1. We use the forms of Present Continuous to say what you have already arranged to do. Do not use the present simple:
Example: A: What are you doing on Saturday evening?
B: I’m going to the theatre.
2. We use Present simple (I do) with a future meaning, when we talk about timetables, programmes etc. (for example, for public transport, cinemas, etc.)
Example: The train leaves Plymouth at 11.30 and arrives in London at 14.45
What time does the film begin?
You can use the present simple for people if their plans are fixed like a timetable.
Example: What time do you finish your work tomorrow?
But the continuous is more usual for personal arrangements.
Example: What time are you meeting Ann tomorrow?
Exercise 1.Put the verbs into the more suitable form, present continuous or present simple:
1) I (go) to the theatre this evening.
2) (The film / begin) at 3.30 or 4.30?
3) We (have) a party next Saturday. Would you like to come?
4) The art exhibition (open) on 3 may and (finish) on 15 July.
5) I (not / go) out this evening. I (stay) at home.
6) A: (you / do) anything tomorrow morning?
B: No, I’m free. Why?
7) We (go) to a concert tonight. It (begin) at 7.30.
8) Excuse me. What time (this train / get) to London?
9) Ann, I (go) to the country. (you / come) with me?
10) Sue (come) to see us tomorrow. She (travel) by train and her train (arrive) at 10.15. I (meet) her at the station.
11) I (not / use) the car this evening, so you can have it.
Exercise 2.A friend of yours is planning to go on holiday soon. You ask her about her plans. Use the words in brackets to make your questions.
| (Where / go)?
(How long / stay)?
(When / go)?
(Go / alone)?
(travel / by car)?
(Where / stay)?
No, with a friend of mine.
No, by train.
In a hotel.
Exercise 3.You and your friend are very busy people. Discuss the date the hour of your next meeting. Discuss several variants.
To be going to do something
I’m going to dosomething = I have already decided to do something, I intend to do it.
A: There’s a film on television tonight. Are you going to watch it?
B: No, I’m tired. I’m going to have an early night.
We normally use I’m doing (present continuous), when we say what we have arranged to do (for example: arranged to meet somebody, arranged to go somewhere)
Example: I’m leaving tomorrow. I’ve got my plane ticket in my pocket.
We use I’m going to do, when we’ve decided to do it (but perhaps not arranged to do it).
Example: I’ve decided not to rent the flat anymore. I’m going to look for a new apartment.
Exercise 1.Discuss with your partner: what you are going to do tonight; what your mother is going to do tomorrow; what your friend is going to do at weekends; what Mary and John are going to do on Sunday.
Exercise 2.The people in the sentences below are all thinking about their future summer vacation. Complete the sentences about what they plan to do. Use the verbs in the box.
travel teach read stay walk lie play do cycle swim
Model: I’m going to stay with my niece all day.
1. We ... gardening.
2. I ...lots of books.
3. He ...in the sun.
4. We ...round the world.
5. I ... to Brighton on my new bike.
6. I ... lots of sport.
7. We ... English in a summer school.
8. I ... in the sea every day.
The Present Perfect Tense
Formation: The Present Perfect is formed with the auxiliary verb “to have” in the present simple (have, has) and the Past Participle form of the notional verb (asked, been).
Contracted forms: I’ve, we’ve, they’ve, you’ve, he’s, she’s, haven’t, hasn’t.
We use the Present Perfect to denote:
1. An action which began and ended in the past, but is connected with the present moment indirectly, by its result.
Pattern I. She has cleaned her room. Now it’s tidy.
2. An action which began in the past, is still going on at the present moment and will go on for some time.
Pattern II. I have lived in Nizhniy Novgorod since my childhood.
Markers: adverbials: already, yet, just, lately, of late, recently, never, so far; prepositional phrases: since 5 o’clock, since childhood, since 2000, for ages, for 15 years, since there, ever since and so on.
Note 1. There are some fixed grammatical structures in which we use other tense forms, though the meaning seems to be that of the Present Perfect.
Example: What did you say? I didn’t hear your question. I didn’t understand you /I didn’t get you.
Note 2. In when – and where - questions we usually use the Past Simple.
- Have you ever been to London?
- Yes. I have.
- When were you there?
- I was there last month.
Note 3. The usage of still, yet, already.
“Still” is used to say that smth is continuing and has not stopped yet. “Still” is used in mid – position.
Example: It is still snowing – The Present Continuous.
“Yet” is used to talk about smth that is expected. “Yet” is used at the end of questions and negative sentences.
Example: Has he done all his work? – No, not yet.
“Already” is used in affirmative sentences in mix-position to say that smth has happened earlier than expected.
Example: He has already done all his work.
Pattern III.He has already washed the dishes.
Exercise 1. Say what he / she/ you /they has/ have already done.
Model: She hasn’t brought the book for me yet.
Exercise 2. Say what you / she/ he/ they haven’t/ hasn’t done yet.
Model: I have never spoken to our president.
Exercise 3. Say what you / your friend have/ has never done.
Model: Ann has always wanted to have a car.
Exercise 4. Say what you /they/ the man have/ has always wanted to do.
You may use the following.
- speak to a famous person; - see a pop-star with your own eyes;
- fall in love; - be arrested by police;
- have an unpleasant experience; - settle everything;
- hurt one’s ankle; - teach a little child;
- behave like a courageous man; - cook a very tasty dinner.
Model: I haven’t visited my grandparents since I bought a computer.
The Forms of the Present Perfect Tense:
|| Sub have V3.
(He / She / it has V3)
|| Helen has already washed the dishes.
|| Sub have not (haven’t) V3.
(He / She/ It has not (hasn’t) V3)
|| Helen has not washed the dishes yet.
|| Have Sub V3?
(Has He / She / it V3 ?)
|| Has Helen washed the dishes?
Yes, she has.
No, she has not (hasn’t).
Exercise 5. Complete these sentences with since and for.
1. I haven’t seen Ann …
2. I haven’t cleaned my flat …
3. It has been very hot …
4. I have been a student …
5. Tom hasn’t watched TV …
6. Ann and Jack haven’t bought new clothes …
7. The students haven’t gone to the disco …
8. Mary hasn’t got any debs …
9. Nick hasn’t traveled abroad …
10. Mary hasn’t looked so upset …
Exercise 6. Answer the questions in the negative and say if the action is on the process or is going to happen in the nearest future.
- Have you learnt all the new words?
- No, not yet. I’m still learning them. I’m going to learn them soon.
1. Have you put the dishes on the table?
2. Have you read this interesting story?
3. Has she made a new dress for her birthday party?
4. Have you recorded your favorite film on your video recorder?
5. Has he translated this article from English into Russian?
6. Has she written a letter to her friend?
7. Have you found the book?
8. Has he told her an interesting story?
9. Have they asked the star a lot of questions?
10. Have you read any stories by Jack London?
Exercise 7. Ask your partner all types of questions to the given sentences:
1. He hasn’t come back home.
2. I have seen him this week.
3. I have been to London.
4. He has already finished his work.
5. Ann has already woken up.
6. Tom has made this mistake before.
7. They’ve never seen this film.
8. You have bought many books this month.
9. I have already had my dinner.
10. Irene has already sung the song.
Exercise 8. Put the verbs in the Present Perfect or in the Present Continuous.
1. What’s the matter? Why he (to stop)?
2. What you (to study) now?
3. They just (to give) me that interesting book.
4. What you (to plant) now?
5. How long you (to be) sick?
6. You (to see) any good movies recently?
7. The rain (to stop) and the sun (to shine) in the sky again.
8. The wind (to change) in the morning and the weather (to improve) now.
9. Todd knows so much because he (to travel) a lot.
Exercise 9. Translate into English.
1. Мы уже навестили своих бабушек.
2. Концерт еще не начался.
3. Я только что закончила работу.
4. Он уже сделал свои уроки.
5. Энн еще не читала этой книги.
6. Я только что была у зубного врача и сейчас я чувствую себя намного лучше.
7. – Вы уже переехали на новую квартиру?
- Еще нет.
8. За последние полгода я не видел своего брата.
9. С тех пор как он переехал в Лондон, у него не стало свободного времени, чтобы сходить в кино.
10. - Вы уже окончили институт?
- Еще нет.
Exercise 10. Express surprise or disbelief and proceed the conversation as you are able to.
-I have been to London recently.
- Have you?
- Yes. I have and you? Have you ever been to London?
- No, I haven’t been there.
1. We have just read the book.
2. I haven’t had dinner yet.
3. Mr. Brown has found a new clerk.
4. We have already discussed the problem.
5. She has already cooked dinner.
6. He has just entered the University.