23. People ) speak the language of their country.
c) were speaking.
24. It is evident that the electricity... the energy of the future.
a) has been;
c) will be.
25. Electric power … universal.
a) has become;
c) will become.
26. Air and water pollution by industry … now … tremendous proportions.
b) has reached;
c) is reaching.
27. Industrial pollution … many sources of water undrinkable.
b) is making
c) has made.
Заполните пропуски модальными глаголами и их эквивалентами и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык.
28. Supercomputers capable of performing billions of operations a second … to be developed soon.
b) will have;
29. One … study a lot to become an engineer.
a) has to;
b) be able;
30. Lasers … to do some jobs better and at much lower cost than other devices.
a) will allow;
31. The development of new materials does not mean that the old materials … lose their significance.
32. A number of TV stations … to be linked into a network.
Заполните пропуски прилагательными в нужной форме и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык.
33. At present researchers are looking for the … chemical compounds.
b) most suitable
c) as suitable as.
34. The … achievements in superconductivity mean a revolution in technology and industry.
b) not so late as;
35. …effective is the technology,… quicker is the development of this country.
a) as … as;
b) not so … as;
c) the more …the.
Письменно переведите текст.
The Official Name of Great Britain and Its History
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland has acquiredthis official name since 1922.
The union of England and Wales dates from 1301. The union of England and Scotland dates from 1603 when king of Scotland James VI inherited the crown of England after the death of childless Elizabeth I. Since then the country and the island, on which it is situated has been known as Great Britain — officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain.Ireland was Britain's oldest colony, as its conquering started in the 12th century. In 1801 a new national flag ‘Union Jack’ was established. One can see two animals on British royal coat of arms: the lion and the unicorn.
From: Первое сентября, английский язык, 2012, №12. с.14
ВАРИАНТ № 2
Прочитайте и устно переведите текст.
Calculus is a branch of mathematics that deals with the rates of change of quantities as well as the length, area and volume of objects. It grew out of geometry and algebra. There are two divisions of calculus – differential calculus and integral calculus. Differential calculus is the form concerned with the rate of change of quantities. This can be illustrated by slopes of curves. Integral calculus is used to study length, area and volume.
The earliest examples of a form of calculus date back to the ancient Greeks, developing a mathematical method to work out area and volume. Other important contributions were made by the famous scientist and mathematician, Archimedes. In fact, the first text on calculus was written in India. There was much scientific activity at the time, and calculus was able to answer many questions, particularly in the field of physics.
The starting point of calculus is the idea that you can use an approximation and keep increasing the accuracy until the exact answer is found. An example of this would be to calculate the volume or area of a sphere by using shapes such as rectangles or cubes that become increasingly smaller until the exact volume or area is determined. In calculus, this final result is called a limit.
Differential calculus describes processes that are constantly changing (temperature variations, the speed of a moving object). Integral calculus begins with a known rate of change and, working backwards, finds certain values.
Today, both forms are used in every area of science and knowledge.
From: Macmillan Guide to Science, с. 98.
2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа на вопросы по содержанию текста.
1. What is calculus?
a) a branch of geometry;
b) a branch of algebra;
c) a branch of mathematics.
2. Who made the important contributions in the development of calculus?
a) ancient Greeks;
b) Russian scientists;
3. What is the starting point of calculus?
a) it is possible to use any data;
b) you can keep increasing the accuracy;
c) you can use any shapes.
3. Закончите предложения в соответствии с содержанием прочитанного текста.
4. This can be illustrated …
a) by using shapes;
b) by slopes of curves;
c) by the famous scientist and mathematician, Archimedes.
5. … were made by the famous scientist and mathematician, Archimedes.
a) The starting point of calculus;
b) Differential calculus;
c) Important contributions.
6. Differential calculus … the rate of change of quantities.
7. It … of geometry and algebra.
c) grew out.
8. There was much … and calculus was able to answer many questions.
a) scientific activity at the time;
b) rate of change;