Modal verbs and the message. — КиберПедия 

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Modal verbs and the message.

2017-05-14 945
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Task 11. Read the texts. Recognize modal verbs, and choose the proper Russian equivalents from the lists below.

If we are to fly to other planets we shall have to design a gigantic spacecraft. The conditions there must be as close to those of the Earth as possible so that we will not have to worry about all the usual hardships of space travel. The capability of man as a space researcher should be the subject of close examination. The problem of overload is to come first. Depending on its direction it is to be classified as longitudinal, transverse, or perpendicular. Next, the problem of weightlessness is to be considered.

Each spaceman must know the design of his own craft, and he must be able to maintain the systems during the flight. If some unforeseen situation develops he should know where to look for the breakdown, and should be able to remove its cause if the crew is to feel confident during the flight and experiments. Planets like the Earth must be quite common. A question arises: what sort of life might exist within our own solar system other than that on the Earth? It is possible that simple forms of life may exist on Mars. Most astronomers would agree that they are not to find any intelligent life on the other planets that circle our sun.

Intelligent life might exist on other worlds. If wonderful civilizations exist among the stars, it is only natural that human beings would want to visit them, or at least to communicate with them. But mankind may never be able to journey there to meet the inhabitants because of the enormous distances involved. No wonder the problem of intelligent life on other worlds should be so exciting!

Должно быть; не суждено; должна быть; возможно; могла бы; не исключено; не в состоянии; по-видимому; естественно.


Task 11.1. Read the beginning of the sentences, and translate them into Russian choosing the proper Russian equivalents of the modal verbs from the list below.

1. It has to be admitted that... 2. One can conclude that... 3. It will be remembered that... 4. It is to be stated that... 5. It should be stressed that... 6. One would expect that... 7. It must be borne in mind that... 8. One may think that...

можно, необходимо, естественно, есть основания, приходится, следует, нужно.


Task 11.2. Choose the proper Russian equivalents of modal verbs with negation from the list below.

1. The method is not to be recommended. 2. It may or may not be the case. 3. You must not criticise your ideas while inventing them. 4. They need not be counted. 5. One does not have to accept this viewpoint. 6. The fact cannot be denied. 7. The instrumeat should not be relied upon. 8. The calculation won't agree with the observation. 9. The theory might not be valid for these conditions.

Возможно и не; нельзя; необязательно; возможно не; не следует; упорно не (никак не); не надо; ничто не вынуждает; нет оснований.


Task 11.3. Use the proper verb basing on the arguments in brackets.

1. There... be a mistake in the calculation (because the author cannot think of any other explanation of the result obtained). 2. Any creature from an outer civilization …. appear alien to us (because this is the author's personal viewpoint). 3. There were no universities in Greece at all, there were schools. A philosopher …… have a school and a few men... come and listen to his lectures (because such was the tradition, the pattern of behaviour). 4. They knew that the project... be abandoned in a few months (because such was the decision taken or agreement made). 5. At that time it was not certain that the problem of overload... be overcome at all (because it was not possible to produce necessary conditions). 6. A single good idea... sometimes give rise to a series of hypotheses (because there is a chance that this will be so). 7. Most scientists believe that to make contacts with outer intelligent beings man …. not leave the Earth (because there are other possible ways of making contacts than travelling). 8. As soon as these results were published the theory... be revised (because it could not account for the new effect observed).


Task 12. Read the text. Substitute the proper English modal verbs for the Russian words in brackets.

Those who wish to become students at the university (обязаны) take their entrance examinations. Recruitment of students to the university follows certain procedures which no one (разрешено) ignore. If a perspective student is ill and (не в состоянии) appear before the examination board he (надлежит) present a medical certificate to this effect, in which case the examination (приходится) be postponed. Another rule is that no student (не должен) be late for his examination. Also, students (не должны) argue with the examination board, although this is not a regular rule, but rather wise advice. However, whether they strictly observe the rules or not, there are always people who (могут) fail in their examinations and those who (обычно) succeed. This (всегда была и будет) be the situation at all times.


Task 12.1. Identify the modal verbs followed by perfect and non-perfect infinitive and give Russian equivalents of the predicates.

1. In the past the island must have been inhabited by some primitive tribe but now it has obviously been deserted. 2. The Moon, with its soft surface like damp sand, might have been designed for descending spacecraft. 3. Under such an assumption they ought to have arrived d completely different conclusions. At least they might have. 4. With our present-day technology such phenomena could not have been observed in the laboratory; what was registered must, in fact, have been due to some malfunctioning of the recorder. 5. It is difficult to figure out what actually happened. They may have changed their minds at the last moment and may have set out in a different direction. Or else, they might be repelled by the idea of loneliness, and could have made an attempt to return. 6. According to his hypothesis, individual men could have covered the distance between the two continents but would never have risked to take their families along. 7. His idea was that these cosmic objects should have originated under such harsh conditions that no analogy might be valid.


Task 13. Read and translate the text without consulting a dictionary.

Useful words and word combinations:

to breed - разводить

dairy and beef cattle - молочный и мясной крупнорогатый скот

poultry - домашняя птица

livestock - скот

manure - навоз

fertility - плодородие

raw material - сырьё

to support - поддерживать

weeds, insects and diseases - сорняки, насекомые и болезни

exhaust pipe - выхлопная труба

instant access - постоянный доступ

tо be engaged in - быть занятым чем-либо

tо supply with - снабжать чем-либо

tо impose taxes upon-налагать налоги на...

tо depend on/upon - зависеть от...

tо be based on/upon - основываться на...

tо be going to do - собираться сделать что-либо


If one looks at the basic structure of modem agriculture he/she is not likely (навряд ли) to find any dramatic changes in it. There are two main branches of agriculture - crop production and animal husbandry. Crop production is the practice of growing and harvesting crops. In order to obtain high yields crops are grown under favorable soil and climatic conditions. Animal husbandry is engaged in breeding of farm animals and their use. Dairy and beef cattle, hogs, ship and poultry are highly important sources of food for man. They help to get such nutritious products as meat, milk and eggs. Many crops grown by man are used for feeding livestock. At the same time manure produced by farm animals is an important source of the maintenance of soil fertility. Most of the nutrients, taken by plants are thus returned.

These two branches of agriculture are extremely important for national economy. It supplies people with food and clothing and industry with raw material. Countries like Japan, the USA and Canada support local farmers. They forbid the import of agricultural products from other countries and decrease the taxes imposed upon local farmers. Моrеоvеr, the state invests money into the intensification of agricultural production, which is based on mechanization, electrification and chemization. Preparation of soil, planting and harvesting crops, feeding farm animals and cleaning livestock buildings are mechanized. The use of chemical fertilizers increases crop yields and quality. Genetics helps much in the development of better high-yielding varieties of crops. Chemistry helps to control weeds, insects and diseases.

Transport a 195O's farmer through time and he would be flabergasted (потрясён). Everything has changed even the language. Phrases like "groundwater protection" and "electric fire control" would leave the 50's farmer scratching his head. Back then "environmental protection" meant putting a tin can over the tractors exhaust pipe. If earlier farm families took more people to do the work, present families tend to be smaller today but they produce twice as much as their counterparts from the 50's. It's not difficult to notice that today's farms are not only bigger, but have instant access to information around the world and the latest technologies in agriculture. Computers help much with everything from soil analysis to financial planning and farming is going to change even more in the years to come.

Task 13.1. Answer the questions:

1. What is the basic stracture of agriculture? 2. What are the two branches of agriculture engaged in? 3. How do the nutrients taken by the plants return into soil? 4. Is agriculture important for country's economy? Why? 5. What do the countries do to protect the fanners? Give your own examples. 6. What agricultural processes are mechanized? 7. What do the present day farms and the 1950's farms differ in?


Task 14. Read the text and be ready for a comprehension check-up

Useful words and words combinations:

feature - черта

tool - инструмент

to proceed investigations - продолжать исследования

device - прибор

to till the soil - обрабатывать землю

to perform - выполнять, совершать

cultural practices - агротехнические приемы

growing season - вегетационный период

tractor powered- приводимый в движение трактором

self-propelled- самоходный

silage unloaders - машины для разгрузки силоса

threshing machine - молотильная машина

drill - рядовая сеялка

root crop - корнеплоды

root lifter- уборочная машина для корнеплодов

potato digger - картофелекопалка

grain grinder - зернодробилка

feed mixer - кормосмеситель

forage cutter - корморезка

years to come - грядущие года

implement - орудие труда

to do without - обходиться без чего-либо

to he powered by - приводиться в действие

to be equipped with - быть оборудованным чем-либо

to provide smb. with smth - обеспечивать кого-то чем-либо


Task 14. 1. Check-up for a comprehension

1) Какие операции может совершать техника в растениеводстве?

2) Какие машины являются самоходными, а какие нет?

3) Машины, используемых при сборе урожая.

4) Техника, используемая в животноводстве.



Structure of Research

Topic / Theme – Тема исследования

Relevance of the Topic (Motivation for the Study) – Актуальность темы исследования

Object of Research – Объект исследования

Subject of Research – Предмет исследования

Aims of Research – Цели исследования

Research Questions – Задачи исследования

Hypotheses of Research – Гипотезы исследования

Methods of Investigation – Методы исследования

Original Contribution – Новизна

Significance – Значимость

Implementations – Внедрения

Conclusions – Выводы

Useful Language

Topic / Theme of Research

The theme of our investigation is … Темой нашего исследования является …
The theme of our exploration is devoted to … Тема нашего исследования посвящена …


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