1. All __________ is made of elements – substances that cannot be __________ by chemical activity.
2. An atom is the __________ of an element that retains the element's __________.
3. Each atom has a __________ called a nucleus.
4. The number of protons in an atom __________ an element's physical properties.
5. Electrons and protons __________ each other.
6. Individual atoms can __________ or __________ electrons.
7. Scientists call atoms with ___________ isotopes.
8. Prepare the reports upon one of the following topics:
1. Chemistry as a science.
2. Alchemy and alchemists.
3. The Russian noted chemists.
4. The twenty-first-century chemistry.
5. New frontiers in chemistry.
Surf the Internet. Find the information about new chemical sub-disciplines which have emerged in recent years. Make presentations. Use some useful expressions from the Appendix 1.
| UNIT 2. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
1. What does inorganic chemistry study? What topics does it deal with?
2. What is the modern definition of inorganic chemistry?
3. What is the difference between inorganic substances and organic ones?
4. What branches of chemistry is inorganic chemistry connected with?
II. Read the text and find the answers to the questions above.
A branch of chemistry which deals with the study of elements in the periodic table and their compounds, their physical and chemical properties is called inorganic chemistry. Inorganic chemistry deals with all topics except a part of carbon chemistry, which is dealt with under organic chemistry. Inorganic compounds are generally those that are not biological, and characterized by not containing any hydrogen and carbon bonds.
The term "organic" has traditionally referred only to animal or plant matter, so there is a common misconception that organic chemistry always refers to life processes, or that inorganic chemistry applies to everything that does not. This assumption is inaccurate. Many chemical processes veer away from this line of thinking, and there are many chemical life processes that depend on inorganic chemical processes.
There are exceptions to every rule. Although carbon is the main common element in organic chemistry, inorganic chemical compounds can contain carbon, too. For example, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide both contain carbon, but are inorganic compounds. Carbon dioxide, in particular, is also very important to chemical processes necessary for life, especially plant life. The truth is that the lines between inorganic and organic chemistry are often blurred.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the following topics:
The history of atomic structure is studied under inorganic chemistry. Though atomic structure is studied under physical chemistry too, in inorganic chemistry, the structure of atom, atomic mass, number, electronic configuration, etc., are learned.
Study of Periodic Table
Inorganic chemistry in periodic table exclusively deals with the aspects of the periodic table like arrangement of elements, the concept of periods and groups, how properties of elements differ with their position in the periodic table, periodic properties of elements in a particular period and group etc. Periodic table is the most important tool box for chemists. It helps us to bring an order into inorganic chemistry. Periodic table is considered as center of study of inorganic chemistry. It systematizes and rationalizes the chemical facts and helps in predicting new ones. It suggests fruitful areas for further research.
Study of Individual Group Elements and Block Elements
Each group contains some elements whose properties are similar to each other. Similarly, each block contains elements which have similar electronic configuration. All these things are studied under inorganic chemistry, as separate topics. The blocks s, p, d and f are usually studied separately and then the groups under these blocks, the elements in them, etc are studied separately.
Ores and Alloys
When studying the individual groups, usually, the ores from which the group elements are extracted, alloys (combination of two or more metals) formed from these elements etc are studied under inorganic chemistry.
Since elements exhibit different types of chemical bonding to form a compound, elements are studied under inorganic chemistry; the chemical bonding is also a very important topic studied under inorganic chemistry. Though some part of chemical bonding is also studied under physical chemistry, main idea about it and the reason behind an element forming a particular bond is obtained from inorganic chemistry.
Concept of Acids and Bases
A chemical substance can be acidic or basic. It is very important to study the property of acids and bases to understand why a particular compound behaves as an acid or a base. The concept of acids and bases, the theories that explain the behavior of acids and bases etc are studied under inorganic chemistry.
This part of inorganic chemistry deals with the study of complexes. The coordination complexes are very important in day to day life. So, studying them is necessary to understand them better. The ligand attached to it, is important, and the geometry of the complexes are studied under inorganic chemistry.
Nuclear and Radioactivity
The phenomenon of radioactivity is studied both under physical and inorganic chemistry. Though physical chemistry studies the theories related to radioactivity, inorganic chemistry deals with reactions based on radioactivity, nuclear reactions, etc. Radioactivity here helps us understand the formation of new daughter nuclei from parent nuclei, isotopes, etc.
Types of Chemical Reactions
There are many types of chemical reactions such as decomposition, combustion, acid-base reaction, etc. All these are studied under inorganic chemistry. It also deals with a very important type of reaction, called redox reaction, or reduction and oxidation reaction. Balancing a chemical reaction and a redox reaction is a topic in itself. Balancing of a redox reaction is more difficult and complicated than balancing a normal chemical reaction. These are studied thoroughly under inorganic chemistry.