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A trade contract is a mutual agreement between a trade operator and an entity for the sale/purchase of goods, which is formed when one party makes an offer, which is accepted by the party to whom the offer is made, both in compliance with law. It generally contains clauses identifying the commodity, quality, quantity, packaging, unit price, total price, time of delivery, port of shipment and port of destination, method of payment and terms relating to the inspection of the goods.

Note:in compliance with − в соответствии с

Exercise 1. Read and translate the example of Trade Contract using the words and expressions given below:

Contract № 84

For the Sale of Oil Products

London 4th March, 2006


This contract is made between Frontier Oil Corporation (London), hereinafter called Sellers and Ales Groupe (Paris) hereinafter called Buyers, whereby it is agreed as follows:


Subject of the Contract

Sellers have sold and Buyers have bought c.i.f.* (premium diesel fuel)


The goods sold under the present contract shall be of the following specifications: ……………………………………………………………………………………….



Time of Delivery

The date of the Bill of Lading to be considered as the date of delivery.


Payment for the goods sold under the present contract is to be effected out of an

irrevocable confirmed Letter of Credit to be opened by Buyers with the Bank for Foreign Trade of England, London.

The Letter of Credit is to be opened not later than 15 days before the agreed time of shipment of each lot of the goods. Expenses in connection with the opening, amendment and utilization of the Letter of Credit are to be paid by Buyers.

Should Buyers fail to open the Letter of Credit in time, they are to pay Sellers a fine for each day of delay, but not more than for 20 days, at the rate of 0.1 per cent. of the

amount of the Letter of Credit and in that case Sellers shall have the right not to load the

*см. Приложение


tanker until the Letter of Credit has been opened. Should the delay in the opening of the Letter of Credit exceed 20 days, Sellers shall have the right to refuse to deliver the goods which were to be paid for out of this Letter of Credit.

Delivery and Acceptance

The goods are considered to be delivered by Sellers and accepted by Buyers in respect to quantity: as per weight indicated in the Bill of Lading in conformity with the measurements of the shore tanks at the port of loading, and in respect to quality issued by a laboratory at the port of loading. The weight stated in the Bill of Lading is to be considered final and binding upon both parties.

Prior to the loading of the goods, 4 arbitration samples are to be taken from each of the shore tanks from which the goods are to be loaded in the carrying tanker. These samples are to be sealed by Sellers as well as by Captain of the tanker; 2 samples to be handed over through the Captain of the tanker at the port of unloading to Buyers or to another person according to Buyer’s instructions and the other 2 samples to be retained by Sellers.



Sellers are to insure the goods for their account against usual marine risks including risks of leakage exceeding 1% with The British Insurance Company “Globes”

(London) in accordance with the Transport Insurance Rules of The British Insurance Company for the amount of the invoice value of the goods plus 10 per cent. The goods may be insured against war and other risks upon special request of Buyers and for Buyers’ account. The Insurance Policy or Certificate of The British Insurance Company

is to be made out in the name of Buyers or another person according to their instructions and is to be sent together with the other shipping documents.


Terms of Transportation

Sellers are to inform Buyers by fax or by telex not later then 5 days before the starting of loading of the name and capacity of the tanker, the date and port of shipment of the goods.

Furthermore, the Captain is to advise Buyers or their agent by cable of the forthcoming arrival of the tanker at the port of discharge 4 days before her arrival.

Sellers have the right to substitute one tanker for another informing Buyers thereof by telex.

On arrival of the tanker at the port of discharge, the Captain is to give Buyers’ representative at this port a written notice of readiness of the tanker of discharging. The Captain is entitled to hand in the above notice at any time of the day or the night.

Lay time to commence 6 hours after such notice of readiness is handed in by the Captain. Sundays, holidays, time of stormy weather preventing discharging as well as time during which discharging operations could not be carried out owing to technical and other conditions depending on the tanker are not to be included in the lay time.

Time allowed for tanker’s discharging is fixed at 50 per cent of the time stipulated in the Charter Party for loading and unloading.

Demurrage is to be paid at the rate stipulated in the Charter Party per day and pro rata for any part of the running day.


In case of non-conformity of the quality of the goods actually delivered by Sellers with the contract specification, any claim concerning the quality of the goods may be presented within two months of the date of delivery.

No claim shall be considered by Sellers after expiration of the above period.

No claim presented for one lot of the goods shall be regarded by Buyers as a reason for rejecting any other lot or lots of the goods to be delivered under the present contract.



Should any circumstances arise which prevent the complete or partial fulfillment by any of the parties of their respective obligations under this contract, namely: fire, ice conditions or any other acts of the elements, war, military operations of any character, prohibition of export or import or any other circumstances beyond the control of the parties, the time stipulated for the fulfillment of the obligations shall be extended for a period equal to that during which such circumstances last.

If the above circumstances last for more than 20 days, any delivery or deliveries which are to be made under the contract within that period may be cancelled on the declaration of any of the parties, and if the above circumstances last more than 40 days, each party shall have the right to discontinue any further fulfillment of their obligations under the contract in whole and in such cases neither of the parties shall have the right to make a demand upon the other party for compensation for any possible losses.

The party for whom it became impossible to meet its obligations under the contract shall immediately advise the other party as regards the beginning and the termination of the circumstances preventing the fulfillment of its obligations.

Certificates issued by the respective chamber of commerce of Sellers’ or Buyers’ country shall be sufficient proof of such circumstances and their duration.



Any dispute or difference which may arise out of or in connection with the present contract shall be settled, without recourse to courts of law, by the Foreign Trade Arbitration Commission of England Chamber of Commerce in London in accordance with the Rules for Procedure of the said Commission.

The awards of this Arbitration shall be considered final and binding upon both parties.


Other conditions

Neither party is entitled to transfer its rights and obligations under the present contract to a third party without the other party’s previous written consent.

Besides, Buyers are not entitled to resell or in any other way alienate the goods bought under this contract to any third country without the Sellers’ previous written consent.

After the signing of the present contract all previous negotiations and correspondence between the parties in connection with it shall be considered null and void if conflicting with this contract.

All amendments and additions to the present contract are valid only if they are made in writing and signed by both parties.

All taxes, customs and other dues connected with the conclusion and fulfillment of the present contract, levied within England, except those connected with the Letter of Credit, to be paid by Sellers, and those levied outside England to be paid by Buyers.

England is regarded as the place of conclusion and fulfillment of the contract.


Juridical Addresses


Sellers: London, Dorset Estate, Ravenscroft Street, E2


Buyers: Paris, 135 Rue St.-Dominique, 7e



(Signatures) (Signatures)


Bill of Lading Коносамент (документ, выдаваемый

перевозчиком груза грузовладельцу.

Удостоверяет право собственности

на отгруженный товар)

whereby посредством которого

shipment погрузка, отгрузка

amendment изменение, поправка

fine штраф

delay задержка

to exceed превышать

in respect to в отношении

in conformity with в соответствии с

shore tank береговой резервуар

to bind обязывать

sample образец

to seal опечатывать

to hand over передавать

to retain удерживать, сохранять у себя

to discharge разгружать

lay time стояночное время

demurrage плата за простой

to commence начинать, начинаться

pro rata пропорционально

claim претензия, требование

contingency непредвиденное обстоятельство

to discontinue прекращать

award решение суда

Rules for Procedure правила о производстве дел

null and void недействительный

to alienate отчуждать

to levy взимать, облагать

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions:

1) Who are the Parties of the Contract?

2) What are the payment conditions?

3) Comment on the delivery and acceptance of the Contract.

4) What are the insurance conditions?

5) What are the terms of transportation?

6) What are the contingencies of the Contract?


Exercise 3. Translate the following words and word combinations:

в соответствии с, экспортная торговля, изменение, опечатывать, решение суда, пропорционально, в отношении, передавать, образец, превышать, штраф, начинать, страхование, непредвиденное обстоятельство, погрузка груза, удерживать, коносамент, юридический адрес, расходы, обязывать, плата за простой, претензия, качество, посредством которого, правила о производстве дел, выполнение, аккредитив, в дальнейшем, рассматривать, от имени, урегулировать, задержка, вовремя, представитель, в отношении, спор, срок поставки, обязательство, количество, убыток, товары, подтверждать, прибытие, недействительный, стояночное время, нести ответственность, береговой резервуар, счет, выполнение контракта, согласие, отклонять, окончательный, переговоры, действительный, разногласие, о нижеследующем, несоответствие, прекращать.

Exercise 4. Make up the sentences using the following words:in conformity with”, “hereinafter”,” in respect to”, “whereby”.

Exercise 5. Match the English and Russian equivalents:

1) Поставка товаров по настоящему

Контракту должна быть

произведена в сроки

a) From the moment of signing the

present Contract

2) Продавец и Покупатель заключили

настоящий Контракт о

b) The Sellers are to bear responsibility



3) Все транспортные и другие

расходы оплачиваются Продавцом


4) Все споры и разногласия подлежат

c) None of the Parties has the right

to assign their right and obligations


d) During which such circumstances will

рассмотрению в арбитражном суде remain in force

5) Сторона, для которой создалась

невозможность исполнения

6) С момента подписания настоящего

e) The total amount of the present

Contract is

f) Hereinafter referred to as


7) Все предыдущие переговоры и

переписка теряют силу

g) The Sellers and the Buyers have

concluded the present Contract

as follows

8) Продавец несет ответственность за

h) All the transport and other expenses

are to be paid by the Sellers

9) Решение арбитражного суда

является окончательным

i) Delivery of the goods under the

present Contract should be effected

within the dates

10) Именуемый в дальнейшем

j) All the previous negotiations and correspondence are null and void

11) Ни одна из Cторон не в праве

передавать свои права и

k) The Party for whom it became

impossible to meet its obligations

обязательства under the present Contract

12) Качество товара соответствует

условиям настоящего Контракта

l) The award of the Arbitration shall

be considered final

13) Общая сумма настоящего

Контракта составляет

m) All disputes and differences are to

be settled by Arbitration

14) Права на возмещение другой

стороной возможных убытков

n) The quality of the goods corresponds

to conditions of the present Contract

15) В течение которого будут

действовать такие обстоятельства

o) The right to make a demand upon

the other Party for the compensation

of any possible damages

Exercise 6. Find synonyms to the following words:

to begin, correction, to unload, hold-up, example, proportionally, penalty, controversy, during, with regard to, in accordance with, liability, besides.

Exercise 7. Compose your own sentences using the following words:

1) present, the, signed, parties, are, amendments, if, Contract, only, they, all, both, are, by, valid, to.

2) Sellers, considered, be, above, no, expiration, by, shall, the, claim, after, period, of.

3) risks, war, may, for, insured, Buyers, and, request, against, the, upon, account, be, goods, Buyers’, other, and, special, of.

4) Arbitration, binding, parties, shall, this, the, and, final, be, both, of, upon, considered, awards.

5) Credit, be, utilization, with, the, paid, of, opening, and, Buyers, connection, the, to, expenses, Letter, of, amendment, are, by, in.

Exercise 8. Make up dialogues concerning the obligations of the Parties, payment conditions and contingencies.

Exercise 9. Translate the following sentences using the text:

1) Любая претензия по поводу качества товара может быть предъявлена в течение двух месяцев с момента доставки.

2) Продавец должен за свой счет страховать груз от обычных рисков, связанных с морем, включая риск утечки топлива, превышающий один процент.

3) По прибытии танкера в порт разгрузки капитан должен передать представителю Покупателя письменное уведомление о готовности танкера к разгрузке.

4) В случае возникновения каких-либо обстоятельств, препятствующих полному или частичному выполнению своих обязательств сторонами данного соглашения, время, оговоренное для выполнения обязательств, должно быть продлено на срок действия этих обстоятельств.

5) Любые споры или разногласия, возникающие в связи с настоящим соглашением, должны быть урегулированы английской арбитражной комиссией по иностранной торговле согласно правилам о производстве дел, установленным данной комиссией.

6) В стояночное время не входят праздники, выходные дни, штормовая погода, препятствующая разгрузке груза, а также период времени, в течение которого работа по разгрузке не может быть произведена из-за технических или других обстоятельств, связанных с танкером.

7) Если Покупатель вовремя не откроет аккредитив, ему придется заплатить Продавцу штраф за каждый день задержки.

8) Продавец обязан сообщить Покупателю посредством факса или телекса не позднее, чем за пять дней до начала погрузки название танкера, его грузоподъемность, а также дату и порт разгрузки груза.

9) В случае если непредвиденные обстоятельства длятся более двадцати дней, каждая из сторон имеет право приостановить выполнение своих обязательств.

10) После подписания настоящего Соглашения все предварительные договоренности и переписка между сторонами, заключившими настоящее соглашение, становятся недействительными, если они входят в противоречие с положениями данного Соглашения.

Exercise 10. Compose your own Trade Contract using active vocabulary of the text.




Exercise 1. Read and translate the example of Advertising Agreement using the words and expressions given below:

Dated December 1, 2004 by and between WEIDER PUBLICATIONS, INC. WEIDER NUTRITION INTERNATIONAL, INC. This Advertising Agreement (the "Agreement") is made and entered into as ofDecember 1, 2004, by and between Weider Publications, Inc., a Delaware corporation ("WPI") and Weider Nutrition International, Inc., a Delaware corporation ("Weider Nutrition"). In consideration of the mutual covenants and promises contained herein and for other good and valuable consideration the receipt and sufficiency of which are hereby acknowledged, the parties hereto agree as follows: 1. Advertising 1.1. Advertising Pages. WPI will furnish to Weider Nutrition as many advertising pages (or, ad pages) each month as ordered for Weider Nutrition in each of WPI's publications. (a) Weider Nutrition shall present an annual advertising plan for each publication by March 31 for the year commencing the following June 1. (b) Weider Nutrition shall place insertion orders for ad pages in each issue within the time prescribed by WPI. An insertion order shall be defined as written ad lists supplied by Weider Nutrition and verbal orders placed by officers or directors of Weider Nutrition. (c) WPI shall have the option to insert an ad page ordered for Weider Nutrition up to the date the issue goes to press. (d) For each issue of each publication, WPI shall have the right to (i) rotate positions of each ad page of Weider Nutrition, (ii) pull Weider Nutrition ad pages if WPI believes the ratio of Weider Nutrition ad pages to total ad pages exceeds an acceptable level, and (iii) pull a Weider Nutrition ad page if the ad page conflicts with editorial policy. Notwithstanding the foregoing, WPI will use reasonable efforts to comply with the requests of Weider Nutrition for placement and rotation of its ads in each publication. 1.2. Ad Page Rate. (a) The Ad Page Rate shall be, for each publication, the amount (rounded upward to the nearest $100) derived by dividing (i) its budgeted Direct Production Costs, by (ii) its budgeted Average Book Size. The Ad Page Rate represents the direct cost per page for each publication. (b) Direct Production Costs shall be based on the accounting methods employed by WPI. Direct Production Costs shall be, for each publication, all costs related directly to the production and distribution of the publication, including, but not limited to, film prep and proofs, paper, printing and binding, freight, subs postage and display costs. Costs incurred for buyouts of articles and photos shall be specifically excluded from Direct Production Costs. (c) The Average Book Size shall be, for each publication, the amount (rounded to two decimal positions) derived by dividing (i) the sum total of the number of pages (including cover) published in a single copy of each issue for the fiscal year, by (ii) the number of issues published in the fiscal year. (d) The Ad Page Rate for each publication shall be updated annually by April 15 for the year commencing the following June 1, except in the event of an increase of more than 3% in the actual ad page rate during a fiscal year. In such event, the Ad Page Rate shall be adjusted upward during that fiscal year for the effect of such increase in excess of 3%. 1.3. Billing and Payment. Weider Nutrition ad pages shall be, for each publication, billed and paid in the same manner as all other advertisers. (a) WPI shall bill Weider Nutrition for each ad page at the Ad Page Rate on the bill date for each publication. (b) Weider Nutrition shall pay WPI each billing within 15 days of invoice date. (c) Late payments shall be subject to a 1/2% fee for each month, or portion thereof, the billing remains unpaid. 2. Term and Termination 2.1. Term. Unless terminated by the parties pursuant to Section 2.2 below, this Agreement shall continue in effect for a term of ten (10) years. 2.2. Termination, This Agreement may be terminated: (a) by mutual consent of the parties hereto; (b) by Weider Nutrition for a material breach of this Agreement by the Company or WPI which continues for 30 days after written notice thereof from Weider Nutrition to the Company and WPI; (c) by the Company or WPI for a material breach of this Agreement by Weider Nutrition which continues for 30 days after written notice thereof from the Company or WPI to Weider Nutrition; (d) by WPI with 30 days written notice to Weider Nutrition at such time that the Company no longer controls more than 50% of the voting control or ownership of Weider Nutrition. 3. Miscellaneous 3.1. Certification. The Chief Financial Officer or President/CEO of WPI shall sign a compliance certificate at the beginning and end of each fiscal year certifying that the Ad Page Rates were determined in accordance with this Agreement. 3.2.Force Majeure. If any party shall be prevented by an event of force majeure from the timely performance of any of its obligations under this Agreement, save and except the making of payments as provided in this Agreement, the obligation of performance shall be excused and shall not be a ground for cancellation or termination or default. The party suffering the event of force majeure shall use reasonable diligence to remedy such, but shall not be required to contest the validity of any authority, or to prevent or settle any strike or labor dispute. As used in this Agreement, the term "force majeure" shall mean any cause beyond a party's reasonable control, including without limitation, any of the following: Law or regulation, action or inaction of civil or military authority; inability to obtain any license, permit, or other authorization that may be required, unusually severe weather, casualty; unavoidable shutdown; fire, explosion, or flood; delay in transportation; and act of God. 3.3. Amendment.This Agreement may be amended, or any provision of this Agreement may be waived; provided, however, that any such amendment or waiver shall be binding only on a party hereto if such amendment or waiver is set forth in writing executed by such party. 3.4. Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, and interpretation of this Agreement and the performance of the obligations imposed by this Agreement shall be governed by the law of the State of California but without reference to choice of law or conflict of laws provisions thereof. 3.5. No Third Party Contract Rights. This Agreement is intended solely for the benefit of the parties hereto. Nothing herein shall be construed or deemed to create any rights or benefits to any third parties or third party beneficiaries.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have executed this Agreement as of the date first written above.

Weider Publications, Inc.




Michal T. Carr

Chief Executive Officer and President


Weider Nutrition International, Inc




Richard B. Bizzaro

Chief Executive Officer and President



in consideration of принимая во внимание

ad рекламное объявление

mutual взаимный

covenant соглашение; договор

receipt расписка, квитанция

to furnish снабжать

annual ежегодный

insertion объявление (в газете)

issue выпуск, издание

to rotate перемещать, чередовать

editorial редакторский, редакционный

notwithstanding несмотря на, тем не менее

foregoing вышеупомянутый

to comply with исполнять; подчиняться

pursuant to в соответствии с

to derive выводить, получать

prep and proofs подготовка и корректура

binding переплет

subs (subscribers) подписчики

postage почтовые расходы

to incur подвергать

buyout закупка всей партии товара

to exclude исключать

in such event в подобном случае

excess избыток, превышение

consent согласие

breach нарушение

thereof из этого, из того

miscellaneous разное

to remedy исправлять

diligence усердие, старание

casualty несчастный случай; авария

shutdown закрытие (предприятия); неполадка

to impose налагать; навязывать

provision положение

to waive отказываться

to set forth указывать

in witness whereof в удостоверение чего …

to execute оформить (договор)

Exercise 2. Answer the following questions:

1) Who are the parties of the Agreement?

2) What is said about the advertising pages?

3) What are the ad page rates?

4) In what cases may the Agreement be terminated?

5) Comment on the miscellaneous of the Agreement?


Exercise 3. Translate the following words and word combinations:

в соответствии с, положение, рекламные страницы, согласие, взаимный, снабжать, несчастный случай, редакторский, подписчик, объявление, исправлять, усердие, вышеупомянутый, выводить, в удостоверение чего, неполадка, принимая во внимание, исключать, в подобном случае, ежегодный, подготовка и корректура, нарушение, исполнять, публикация, несмотря на, обстоятельства непреодолимой силы, разное, обязательства, печатать, финансовый год, власти, начинать, распределение, расписка, приостанавливать, заказ, платежи, вступать в силу.


Exercise 4. Make up the sentences using the following words:in consideration of”, “notwithstanding”, ”in witness whereof”, “pursuant to”.

Exercise 5. Match the English and Russian equivalents:

1) Рекламное Соглашение вступает

в силу

a) This Agreement is intended solely

for the benefit of the Parties

2) В начале и в конце каждого

финансового года

b) The mutual consent o the Parties


3) Настоящее Соглашение может

быть приостановлено

c) The performance of the obligation

4) Стороны настоящего Соглашения

договорились о нижеследующем

d) In consideration of the mutual

covenants and promises contained


5) Прямые производственные

затраты основываются на

e) At the beginning and the end of

each fiscal year

бухгалтерских методах,

используемых в ….

6) Задержка в транспортировке

f) Advertising Agreement enters into

7) Обоюдное согласие сторон

настоящего Соглашения

g) This Agreement may be


8) Выполнение обязательств

h) For and behalf

9) Вопросы, связанные с

прочтением настоящего

i) The parties hereto agreed

as follows


10) Именуемый в дальнейшем

j) In witness whereof, the parties

hereto have executed this


11)Форс-мажорные обстоятельства

включают, но не ограничиваются

k) Delay in transportation

такими причинами как пожар,

наводнение и пр.

12) От имени и по поручению

l) Questions concerning the

interpretation of this Agreement

13) Настоящее Соглашение

предназначено исключительно

m) Hereinafter referred to as

для пользы Сторон

14) Принимая во внимание взаимные

договоры и обещания,

n) Direct production costs shall be

based on accounting methods

содержащиеся в настоящем employed in …


15) В удостоверении чего стороны

подписали настоящее Соглашение

o) Force majeure circumstances include

but not limited to: fire, flood and so on

Exercise 6. Find synonyms to the following words:

violation, mentioned above, to begin, in spite of, agreement, to correct, accident, fault, liabilities, to supply.

Exercise 7. Compose your own sentences using the following words:

1) concerning, all, shall, law, the, Agreement, governed, of, questions, interpretation, be, the, validity, this, by, and.

2) mutual, in, hereto, promises, other, consideration, as, covenants, valuable, and, follows, herein, good, and, the, consideration, of, the, and, parties, contained, for, agree.

3) event, majeure, suffering, shall, such, the, of, diligence, to, party, force, the, remedy, use, reasonable.

4) articles, Costs, excluded, for, buyouts, from, specifically, Production, of, shall, and, be, incurred, photos, costs.

5) cost, represents, page, the, each, direct, for, Rate, per, Ad, publication, the, Page.

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