Exercise 8. Translate the following word-combinations from Russian into English.
разные виды растений; «крепкий орешек»; менять распорядок дня; жесткая позиция; блистательная победа; с особым интересом; запах свежескошенного сена; трудная проблема; блестящий ученый; сообщить подробности; найти убежище; легкий аромат цветов; точка зрения по этому вопросу; укрывать растения от прямого солнечного света.
Find the information about the history of farming in Great Britain. Write out and memorize words and expressions connected with agriculture.
Agriculture was invented independently in different parts of the world.In Britain the vast majority of Saxons made their living from farming. Up to 8 oxen pulled ploughs and fields were divided into 2 or sometimes 3 huge strips. One strip was ploughed and sown with crops while the other was left fallow.
The Saxons grew crops of wheat, barley and rye. They also grew peas, cabbages, parsnips, carrots and celery. They also ate fruit such as apples, blackberries, raspberries and sloes.
However Saxon farming was very primitive. The farmers grew enough to feed themselves and their families and very little else. At times during the Saxon era there were terrible famines in England when poor people starved to death.
Things didn’t change much in the Middle Ages. Most people in the Middle Ages lived in small villages of 20 or 30 families. The land was divided into 3 huge fields. Each year 2 were sown with crops while one was left unused to allow it to recover. Each peasant had some strips of land in each field. Most peasants owned only one ox so they had to join with other families to obtain the team of oxen needed to pull a plough. After ploughing the land was sown. Men sowed grain and women planted peas and beans.
There were no fundamental changes to farming in England in the 16th century. Nor were there any in the 17th century although new crops such as tomatoes and potatoes were introduced. Both took a long time to be accepted. In England much of the fens was drained for farming.
During the 18th century farming was gradually transformed by an agricultural revolution. Until 1701 seed was sown by hand. In that year Jethro Tull invented a seed drill, which sowed seed in straight lines. He also invented a horse drawn hoe which hoed the land and destroyed weed between rows of crops.
Under the 3 field system, which still covered much of England, all the land around a village or small town was divided into 3 huge fields. Each farmer owned some strips of land in each field. During the 18th century land was enclosed. That means it was divided up so each farmer had all his land in one place. Enclosure allowed farmers to use their land more efficiently.
In the early and mid-19th century farming in Britain prospered. It was also helped by new technology. New fertilizers were introduced. Farmers also began using clay pipes to drain their fields.
However the good times for British farmers ended in the 1870s. Cheap American grain brought to Britain meant a depression in British farming.
In the 20th century British farmers greatly increased production. New varieties of cereals were introduced and from the 1940s new pesticides were developed. Farmers also used far more artificial fertilizers. Farming also became mechanized.
2. You are participants of the International Agricultural Conference “Food Plants and their Cultivation in Different Countries”. Make short reports on the following subjects:
1. Cereals: wheat, rye.
2. Cereals: oat, barley.
3. Cereals: rice, maize.
5. Fruit and berries.
7. New tendencies in gardening.
IV. Final Activity
Visit the link www.izhgsha.ruto find out more about the Faculty of Agronomy of the Izhevsk State Agricultural Academy.
Consider the following points:
- the history of the faculty;
- the faculty staff;
- the departments of the faculty;
- the total number of students;
- students’ life.
Present your report in writing (1 page).You can use other additional resources.
| The maple's in bud,
bright rhythms of red.
lift rich yellow heads.
Spring beauties dance like
flashes of twilight.
Violets weave grasses
with ribbons of white.
|| A swath of orange
unfurls its long tail
starts scolding at me
in a long mad wail.
The year is at Spring,
the day is of sun,
the world is in April
all nature is one.
Anna Raber (Holmesville, OH)
| I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o'er vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host of golden daffodils,
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.
Continuous as the stars that shine
And twinkle on the Milky Way
They stretched in never-ending line
Along the margin of a bay;
Ten thousand saw I at a glance,
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.
The waves beside them danced, but they
Outdid the sparkling waves in glee:
A poet could not be gay
In such a jocund company!
I gazed - and gazed - but little thought
What wealth the show to me had brought.
For oft, when on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood,
They flash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude,
And then my heart with pleasure fills
And dances with the daffodils.
|| Как облако в небесной выси,
Я по земле один блуждал,
И танец золотых нарциссов
В краю озерном увидал.
Под сенью куп, под пенье вод,
Под бриза легкого полет.
Их было бесконечно много,
Как ночью звезд на небесах,
И стала звездною дорогой
А танец, яркий и живой,
Все не кончался предо мной.
И волны танцевали живо,
Мерцала, искрилась вода,
Но блеск цветов, такой игривый,
Сиянье волн затмил тогда.
Я красотой был окружен,
Беспечно в радость погружен.
В часы раздумья и печали,
Когда лежу я, одинок,
Я вижу вновь, как трепетали
Цветы, как реял ветерок.
И сердце, радостью полно,
Танцует с ними заодно.
(перевод Ирины Палий)
A time for preparation:
repair tools, order plants,
double dig food plots,
prepare seed boxes.
prune orchard fruits,
plant garlic, artichokes and shallots,
make new beds and borders,
take time to enjoy the snowdrops.
Spring clean the garden,
sow seeds for summer,
plant early flowering plants,
sow lettuce, rocket radishes,
and early varieties of carrots and peas.
Bulbs are flowering,
hoe flower beds to keep the weeds out,
plant strawberries, fertilize roses,
borders, hedges, trees and shrubs.
Look out for and deal with pests,
trim hedges, plant and train sweet pea,
plant tubs, troughs and window boxes.
It’s summer: deadhead plants and water regularly, harvest peas, asparagus and early potatoes, dig up bulbs and store for autumn planting.
Strawberries are ready for picking,
cut and dry herbs, prune and deadhead
roses, feed tomatoes.
Take cuttings of shrubs and herbs,
harvest crops as they become ready,
look out for butterflies, sit back and enjoy the fruits of your labour.
Plant daffodil bulbs, pick blackberries, evergreen shrubs can be lifted and moved now, start a compost heap from autumn clearing.
Pick apples and pears, feed the birds,
clear away old rubbish and leaves and put on compost heap.
Harvest leeks and turnips,
remove moss from pathways,
lag outdoor taps and water pipes,
check for hedgehogs hibernating
beneath bonfire heaps.
Plant winter hanging baskets,
clean up and organize tool shed,
rake up last of leaves,
cut shoots for indoor decoration.