Exercise 1.Choose the right tense (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous).
1. This man (to be) a writer. He (to write) books. He (to write) books since he was a young man. He already (to write) eight books.
2. What you (to do) here since morning?
3. Lena is a very good girl. She always (to help) her mother about the house. Today she (to help) her mother since morning. They already (to wash) the floor and (to dust) the furniture. Now they (to cook) dinner together.
4. He (to run) now. He (to run) for ten minutes without any rest.
5. What do they (to do) now? – They (to work) in the reading room. They (to work) there for three hours already.
6. Where he (to be) now? – He (to be) in the garden. He (to play) volleyball with his friends. They (to play) since breakfast time.
7. He (to live) in St. Petersburg. I (to live) in St. Petersburg since 1990.
8. This is the factory where my father (to work). He (to work) here for fifteen years.
9. You (to find) your notebook? – No! I still (to look) for it. I already (to look) for it for two hours, but (not yet to find) it.
10. You (to play) with a ball for three hours already. Go home and do your homework.
11. Wake up! You (to sleep) for ten hours already.
12. I (to wait) for a letter from my cousin for a month already, but (not yet to receive) it.
13. She already (to do) her homework for two hours; but she (not yet to do) half of it.
14. I (to wait) for you since two o’clock.
15. What you (to do)? – I (to read). I (to read) for two hours already. I already (to read) sixty pages.
16. It is difficult for me to speak about this opera as I (not to hear) it.
17. I just (to receive) a letter from my granny, but I (not yet to receive) any letters from my parents.
18. The weather (to be) fine today. The sun (to shine) ever since we got up.
19. Every day I (to wind) up my watch at 10 o’clock in the evening.
20. Come along, Henry, what you (to do) now? I (to wait) for you a long time.
21. Where your gloves (to be)? – I (to put) them into my pocket.
22. I (to stay) with some American friends in Chicago. I (to stay) with them for two weeks now. I (to have) a great time here. I (to take) the opportunity to improve my English. I already (to see) the towering skyscrapers of Chicago which are reflected in the rippling water of Lake Michigan. I just (to take) a picture of Chicago’s Sears Tower which (to rise) 1,707 feet and provide a panoramic view from the skydeck.
23. I (to go) to give that cat some food. I (to be) sure it (to starve). – But Jane already (to feed) the cat. You needn’t do it.
Exercise 2.Translate the sentences into English. Use the verbs in Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect или Present Perfect Continuous.
1. Мы знаем друг друга уже четыре года. 2. Я всегда хотел изучать английский язык. 3. Где Нина? — Она уже два часа дома. 4. Где дети? — Они все еще играют во дворе. 5. Мой брат уже три года инженер. 6. Мой друг знает английский с детства. 7. Я уже полчаса наблюдаю за тобой. 8. Ваш брат еще болен? — Нет, он уже поправился. Он уже три дня занимается физикой. Он хочет получить отличную оценку на экзамене. 9. Мне уже давно хочется прочесть эту книгу. 10. Я уже двадцать минут пытаюсь найти мою старую тетрадь. 11. Они уже десять лет живут в Нью-Йорке. 12. Моя тетя — артистка. Она всегда любила театр. 13. Ваш папа уже вернулся с севера? — Да, он уже две недели дома. 14. Я уже три дня обэтом думаю. 15. Моя сестра пьет кофе с молоком. А я всегда предпочитал черный кофе. 16. Мы очень рады вас видеть. Мы вас ждали целый месяц. 17. Вы все еще читаете эту книгу? Сколько времени вы ее уже читаете? 18. Моя сестра занимается музыкой, уже пять лет. 19. Я ищу тебя весь вечер. Где ты был все это время? 20. Они пишут сочинение уже два часа.
Exercise 3.Use the Present Indefinite or the Present Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets:
1. My elder sister (to have) a music lesson. She always (to have) a music lesson on Friday. 2. Who (to sing) in the next room? 3. Father (to read) a newspaper, he usually (to read) something before going to bed. 4. Mother (to cook) breakfast in the kitchen. She always (to cook) in the mornings. 5. Who you (to wait) for? — I (to wait) for Ann, we must leave in ten minutes. 6. It often (to rain) in autumn. 7. Do not go out, it (to rain) heavily. 8. You (to understand) the use of the Present Indefinite and the Present Continuous quite well? 9. What you (to write)? You (to make) notes about the two present tenses? 10. Why you (to smile), Kitty?
11. I often (to meet) you at the corner of this street. You (to wait) for anybody? 12. You usually (to go) through the park? — Not usually, it's only today that I (to go) here. 13. You (to hear) anything? — Yes, somebody (to knock) at the door. 14. They still (to discuss) where to go now.
Exercise 4.Use the Present Indefinite, the Present Continuous or the Present Perfect instead of the infinitives in brackets:
1. Will you, please, lend me your pen for a moment? I (to leave) mine at home and now (to have) nothing to write with. – I (to be) sorry, but I (to be going) to write myself. Ann (not to write), she can give you her pen. 2. You (to read) “The Gadfly” by Voynich? – I (to read) it now, I (not to finish) it yet. It (to be) a very good book, I (to like) it very much. 3. We (to go) to the café “Cosmos” tonight. You ever (to be) there? 4. Where (to be) Ann? – She (to be) in the kitchen. – What she (to do) there? – She (to wash up). — I already (to help) my mother with the housework and (to come) to ask Ann to go to the cinema with me. 5. Don't forget we (to have) a party tomorrow, be sure to bring Bob with you if he (to come) back from St.Petersburg. 6. (to be) there anything the matter with you? You (to be) so pale. — Nothing the matter. I just (to finish) my work and I (to be) a little tired. 7. Who (to play) the piano? Mary still (to have) her music lesson? — No. The lesson (to be) over and the teacher already (to go). Mother (to play) for little Kitty. 8. Ring me up when you (to be) free. I (to have) something to discuss with you. 9.1 (not to hear) the news yet. 10. Hurry up if you (to want) to go out with me. 11. She (to send) me a letter that she (to come) in a few days. 12. You (to understand) what they (to talk) about? 13. When she (to call) on us she always (to bring) some toys for my little daughter. 14. What you (to look) for? - I (to look) for my dictionary. I just (to see) it somewhere. I (to think) it (to lie) on the bookshelf.
Exercise 5.Translate into English using the Present Continuous, the Present Indefinite or the Present Perfect:
1. Надень пальто и шапку. На улице холодно, дует сильный ветер. 2. Видишь человека на углу? Он на нас смотрит. 3. Сегодня на обед придет Елена. — Я давно ее не видела. Она очень изменилась? — Не очень. 4. Когда учитель объясняет новое правило, он обычно пишет на доске примеры. 5. Ты что-нибудь слышишь? — Я слушаю внимательно, но ничего не слышу. 6. Ты читал эту книгу, отец? — От корки (cover) до корки. Хорошая книга, я собираюсь прочесть ее еще раз. 7. Кто только что вышел из комнаты? — Не знаю, я никого не заметил. 8. По дороге на работу я обычно встречаю детей, которые идут в школу. 9. Я думаю, вам нужно выпить горячего кофе, прежде чем вы уйдете. Вечер такой холодный. 10. Ты видела Мэри сегодня? — Нет, она больна. Она больна уже десять дней. 11. Что ты собираешься делать после занятий? — Хочу пойти в кино. — Не уходи без меня, подожди, пока я тебе позвоню. — Хорошо. 12. Вы ходили в кино на этой неделе? — Нет, я очень занята последнее время. — Вы должны посмотреть новый фильм. Он вам, наверняка, понравится, 13. Вы часто ходите в театр? — Да, довольно часто, и сегодня иду. 14. Мы давно его не видели. Нелли говорит, что он очень изменился. 15. Я очень рада, что вы пришли. Вы всегда приносите хорошие новости. 16. Сегодня мы играем в теннис. Никки и я. 17. Они уже уехали? Нет, они уезжают трехчасовым поездом. 18. Есть у вас вопросы? Вы все поняли, что я вам объяснила? — Спасибо, все ясно.
Exercise 6.Use the Present Continuous or the Present Perfect Continuous
instead of the infinitives in brackets.
Note: The Present Continuous expresses an action going on at the moment of speaking. The Present Perfect Continuous expresses an action occupying a period of time still continuing or just finished.
1. What you (to look) at? — I (to look) at that picture over there. I (to look) at it for almost half an hour and I still can't understand what it is. 2. What Mary (to do)? — She (to practice) the piano. She (to play) since 12 o'clock. I think she must have a rest. 3. Here you are at last! I (to look) for you everywhere. 4. Why you (to smile) Robert? — I (to watch) your kitten. What a playful little thing it is! 5. I see you (to write) letters all the morning. Is it the last letter you (to write) now? 6. You (to sit) here for a long time. You (to wait) for anybody? 7. How long you (to study) English? — For three years already. 8. I (to work) at my report since Monday. Now I (to write) the conclusion. 9. Mary's mother (to rest) in the garden all day because she is ill. 10. She (to sleep) for ten hours! You must wake her! 11. David (to repair) the TV-set. He (to work) at it for an hour or so. 12. David (to wash) his hands. He just (to repair) the TV-set. 13. Why you all (to laugh)? Jim (to tell) you his anecdotes? 14. It’s six o'clock. I (to wait) for Ann for half an hour. I must be off now.
Exercise 7.Comment on the use of the Present Perfect Continuous and
translate these sentences into Russian:
1. a) All these days he has been talking about his new plan. He can't speak of anything else.
b) Here is Mr. Madden who we have just been speaking about.
2. a) I have been peeling potatoes for half an hour, but mother says there isn't enough for everybody.
b) Why are your hands dirty? — I have been peeling potatoes.
3. a) Children, you have been swimming half an hour already. Get out of the water, quick!
b) I am cold because I have been swimming for an hour.
4. a) They have been working in the garden since 10 o'clock. Tell them it is time to have lunch.
b) I am very tired; I have been working in the garden.
5. a) Kitty, you have been watching TV too long, you'll have a headache.
b) I have a headache; I have been watching TV too long.
Exercise 8. Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous instead of the infinitives in brackets:
1. You (to pass) your exam in English literature? 2. I (to try) to learn English for years but I (not to make) good progress уet. 3. That book (to lie) on the table for weeks. You (not to read) it yet? 4. I (to wait) here for her since 7 o'clock and she (not to come) yet. 5. I (to read) "War and Peace" for the last three months. 6. I (to think) about you all day. 7. He never (to be) here before. 8. I can't help being angry with you; you (to sit) here all the time and doing nothing. 9. There's nothing to be proud of; you (not to get) a single excellent mark as yet. 10. I (to work) so hard this week that I (not to have) time to go to the cinema. 11. The girls (to talk) about their new dresses for half an hour already; it seems they have nothing else to talk about. 12. I just (to talk) to him; he agrees to help us. 13. Some of our students (to join) the English club to get a better command of the language. 14. I (to know) her all my life and we always (to be) good friends.
The Past Indefinite Tense
Pattern:Yesterday Jane went to the cinema.
This tense is used to denote actions or facts, taking place in the past.
Markers: yesterday, last week, a month (year, week, two days) ago, on Sunday, in 1995, the other day.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was an Austrian musician and composer. He lived from 1756 to 1791. He started composing at the age of five and wrote more than 600 pieces of music.
was, lived, started, wrote – are all Past Indefinite (Simple)
The forms of the Past Indefinite Tense:
|| Sub V2
|| Helen went to school yesterday.
|| Sub did not V1
|| Helen did not go to school yesterday.
|| Did Sub V1 ?
|| Did Helen go to school yesterday?
Yes, she did.
No, she did not. (No, she didn’t)
The form of the Past Indefinite Tense is made up with the help of the second form of the verb.
| The Past Simple Tense is formed
| Regular verbs
|| Irregular verbs
patted, learned, started, lived, expected, noticed, liked, studied, agreed, created.
|| The forms of such verbs must be learnt by heart: to begin (began), to forgive (forgave), to fall (fell), to catch (caught), to hold (held), to shoot (shot), to speak (spoke), to meet (met), to think (thought)
Spelling Rules of Past Form of Regular Verbs:
1. PAT + ED = PATTED
(we double the letter “t” to preserve the closed syllable, otherwise the word would have a different variant of pronunciation from that of the infinitive )
BUT: in the word OPEN, there is no use to change anything as the first syllable is stressed and the addition of –ed doesn’t influence anything.
OPEN + ED = OPENED
2. STUDY + ED = STUDIED
In such verbs as to study, where Yis the last letter, the letter Y is replaced by I
3. CLOSE + ED = CLOSED
If there is “E” at the end of a verb, it shouldn’t be preserved after the addition of - ed
Exercise 1.Consult the dictionary and give 4 forms of the following verbs:
To stand, to sit, to depart, to get, to write, to give, to work, to walk, to cry, to leave, to expect, to manage, to have, to try, to understand, to close, to draw, to choose, to succeed, to wonder, to mean, to sell, to swim, to buy, to greet, to fill, to feel, to progress.
Exercise 2.Make up interrogative and negative variants of the sentences:
Model: I watched the film two years ago.
Did I watch the film two years ago?
No, I didn’t. I didn’t watch the film two years ago.
1. She worked at the library last year.
2. He spent his winter vacation in Moscow.
3. She brought me three magazines yesterday.
4. My sister studied French at school.
5. My pupils asked me a lot of questions at the last lesson.
6. My mother bought a new trouser-suit last week.
7. My brother left for Karelia yesterday.
8. He got up at ten o’clock yesterday.
9. My uncle taught me to swim in my childhood.
Exercise 3.Read what 11-year-old Helen is saying about her typical working day.
a) Write out all the verbs and put down 4 forms of each of the verbs.
I usually get up at seven o’clock and have a substantial breakfast. After that, I go to my bed-room and make my bed. I study in the first shift and that is why I have quite enough time before I go to school. I always try to do my best to help my mother about the house. So I clean my room, sweep the floor, dust the furniture, water the flowers, collect the dirty linen and take it to the laundry, which is situated just round the corner. I am a hardworking and brisk person, and I can do everything in no time, that is why I even have some time to read a book before I start for school. Usually I have four classes a day, and when I return home, I do not feel tired, as I love to study. After a short rest, I call my best friend Stacy and we go for a walk together.
b) Yesterday was a typical day for Helen. Write what she did and didn’t do yesterday.
Model: Yesterday Helen got up at seven o’clock and had a substantial breakfast…
Exercise 4.Read Jason’s story about his going shopping with his girlfriend.
a) Open the brackets and put the verbs into the correct form:
Model: Last Saturday my girlfriend and I spent much time in the shopping center.
Last Saturday my girlfriend and I (to spend) much time in the shopping center. Jessica (to want) to renew her wardrobe according to the latest fashion, and we (to be going) to spend the whole day in the supermarket. First we (to make up) our minds to go to a shoe department. My girl friend (to be afraid) to buy footwear of the wrong size. She (to try on) many pairs of shoes. All of them (to suit) her perfectly well, at last she (to decide) on high-heeled stiletto shoes. I (to get) tired in the end. Then Jessica (to understand) that she (to need) to find a new handbag to match her new shoes. She (to buy) it only 30 minutes later as the choice (to surprise) her immensely. No wonder Jessica (to be puzzled) what to take. It (to be) late evening when we (to leave) the store.
b) Jason’s girl-friend, Jessica, adores to contradict her friend, that’s why her version of their going is an opposite one. Make up her version.
Remember that she is eager to deny everything Jason says:
Model: Last Saturday my boyfriend and I didn’t spend a lot of time in the shopping center.
Exercise 5.Read the story about the Browns’ housecleaning, using the Past Indefinite tense.
a) Open the brackets:
Ann and her mother (to get up) early in the morning on Saturday. They (to change) bedclothes and (to make) the beds. After that they (to open) the windows and (to let in) some fresh air and (to get down) to tidying the rooms. They (to dust) and (to polish) the furniture, (to wash) the floor, (to clean) the carpet, (to beat out) the door mat.
As for the father and the son, they (not to do) much. Ann’s brother (to put) all his toys into a special box. Ann’s father (to fix) electrical appliances and (to hang) a marvelous picture on the wall.
b) Make up all types of questions to the text:
The Past Continuous Tense
Pattern: I was writing a composition at 7 o’clock.
a) The Past Continuous Tense is used to denote an action, taking place at a concrete moment in the past, when we want to say that somebody was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this time and had not finished.
Markers: at 8 o’clock, at the same time
Example: Two days ago at the same time I was reading for my exam, but now I’m free as a bird, as I’ve passed all the exams successfully.
b) This tense is used to show the action, lasting for some period of time in the past
Markers: from 6 till 7 o’clock, all day long last Monday, the whole evening yesterday.
Example: Florence was speaking over phone the whole evening yesterday.
a) The tense is used to denote actions, happening in the past simultaneously.
Example: While I was doing my homework, my mother was cooking supper.
b) The Past Continuous and the Past Simple are often used together to say that something happened in the middle of some other action.
Example: Tomas burnt his hand when he was cooking dinner.