Academic Student Life in the US. — КиберПедия 

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Academic Student Life in the US.

2017-05-14 694
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Academic year is usually nine month duration, or two semesters of 4 and a half months each. Classes usually begin in September and end in July. There are summer classes for those who want to improve the grades or take up additional courses.

During one term or semester, a student will study, simultaneously (одновременно), four or five different subjects. At the undergraduate level, there may be some courses that every student has to take (for example, classes in world history, math, writing or research). But students select their major plus a number of electives (факультативные курсы) (courses they do not have to take, but may choose). The students’ progress is often assessed through quizzes (short oral or written tests), term papers and a final examination in each course. Typically, an undergraduate student has to earn a number of credits (about 120) in order to receive degree at the end of four years of college. Credits are earned by attending lectures (or lab classes) and by successfully completing assignments and examinations. One credit usually equals one hour of class per week in a single course. A three-credit course in biology could involve two hours of lectures plus one hour in a science lab every week. The course may last 10 to 16 weeks - the length of a semester. Any student may audit a course, that is to take up an extra course for personal interest without earning credits, it must be paid for on an hourly basis.

Each part of a student’s work in a course is given a mark which helps to determine his final grade. A student record consists of his grade in each course. College grades, determined by each instructor on the basis of class work and examinations, are usually on a five-point scale, with letters to indicate the levels of achievement. A - is the highest mark, indicating superior accomplishment (достижение), and the letters go through B, C, D to E or F which denotes failure. Many schools assign points for each grade (A=5, B=4, etc.) so that grade point average (3,5) is required to continue in school and to graduate.

Task 10. Work with the article given step by step:

Почитайте статью.

Определите цели публикации.

Выпишите ключевые предложения из каждого параграфа.

Составьте реферат статьи.

Сократите реферат до аннотации.

 

Task 11. Read and translate the patterns. Using them compose a dialogue about your thesis necessity.

I couldn’t care less The whole thing bores me to death
Please yourself It doesn’t matter to me
What’s the point? It’s a bore, as far as I’m concerned
I don’t mind what you do.  
Reacting: bad reacting: good
Don’t be so boring! It’s not as bad as all that, surely?
What a misery you are! I’m surprised you feel that way about it.
You’re a pain in the neck! Listen, if you look at it this way...
That’s typical of you! Oh, come on, it’s actually quite interesting
  I see what you mean, but on the other hand...

 

Task 12. Speak about your thesis.

Consult any dictionary to find suitable English equivalents for the following Russian words and expressions:актуальность, методология, методологические основы, гипотеза, цель диссертационного исследования, задачи исследования.

Continue the sentences according to the thesis of your own:

Проблема... является актуальной для общества, так как...

Проблема... является актуальной с теоретической точки зрения, так как...

Проблема... является актуальной для практики, так как...

Все возрастающая значимость проблемы..., практическая востребованность со стороны...и неразработанность ее в науке обусловили тему нашего исследования и его проблему: (каковы содержания и условия..., определяющие специфику процесса...)

Объектом исследования являлся (процесс...)

Предмет исследования представлял собой (пути его реализации на основе...)

Цель исследования: (определить особенности процесса...)

Гипотеза исследования: (поскольку..., то это позволяет предположить, что....)

Задачи исследования: (определить сущность, структуру и дать характеристику процесса...) (выявит содержание, средства и способы оптимального...) (раскрыть условия, способствующие высокой эффективности этого процесса)

Методологической основой исследования выступают (теории).

 

Task 13. Read the patterns. Using them compose a dialogue about your scientific research.

Asking permission
I thought I might...
Alright if I...
D’you mind if I...
Anyone mind if I...
Would it be alright if I...
I wonder if I could possibly...
I hope you don’t mind, but would it be at all possible for me to...
OK
Yes, go ahead
Yes, I suppose so
Oh, well, all right
refusing
That’s not a very good idea
No, please don’t
I’d rather you didn’t if you don’t mind
I’m sorry, but that’s not possible

 

Task 14. Speak about thesis Structure.

Read the expressions given in the first column. Find a suitable Russian equivalent for every expression of the first column in the second one.

The first research efforts, which finally resulted (results, will result) in Chapter..., were (are) directed towards the description of the content, concept and scope of...   На следующем этапе будет детально описано как историческое развитие проблемы, так и ее состояние на сегодняшний день.
The derived concept of a potentially dynamic character of... will serve thereby as the ultimate frame of reference. ... представляет особый случай, чему была (сейчас, будет) посвящена отдельная глава.  
The next step would be to describe in detail both historical evolution and current state of... Принимая во внимание доказанное отсутствие..., была (будет) предпринята осторожная попытка сформулировать некоторые рекомендации и предложить планы на будущее.
To arrive at such a surveyable description, the... was (is, will be) divided into... categories. Глава..., соответственно, посвящена общему историческому развитию... относительно к...
Accordingly, Chapter... deals in detail with the general historic evolution of... with regard to... Первые исследовательские шаги, которые в конечном итоге легли (ложатся, лягут) в основу Главы..., (были) посвящены описанию содержания, концепции и задач исследования...
... constituted (constitutes, will constitute) a special case, to which a separate chapter, Chapter..., is devoted. Чтобы добиться такого обзорного описания, было (сейчас, будет) необходимо разделить... на две категории.
In the concluding chapter... will be evaluated. В Заключении будет оценен...
Bearing in mind the established deficiencies of..., a cautious attempt to formulate some recommendations and future prospects was (will be) undertaken. Разработанная концепция проблемы, имеющая предположительно развивающийся характер, будет служить, таким образом, основным пунктом ссылок/отправной точкой исследования.  

 

Task 15. Write down a composition «Thesis Structure».

Answer the questions:

1. What are the first research attempts directed to?

2. Will the derived concept serve as an ultimate frame of reference?

3. Have you already analyses the historical evolution of the problem?

4. The next step will be to describe in detail the current state of the problem, won’t it?

5. Does any problem constitute a special case?

6. Will a separate chapter be devoted to that special case?

7. What will be evaluated in the concluding chapter?

8. Is it necessary to formulate some recommendations bearing in mind the established deficiencies?

9. Have you already thought of some future prospects based on the results of the Thesis?

Read the sentences below. Which sentences are more suitable for the concluding chapter?

The previously described historical evolution of the question clearly shows that...

Now we’ll investigate...

A more detailed description of the specific contents of... will form Chapter...

... will be treated in detail in Chapter...

In respect of... we undertake an attempt to create some experimental model..

The overall impression of the question which came to the fore after theoretical investigation... has indeed been strengthened by the findings of Chapter...

In this Chapter I will first deal with the crucial observation of...

... that will therefore be compared with...

The next step in evaluation will then be an inquiry into the underlying reasons for...

And to conclude, bearing in mind the established deficiencies of the current state of..., a cautious attempt to formulate some recommendations will be undertaken...

 

Task 16. Write down a composition reflecting experimental research on the scientific problem of the Thesis.

Answer the questions:

1. What does historical evolution of the problem show?

2. In Chapter 2 experimental research will be treated, won’t it?

3. Will you investigate the problem only from the theoretical point of view or with the help of experiment too?

4. Will you use some widely-spread experimental model?

5. Will you compare the results of the experiment with some other data?

6. You will make crucial observation of the Thesis in the concluding chapter, won’t you?

7. Will you inquiry some underlying reasons for the results obtained?

8. Do you think there are many deficiencies of the problem?

9. What will you do after some deficiencies have been established?

 

Калиниченко Элина Борисовна

Романова Ольга Владимировна

УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ ДЛЯ МАГИСТРОВ

«ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE»

 

 


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