|| Sub had V3 .
|| I had come home by 7 o’clock yesterday.
|| Sub had not V3.
(Sub hadn’t V3)
|| I had not (hadn’t) come home by 7 o’clock yesterday.
|| Had Sub V3?
Had you come home by 5 o’clock yesterday?
Yes, I had.
No, I hadn’t.
Exercise 1.Make up interrogative and negative variants of the sentences:
Model: I had already hidden the present, when my mother came into the room.
Had you hidden the present, before your mother came into the room?
No, I hadn’t. I hadn’t hidden the present, when my mother came into the room.
- We had already built the plant by the end of 1997.
- I had already written the exercise by half past 6.
- At nine o’clock we had already left.
- I had written the composition before he came.
- They had returned home before I rang them up.
- I had worked for the company for 2 years.
- He had already eaten his breakfast.
Exercise 2.Read the statements and write sentences, explaining the situation:
Model: Carol could hardly recognize her old uncle (not to see him). – Carol could hardly recognize her old uncle, as she hadn’t seen him since her early childhood.
- Nigel went to Jill’s house, but he didn’t find her there. (to go to buy some products)
- When Helen returned home after her studies in Oxford, nobody could treat her as a little girl (to change immensely).
- Rachel couldn’t join our party (to get offended)
- Jeremy was disappointed at Sarah (to be 2 hours late for their date)
- It was so pleasant to speak to Tim (not to see him for ages)
- Alice became a regular beauty (to change her hair-do, to buy clothes of classical style).
- She refused to eat sandwiches (to have a substantial breakfast)
Exercise 3.Disagree with the statements, and give your own explanation of the situation.
Model: I had closed the window before it started raining. – I had not closed the window before it started raining, as I hadn’t expected rain to be so heavy.
- The Collins had furnished their new flat by the time they moved into it.
- Mother was proud of her five-year-old son, as he had washed the dishes before she came into the kitchen.
- Tim decided to get rid of the old wardrobe as his wife had bought a new wall-unit.
- Anna was upset as her mother had bought her a green dress which did match her white evening shoes.
- Stephanie couldn’t help her brother to arrange the party as she had already bought the tickets to a very exciting concert.
- We managed to do everything in time as we had organized our work wisely.
- We decided not to visit our relatives in the Crimea, because they had already packed their things to travel to Finland.
- The boy was an excellent student. He had answered all the questions, before the tutors collected the students’ works.
Exercise 4.Open the brackets, using the Past Indefinite or the Past Perfect:
- He (to study) better that his father (to do).
- They (to spend) their vacation last year at the same village where they (to live) many years ago.
- When we (to come) she already (to send) the children away and (to be) free to speak to us.
- Yesterday I (to buy) a new watch as I (to lose) my old one.
- He (to take) the boy to the door by which he himself (to enter) the room.
- He (to open) his eyes (to look) around and (to think) for some time, trying to remember what (to happen) to him.
- After they traveled in the Caucasus they (to decide) to make a sea voyage.
- They (to see) at once that the man (to travel) a lot as he knew how to behave even in the most dangerous and unexpected situations.
- He could go to the seaside in June because he (to pass) all his exams successfully.
- He (to eat) all the cakes after she (to forbid) him to do it.
- The day after the party he ( to ask) us, why we (to leave) so early.
- After they (to go) at last I (to go) to bed.
Exercise 5.Make up all types of questions to each of the sentences:
- Garry had moved into a new flat by the end of the last year.
- Jimmy had arranged a marvelous birthday party before he left for London.
- Isaac had collected the dirty bed-clothes before his mother started washing the dirty linen.
- It wasn’t difficult to recognize Bob, though he thought he had changed his image completely.
- Nelly altered the dress she had bought at the supermarket before.
- Jake had sealed up the windows by the time winter set in.
- Sam had visited different shops, looking for a decent costume, since he learnt about his friends’ wedding.
Exercise 6. Make up your own explanations to the given below situations:
Model: Jeremy was covered with dirt when he returned home after a walk in the park. – Jeremy was covered with dirt when he returned home after a walk in the park, as some car had splashed him with mud.
- Darin was so happy to get a book by Conan Doyle as a birthday present.
- Edward decided to give his new trainers to his younger brother.
- Hank refused to spend his honeymoon in Turkey.
- Julian went to a hairdresser to have her long curly haircut.
- Kate joined a sport club to attend sport-classes twice a week.
- Harry chose and bought new expensive wall-paper to renew his bed-room.
- Alex spent all his money on a new computer.
- Mother forbade her son to spend much time watching television.
- Timothy returned home to change into a blue pullover and old comfortable jeans.
Exercise 7. Work in pairs: you are to discuss a marvelous party you had the other day, but unfortunately, some of your friends missed the chance to enjoy the meeting of your friends. Discuss the party and reasons for your friends’ absence, using The Past Indefinite, The Past Continuous and The Past Perfect.
REMEMBER: you are discussing the party, which was some time ago (The Past Indefinite), that’s why speaking about the activities of your friends at the party you need to use The Past Continuous. The reasons, preventing your friends from coming, took place even earlier (The Past Perfect).
Past Perfect Continuous
Pattern: When I looked out through the window, I saw that the ground was still wet, as it had been raining hard the whole night.
a) The Past Perfect Continuous Tense is used to denote an action, that had been happeningfor a certain period of time before something else happened.
Markers: for 5 hours (some time, years…), for a long time …
Example: I had been waiting for a bus for twenty minutes before the bus cameat last.
b) Using the structure we want to underline that the action took some time and it may have been unfinished, by the time another action started.
Example: He had been painting the walls for 3 hours by the time Helen came to help him. After a short rest, they decided to continue their work.