Text 2. WHAT IS A COMPUTER?
A computer is a machine with an intricate network of electronic circuits that operate switches or magnetize tiny metal cores. The switches, like the cores, are capable of being in one or two possible states, that is, on or off; magnetized or demagnetized. The machine is capable of storing and manipulating numbers, letters, and characters (symbols).
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 14
The basic idea of a computer is that we can make the machine do what we want by inputting signals that turn certain switches on and turn others off, or magnetize or do not magnetize the cores.
The basic job of computers is processing of information. For this reason computers can be defined as devices which accept information in the form of instructions, called a program, and characters, called data, perform mathematical and / or logical operations on the information, and then supply results of these operations. The program, or part of it, which tells the computers what to do and the data, which provide the information needed to solve the problem, are kept inside the computer in a place called memory.
It is considered that computers have many remarkable powers. However most computers, whether large or small, have three basic capabilities.
First, computers have circuits for performing arithmetic operations, such as: addition, subtraction, division, multiplication and exponentiation.
Second, computers have a means of communicating with the user. After all, if we couldn't feed information in and get results back, these machines wouldn't be of much use. Some of the most common methods of inputting information are to use terminals, diskettes, disks and magnetic tapes. The computer's input device (a disk drive or tape drive) reads the information into the computer. For outputting information two common devices used are: a printer, printing the new information on paper, and a cathode-ray-tube display, which shows the results on a TV-like screen.
Third, computers have circuits which can make decisions. The kinds of decisions which computer circuits can make are not of the type: "Who would win the war between two countries?" or "Who is the richest person in the world?" Unfortunately, the computer can only decide three things, namely: Is one number less than another? Are two numbers equal? and, Is one number greater than another?
A computer can solve a series of problems and make thousands of logical decisions without becoming tired. It can find the solution to a problem in a fraction of the time it takes a human being to do the job.
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A computer can replace people in dull, routine tasks, but it works according to the instructions given to it. There are times when a computer seems to operate like a mechanical 'brain', but its achievements are limited by the minds of human beings. A computer cannot do anything unless a person tells it what to do and gives it the necessary information; but because electric pulses can move at the speed of light, a computer can carry out great numbers of arithmetic-logical operations almost instantaneously. A person can do the same, but in many cases that person would be dead long before the job was finished.
8. Переведите текст. Ответьте на вопросы, используя ин
1. What is a computer? 2. What are the two possible states of the switches? 3. What are the main functions of a computer? 4. In what way can we make the computer do what we want? 5. What is the basic task of a computer? 6. In what form does a computer accept information? 7. What is a program? 8. What are data? 9. What is memory? 10. What three basic capabilities have computers? 11. What are the ways of inputting information into the computer? 12. What is the function of an input device? 13. What devices are used for outputting information? 14. What decisions can the computer make? 15. What are the computer's achievements limited by?
9. Найдите в тексте 2 английские эквиваленты следующих
Сложная сеть электронных цепей; управлять (приводить в действие) переключателями; возможные состояния; хранить (запоминать) числа; обрабатывать символы; посредством ввода сигналов; включать; выключать; размагничивать сердечники; обработка информации; информация в виде команд; символы, называемые данными; выполнять математические операции; выдавать результаты; обеспечивать необходимую информацию; иметь замечательные возможности; основные свойства; сложение, вычитание, деление, умножение; возведение в степень; средства для общения с пользователем; устройство ввода; дисковод; считывать информацию; вывод информации; катоднолучевая трубка; принимать решения; выполнять тысячи логических операций; без устали; находить реше-
Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 16
ние задачи; значительно меньший промежуток времени; человек; нудная рутинная работа; в соответствии с введенной программой; вырабатывать свои суждения; возможности ограничены программой, заложенной в него человеком; дать требуемую информацию; электрические импульсы; со скоростью света; мгновенно производить огромное количество математических операций; человеку может не хватить всей жизни, чтобы закончить работу.
10. Составьте пары или группыблизких позначению слов
из перечня, приведенного ниже.
Например: A. to perform, to exercise, to carry out; B. a man, a person, a human being;
Verbs: to turn on, to provide, to type, to accept, to help, to learn, to observe, to call, to tell, to keep, to feed, to solve, to relate, to switch off, to communicate, to receive, to supply, to switch on, to assist, to print, to study, to input, to turn off, to decide, to store, to say, to name, to watch.
Nouns: work, machine, fundamentals, display, application, capabilities, job, storage, screen, state, basics, use, concept, specialist, journal, character, memory, idea, expert, magazine, position, symbol, command, data, solution, device, instruction, powers, information, decision.
Adjectives: basic, tiny, common, small, main, significant, routine, general, remarkable, uninterested, intricate, important, wonderful, complex, little.
Adverbs: rapidly, probably, instantaneously, in a moment, quickly, perhaps.
11. Выполните письменный перевод текста 3 по вариантам.
Text3. APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS
1.At present a great deal of the work force of most countries is engaged in creating, processing, storing, communicating and just working with information. Computers have become commonplace in homes, offices, stores, schools, research institutes, plants.
The use of computers in business, industry and communication services is widespread today. Computer-controlled robots are able to improve the quality of manufactured products and
17 Unit 1. Information-Dependent Society
to increase the productivity of industry. Computers can control the work of power stations, plants and docks. They help in making different decisions and in management of economy.
The work of banks depends upon computer terminals for millions of daily operations. Without these terminals, records of deposits and withdrawals would be difficult to maintain, and it would be impossible to make inquiries about the current status of customer accounts.
Computers form a part of many military systems including communication and fire control. They are applied for automatic piloting and automatic navigation. Space exploration depends on computers for guidance, on-board environment and research.
2. Computers find application in astronomy and upper atmosphere research. Weather forecasting, library information services can benefit from computers too.
It is interesting to note that computers are widely used in medicine. They became valuable medical diagnostic tools. Computers are used for optical scanning and image processing, ranging from pattern recognition to image processing. Technicians can operate computer tomography scanners which combine x-rays with computer technology to give sectional views of the body of patients. The views then can be combined into a single image shown on the screen.
It should be noticed that learning on a computer can be fun. Students spend more time with computer-aided instruction performing the assigned task, as compared with conventional classroom.
At last air traffic control is impossible without computer application. It fully depends upon computer-generated information.
Many other uses of computers that we cannot imagine at present will become commonplace in the transition from an industrial to post industrial, or information society.
to maintain records — вести учет
deposits and withdrawal — вклады и изъятие (выемка)
guidance — наведение (на цель); управление; руководство