)
T.: He will send them a telegram. He’ll arrive in London.
St.: He will send them a telegram as soon as he arrives in London.
1. We’ll join you. We’ll be ready.
2. She will speak to Dr. Sandford. He will be free.
3. He will phone you. He will get back.
4. He will leave for home. We’ll have holidays.
5. She will return you the book. She will read it.
6. They will speak to you. They see you.
7. He will have dinner. He will come home.
8. She will cook breakfast. She will get up.
9. They will go to the river. They will come to the village.
10. We will meet you. We will receive your note.