Read the text about thermodynamics and unscramble the letters in the brackets to find the correct word. Translate the text. — КиберПедия 

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Read the text about thermodynamics and unscramble the letters in the brackets to find the correct word. Translate the text.



Thermodynamics is the study of the relationship between h______(tahe) and work. In other words, thermodynamics looks at how we can put e__________(renyge) into a system (whether it is a machine or a molecule) and make it do work. Alternatively, we might be able to do some work on a system and make it produce energy (like spinning the turbines in a power station to produce e____________(trielectyci)).

In c___________(micehryts), we sometimes speak more broadly about "energetics" of reactions (rather than thermodynamics), because energy given off during a r_________(tirecano) may simply be lost to the surroundings without doing useful work. Nevertheless, the ideas are the same: energy can be added to a set of molecules in order to produce a reaction, or a reaction can occur between a set of molecules in order to r________(esreale) energy.

7. Noun, verb, adjective, adverb, participle or preposition? What parts of speech do the underlined words belong to?

1. Physical chemistry is the application of physical principles and measurements to understand the properties of matter.   noun_________
2. Chemical reactions vary greatly in the speed at which they occur.   ______________
3. The use of infrared spectroscopy began in the 1950's by Wilbur Kaye.   ______________
4. Mass and volume are measures of the quantity of a substance.   ______________
5. All substances, including water, become less dense when they are heated and more dense when they are cooled.     ______________
6. At least two substances must be mixed in order to have a solution.   ______________
7. Chemical compounds can generally be classified into two broad groups: molecular compounds and ionic compounds.     ______________
8. Work and heat are interrelated concepts. ______________
9. Chemical kinetics is concerned with how rates of chemical reactions are measured.   ______________
10. Le Châtelier's Principle states that if a dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the conditions, the position of equilibrium moves to counteract the change.   ______________

Read the following quotations. What do they mean? Discuss them with your groupmates. Express agreement or disagreement.

· The nature of the chemical bond is the problem at the heart of all chemistry. (Bryce Crawford)

· The underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of a large part of physics and the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble. (Paul Dirac)

· The alchemical tradition assumes that every physical art or science is a body of knowledge which exists only because it is ensouled by invisible powers and processes. Physical chemistry, as it is practiced in the modern world, is concerned principally with pharmaceutical or industrial research projects. It is confined within the boundaries of an all-pervading materialism, which binds labor to the advancement of physical objectives. (Manly Palmer Hall)

· Chemistry has been termed by the physicist as the messy part of physics, but that is no reason why the physicists should be permitted to make a mess of chemistry when they invade it. (Frederick Soddy)

Use the following phrases to express your agreement or disagreement:

Agreement Disagreement
I quite agree with the quotation. Я вполне согласен с цитатой.   I agree with the quotation in principle. В принципе я согласен с цитатой.   I agree with the quotation in a sense. Я согласен с цитатой в некотором смысле.   I agree with the quotation whole–heartedly. Я всей душой согласен с цитатой. I’m afraid I have to disagree with the quotation. К сожалению, мне придется не согласиться с цитатой.   I couldn’t disagree more with it. Никак не могу согласиться с этим.   With all respect, I disagree. При всем уважении, я не согласен.   I disagree with it on every point. Я не согласен с этим по всем пунктам.

______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
9.Write down the words you associate with the term “physical chemistry”. Compare your words with the words of your groupmates.



PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
__________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________


III. Read the following text. What is the meaning of the words and word-combinations in bold?

TEXT B

COLLOIDS

 

A colloid is one of the three primary types of mixtures, with the other two being a solution and suspension. A colloid is a solution that has particles ranging between 1 and 1000 nanometers in diameter, yet are still able to remain evenly distributed throughout the solution. These are also known as colloidal dispersions because the substances remain dispersed and do notsettle to the bottom of the container. In colloids, one substance is evenly dispersed in another. The substance being dispersed is referred to as being in the dispersed phase, while the substance in which it is dispersed is in the continuous phase.

Properties of colloids. In order to be classified as a colloid, the substance in the dispersed phase must be larger than the size of a molecule but smaller than what can be seen with the naked eye. This can be more precisely quantified as one or more of the substance's dimensions must be between 1 and 1000 nanometers. If the dimensions are smaller than this the substance is considered a solution and if they are larger than the substance is a suspension.

Classifying colloids. A common method of classifying colloids is based on the phase of the dispersed substance and what phase it is dispersed in. The types of colloids includes sol, emulsion, foam, and aerosol.

1. Solis a colloidal suspension with solid particles in a liquid.

2. Emulsion is between two liquids.

3. Foamis formed when many gas particles are trapped in a liquid or solid.

4. Aerosolcontains small particles of liquid or solid dispersed in a gas.

When the dispersion medium is water, the colloidal system is referred to as a hydrocolloid. The particles in the dispersed phase can take place in different phases depending on how much water is available. For example,Jell-O powder mixed in with water creates a hydrocolloid. A common use for hydrocolloids is in the creation ofmedical dressings. (Jell-O is a brand name belonging to Illinois-based Kraft Foods for varieties of gelatin desserts, including fruit gels, puddings and no-bake cream pies. The brand's popularity led to "jello" becoming a generic term for gelatin dessert across the U.S. and Canada).

 

Dispersion Medium Dispersed Phase Type of Colloid Example
Solid Solid Solid sol Ruby glass
Solid Liquid Solid emulsion/gel Pearl, cheese
Solid Gas Solid foam Lava, pumice
Liquid Solid Sol Paints, cell fluids
Liquid Liquid Emulsion Milk, oil in water
Liquid Gas Foam Soap suds, whipped cream
Gas Solid Aerosol Smoke
Gas Liquid Aerosol Fog, mist

An easy way of determining whether a mixture is colloidal or not is through use of the Tyndall Effect. When light is shined through a true solution, the light passes cleanly through the solution, however when light is passed through a colloidal solution, the substance in the dispersed phases scatters the light in all directions, making it readily seen. An example of this is shining a flashlight into fog. The beam of light can be easily seen because the fog is a colloid.



Figure: Light being shined through water and milk. The light is not reflected when passing through the water because it is not a colloid. It is however reflected in all directions when it passes through the milk, which is colloidal.

Another method of determining whether a mixture is a colloid is by passing it through a semipermeable membrane. The larger dispersed particles in a colloid would be unable to pass through the membrane, while the surrounding liquid molecules can. Dialysis takes advantage of the fact that colloids cannot diffuse through semipermeable membranes to filter them out of a medium.

Preparation. There are two principal ways of preparation of colloids:

  • Dispersion of large particles or droplets to the colloidal dimensions by milling, spraying, or application of shear(e.g., shaking, mixing, or high shear mixing).
  • Condensation of small dissolved molecules into larger colloidal particles byprecipitation, condensation, or redox reactions. Such processes are used in the preparation of colloidal silica or gold.

Tasks

1. Help the student to solve the problems concerning colloids.

♦ Is dust a colloid? If so, what type is it?

♦ Is whipped cream a colloid? If so, what type is it?

♦ What does Sol mean?

♦ When hit by light what happens to a colloidal mixture?

♦ What is the mixture considered if the particles are larger than the particles of a colloidal substance?

2. Find ten words in the wordsearch from the text B. (→, ↓)

Q F K A H F O A M G Y
D H U C C O L L O I D
I D I S P E R S I O N
A P F S U W O T S O L
L E E M U L S I O N P
Y A P A R T I C L E O
S R E P A R O M I S T
I L I Q U I D N E A M
S O L U T I O N L O L





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