ФОРМЫ КОНТРОЛЯ СФОРМИРОВАННОСТИ УМЕНИЙ И НАВЫКОВ — КиберПедия 

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ФОРМЫ КОНТРОЛЯ СФОРМИРОВАННОСТИ УМЕНИЙ И НАВЫКОВ



ФОРМЫ ТЕКУЩЕГО КОНТРОЛЯ

1. Письменное стартовое тестирование.

2. Устный опрос по темам, предусмотренным программой.

3. Письменный перевод, беседа по текстам общеэкономического содержания для внеаудиторного чтения. Объём – 4000 п.зн. (I, II семестры)

 

ФОРМЫ КОНТРОЛЯ СФОРМИРОВАННОСТИ УМЕНИЙ И НАВЫКОВ

ЗАЧЁТ. ТРЕБОВАНИЯ К ЗАЧЁТУ I КУРС, 1 СЕМЕСТР

1. Выполнение компьютерного лексико-грамматического теста №1

2. Внеаудиторное чтение (4000печ. зн. за семестр)

3. Монологическое высказывание по ситуациям, охватывающим тематику установочной сессии и I семестра

4. Письменный перевод текста с иностранного языка на русский (400п.зн.) со словарем, время выполнения 40 минут

 

ЭКЗАМЕН. ТРЕБОВАНИЯ К ЭКЗАМЕНУ I КУРС, 2 СЕМЕСТР

Письменная часть

1. Выполнение компьютерного лексико-грамматического теста №2

2. Письменный перевод текста с иностранного языка на родной со словарем. Объем – 400 печатных знаков, время выполнения 40 минут

3. Письменный перевод, беседа по текстам общеэкономического содержания для внеаудиторного чтения (4000 п.зн.).

Устная часть

1. Монологическое высказывание по темам, предусмотренным программой курса (15 предложений).

2. Чтение, пересказ и беседа по тексту изученной тематики.(1500-2000 п.зн.)

 

Экзаменационные темы:

1.Наш университет

2.Экономика Беларуси

3.Экономика США

4.Экономика Великобритании

5.Экологические проблемы

6.Формы организации бизнеса

7.Экономические системы

8.Моя будущая профессия

 

 

СПЕЦИАЛИЗАЦИИ: РФК, РФР, РФФ, РФМ, РФН, РФС, РФД, РФУ

Курс

Установочная сессия - 12 часов

1 сессия - 10 часов, тест

2 сессия - 8 часов, тест, экзамен

Тематика

Установочная сессия

1. Наш университет

2. Экономика Беларуси

3. Экономика США

4. Экономика Великобритании

I семестр

1.Экологические проблемы

1. Формы организации бизнеса

II семестр

1. Экономические системы

2. Моя будущая профессия

 

Содержание зачетов и экзаменов

Содержание зачёта:

1. Выполнение компьютерного лексико-грамматического теста №1

2. Беседа по содержанию внеаудиторных текстов экономического характера объёмом 4000 печатных знаков.

3. Беседа по пройденным устным темам.

4. Письменный перевод текста на русский язык (объёмом 400 печатных знаков) со словарем.

 

К зачету допускаются студенты, отчитавшиеся за выполнение домашнего задания и успешно сдавшие компьютерный лексико-грамматический тест.

 

Содержание экзамена:



1. Выполнение компьютерного лексико-грамматического теста №2

2. Письменный перевод (40 мин.) незнакомого профессионально ориентированного текста объёмом 400печатных знаков с английского на родной язык со словарем (проводится на последнем занятии).

3. Монологическое высказывание по темам, пройденным в течение всего курса обучения. Объём – 15 фраз.

4. Чтение текста общеэкономического характера (со словарем), передача содержания на английском языке, ответы на вопросы, комментарий.

 

К экзамену допускаются студенты, выполнившие домашнее задание и успешно сдавшие компьютерный лексико-грамматический тест.

Примечание:

Каждый студент должен вести рабочую тетрадь, в которой выполняются домашние упражнения, выписываются незнакомые слова и выражения из прочитанных текстов. Во время каждой сессии тетрадь предъявляется преподавателю.

 

 

СПИСОК ТЕМ К ЗАЧЕТУ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ «ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК»

КУРС, I СЕМЕСТР

1. Наш университет

2. Экономика Беларуси

3. Экономика США

4. Экономика Великобритании

5.Экологические проблемы

6.Формы организации бизнеса

 

СПИСОК ЭКЗАМЕНАЦИОННЫХ ТЕМ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ «ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК»

I КУРС, II СЕМЕСТР

1.Наш университет

2.Экономика Беларуси

3.Экономика США

4.Экономика Великобритании

5.Экологические проблемы

6.Формы организации бизнеса

7.Экономические системы

8.Моя будущая профессия

 

 

СONTENTS

Our University…………………………………………………………..……..…4

Economic Systems……………………………………………………………..…8

Federal Reserve System………………………………………………………...12

Forms of Business Organizations………………………………………………16

Tasks and Functions of the National Bank…………………………………….20

Taxation…………………………………………………………………………..24

The World Bank…………………………………...…………………………….28

Ecological Problems………………………………………………………….….32

Belarus Economy……………………………………………………………..…36

American Economy……………………………………………………………..40



British Economy…………………………………………………………………44

My Future Profession……………………………………………………………48

Questions to the Topics………………………………………………………….52

 

 

Our Universuty

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1.establishment (n) учреждение
2.external student (n) студент заочного отделения
3.internal student (n) студент дневного отделения
4.to incorporate (v) включать в состав
5.to equip (v) оснащать, оборудовать
6.to obtain (v) получать
7.preliminary exam (n) зачёт
8.to be engaged in (n) заниматься

 

We are students of Belarus State Economic University. It was formed in 1992 on the basis of the Byelorussian State Institute of the National Economy founded in 1933. It is the biggest educational establishment in Belarus training specialists for the republic’s economy. The number of external and internal students is more than 24 thousand.

There are nine schools at the University – School of Accounting and Economics, School of Management, School of Accounting and Statistics, School of Finance and Banking, School of Marketing, School of Law, School of International Economic Relations, School of Commerce Economics and Management, School of Language Studies. In addition, BSEU incorporates Higher School of Tourism, Higher School of Business and Management, Consulting Center for Commerce, a specialized school of pre-university training, a specialized school of psychological and teaching up-dating. The university has a Research Center and a Publishing Center. The university library is one of the best supplied and equipped in the country.

The university has 57 departments, research laboratories, a student campus and a retail trade center.

The University occupies seven buildings. The conditions for study are good. The university is proud of its technical equipment. It has about 40 computer classrooms, training bookkeeping centers, as well as automated PC-based training offices for specialists in management, finance, banking and commerce. Classes are fully equipped for language study. Satellite TV, the Internet and local computing network are widely used in the teaching process.

The academic year is divided into two terms: the winter term and the summer term. It is a four- or a five-year course. Terminal examinations and preliminary exams are held in January and June. State examinations are held at the end of the course of studies. Upon graduation we can obtain bachelor or master degrees.

Our University provides us with high standard of theoretical and practical knowledge. We learn different subjects: finance, banking, statistics, accounting, mathematics, foreign languages, philosophy etc.

A large part of study is devoted to fundamental subjects. This provides the basis for the study of special subjects and the organization of production practice. At our English lessons we read our textbooks and newspapers, ask and answer questions, do all sorts of exercises. We try to speak English in class and we want to speak English well. Many of our teachers are noted scholars, so advanced students are engaged in research.

Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1.to found розничная продажа
2.department проводиться
3.retail обеспечивать
4.to be held знаменитый, известный
5.academic year кафедра
6.bachelor degree основывать
7.to provide учебный год
8.noted степень бакалавра

Ex.2. Give English equivalents from the text:

Образовательное учреждение, факультет финансов и банковского дела, факультет права, факультет международных экономических отношений, факультет до вузовской подготовки, факультет повышения квалификации по психологии и педагогике, библиотека, научно- исследовательские лаборатории, студенческий городок, центр розничной торговли, техническое оборудование, бухгалтерский учёт, учебный процесс, семестр, степень магистра, производственная практика, заниматься научно-исследовательской работой, посвящать.

 

Ex3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

1. The Belarus State Economic University was formed in 1998 on the basis of the Byelorussian State Institute of the National Economy founded in 1935.

2. The number of external and internal students is more than 15 thousand.

3. The university has a Research Center and a Publishing Center.

4. The university has 47 departments, research laboratories, a student campus and a retail trade center.

5. The university has about 46 computer classrooms, training bookkeeping centers, as well as automated PC-based training offices for specialists in management, finance, banking and commerce.

6. Satellite TV, the Internet and local computing network are widely used in the teaching process.

7. State examinations are held at the end of the course of studies.

8. We learn different subjects: finance, banking, statistics, accounting, mathematics, foreign languages, philosophy, etc.

9. At our English lessons we read our textbooks and newspapers, ask and answer questions, do all sorts of exercises.

 

Ex.4. Answer the questions:

1. When was Belarus State Economic University formed?

2. What schools does it incorporate?

3. How many departments does the university have?

4. What can you say about the conditions for study at our university?

5. What subjects do you learn at the university?

6. Are classes fully equipped for language study?

7. Terminal examinations and preliminary exams are held in January and June, aren’t they?

8. Do you try to speak English in class?

Ex.5. Complete the sentences:

1. Belarus State Economic University was formed in 1992 on the basis of… .

2. The number of external and internal students is more ... .

3. There are nine schools at the University … .

4. In addition, BSEU incorporates Higher School of Tourism, Higher School of Business and Management … .

5. The university library is one of the best … .

6. Satellite TV, the Internet and local computing network are … .

7. We learn different subjects: … .

8. At our English lessons we read our textbooks and newspapers, … .

9. Many of our teachers are noted scholars, so … .

 

Economic Systems

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1.organized way of providing for smth. организованный способ обеспечения чего-либо
2. problem of scarcity (n) проблема нехватки, дефицита
3. to draw up (v) cocтавлять
4. to change direction drastically (v) изменить направление решительно
5. lack of incentives (n) недостаток стимулов
6. to adjust to changes over time (v) приспосабливаться к изменению времени

 

All societies have an economic system or organized way of providing for the wants and needs of their people. The survival of any society depends on its ability to provide food, clothing and shelter for its people. However, all societies face the problem of scarcity of resources and unlimited wants of their people. Many different economic systems have been used in attempts to solve the problem of scarcity. So every society must answer the following questions: What goods and services must be produced? How must those goods and services be produced? For whom must they be produced? The way in which decisions concerning what, how and for whom to produce are made, determines the type of economic system.

There are three major kinds of economic system. They may be classified as traditional, command and market.

In a society with a traditional economy nearly all economic activity is the result of ritual and custom. The answer to the what, how and for whom questions are decided by tradition and custom in such societies. People always know what goods and services will be produced, how to produce them and how to distribute them. The main advantage of a traditional economy is that everyone has a role in it. There are several disadvantages in the society with a traditional economy. This economic system tends to discourage new ideas, punishes people for breaking rules or doing things differently.

In some societies government plays a big role in answering the fundamental economic questions. An economy where a central authority draws up a plan that determines what will be produced, how it will be produced and who will get it is called a command economy. The control of most production is in the government hand. The major advantage of a command economy is that it can change direction drastically in a relatively short time. The main disadvantages are as follows: it does not always meet people’s wants and needs. There is a lack of incentives that encourage people to work hard.

In a market economy the basic economic questions are answered without the necessity of a central government plan and directives. The basic coordinating mechanisms in a market economy are competition and price. The competition among individuals and firms dictates what goods to produce, how to produce them and who will use these goods.

A market economy has several advantages that traditional and command economies do not have. A market economy is flexible. It can adjust to changes over time. The second is the freedom that exists for everyone involved. It means that each individual may make a choice what to produce and what to buy. The third advantage is the lack of significant government interference.

There are no purely command economies and no purely market economies. All economies are mixed.

 

Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1.survival a) рыночная экономика
2.unlimited wants b) центральная власть
3.advantage c) подвижный
4.market economy d) выживание
5.to determine e) неограниченные потребности
6.a central authority f) преимущество
7.flexible g)определять

 

Ex.2. Give English equivalents from the text:

Экономическая система, общество, удовлетворять потребности, производить товары, конкуренция, распределять товары и услуги, традиционная экономика, командная экономика, правительство, делать выбор, вмешательство правительства, смешанная экономика, потребности, рыночная экономика, преимущество, недостаток.

Ex.3. Say whether these statements are right or wrong:

1. The survival of any society doesn’t depend on its ability to provide food, clothing and shelter for its people.

2. There are four major kinds of economic system.

3. All societies face the problem of scarcity of resources and unlimited wants of their people.

4. The main disadvantage of a traditional economy is that everyone has a role in it.

5. The major advantage of a command economy is that it can change drastically in a relatively short time.

6. In a market economy the basic economic questions are answered without the necessity of a central government plan and directives.

7. The basic coordinating mechanisms in a market economy are a plan and a custom.

8. A market economy is not flexible.

Ex.4. Answer the questions:

1. What do all societies have in common?

2. What does the survival of any society depend on?

3. What do all societies face with in the process of providing people’s wants and needs?

4. What fundamental economic questions must every society answer?

5. What determines the type of economic system?

6. What is the main advantage of a traditional economy?

7. What are the disadvantages of a traditional economy?

8. What is a command economy?

9. What is the main advantage of a command economy?

10. How are the basic economic questions answered in a market economy?

11. What advantages does the market economy have?

Ex.5.Complete the sentences:

1. All societies have an economic system or …

2. However, all societies face the problem of…

3. Every society must answer the following questions…

4. The way in which decisions concerning what, how and for whom to produce are made …

5. People always know…

6. In some societies government plays…

7. The major advantage of a command economy is …

8. There is a lack of incentives that…

9. The basic coordinating mechanisms in a market economy are…

10. The advantages of a market economy are …

 

Federal Reserve System

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1. community (n) общество, община, группа населения
2. to charter (v) даровать привилегию
3. governor (n) член правления
4. rate (n) ставка
5. discount rate (n) ставка рефинансирования
6. requirement (n) нужда, потребность
7. tool (n) инструмент, орудие
8. vault (n) хранилище
9. to promote (v) продвигать, содействовать
10.to set aside (v) выделять, откладывать
11.tight money (n) ограниченный кредит

 

The Federal Reserve System is the central bank for the U.S. It is an independent U.S. government agency. Its most important function is to manage the country’s supply of money and credit.

The Federal Reserve System includes 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks and 25 Federal Reserve Bank branches. All nationally charted commercial banks are required by law to be members of the Federal Reserve System; membership is optional for state-chartered banks. In general, a bank that is a member of the Federal Reserve System uses the Reserve Bank in its region in the same way that a person uses a bank in his or her community.

The Federal Reserve System is administered by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, a group of seven individuals who are appointed by the president of the United States and serve 14-year terms. Although the Federal Reserve System is directly responsible to Congress, the governors are, by law, independent of political pressure from either Congress or the president.

The Federal Reserve has three main tools for maintaining control over the total supply of money and credit in the economy. The first is the discount rate, or the interest rate that commercial banks pay to borrow funds from Reserve Banks. By raising or lowering the discount rate, the Fed can promote or discourage borrowing and, thus, alter the amount of revenue available to banks for making loans.

The second is the reserve requirement. These are percentages of deposits, set by the Federal Reserve, that commercial banks must set aside either as currency in their vaults or as deposits at their regional Reserve Banks. These percentages cannot be used for loans.

The third tool is known as open market operations. It is the buying and selling of government securities. When the Federal Reserve buys government securities from banks, other businesses or individuals, it pays for them with a check (a new source of money that it prints) drawn on itself.

These tools allow the Federal Reserve to expand the amount of money and credit in the U.S. economy. When there is more money to lend, credit is “loose” and interest rates tend to drop. In general, business and consumer spending tend to rise when interest rates fall. When there is less money to lend, credit is “tight” and interest rates tend to rise. Tight money is considered a particularly powerful tool for fighting inflation.

 

Ex.1.Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1. reserve a) необязательный
2. administer b) ценная бумага
3. drop c) резерв
4. optional d) управлять, вести дела
5. security e) назначать
6. appoint f) процентная ставка
7. interest rate g) падать

Ex.2.Give English equivalents from the text:

Филиал, требование резерва, деньги, правительственные ценные бумаги, борьба с инфляцией, мощный инструмент, способствовать, иметь тенденцию, увеличивать количество денег, потребитель, ограниченный кредит, ставка рефинансирования, подчиняться, давать взаймы, изменять количество дохода, ценные бумаги, брать взаймы.

Ex.3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

1. The Federal Reserve System is a dependent U.S. government agency.

2. The Federal Reserve System is administered by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors.

3. The Federal Reserve System includes 15 regional Federal Reserve Banks and 20 Federal Reserve Bank branches.

4. Membership is not optional for state-chartered banks.

5. The first tool for maintaining control over the total supply of money and credit in the economy is the discount rate.

6. The percentages of deposits, set by the Federal Reserve, can be used for loans.

7. When the Federal Reserve buys government securities from banks, other businesses or individuals, it pays for them with a check.

 

Ex 4. Answer the questions:

1. What is the Federal Reserve System?

2. What is the main, principal function of the system?

3. Who appoints the Federal Reserve Board of Governors?

4. What are the main tools for maintaining control over the total supply of money and credit in the economy?

6. What is the reserve requirement?

7. Why is tight money considered a particularly powerful tool for fighting inflation?

 

Ex.5. Complete the sentences:

1. The Federal Reserve System is …

2. Its most important function is …

3. The Federal Reserve System is administered by…

4. The Federal Reserve System has three main tools for…

5. The third tool for maintaining control over the total supply of money and credit is known…

6. When there is more money to lend, credit is …

7. When there is less money to lend, credit is …

8. Tight money is considered…

 

Taxation

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1. to levy облагать налогом
2. to impose взимать налоги (облагать);
3. tax burden налоговое бремя
4. benefit-received principle принцип извлечения выгоды
5. ability-to-pay principle принцип платежеспособности
6. to afford smth. позволять себе что-либо
7. sales tax налог с оборота
8. value-added tax налог на добавленную стоимость
9. income tax подоходный налог
10.property tax налог на собственность
11.inheritance tax налог на наследство

 

The principal purpose of taxes is to pay for the cost of government. Sometimes taxes are levied to protect selected industries. The federal government can use its ability to tax to regulate the level of economic activity.

Taxes may be imposed on transactions, institutions, property and all kinds of other things. But the most important thing is that taxes are paid by people.

All taxes are paid out of income. Two principles of taxation deal with the equity in distributing tax burdens.

The benefit-received principle of taxation states that those who benefit from government programme are the ones who ought to pay for it.

The ability-to-pay principle states that taxes ought to be paid by those who can best afford them, regardless of the benefits they receive.

Most taxes can be classified as progressive, regressive and proportional.

A progressive tax takes a larger percentage of a higher income and a smaller percentage of a lower income.

A regressive tax is one that takes a higher percentage of a low income and a lower percentage of a high income.

A proportional tax takes the same percentage of all incomes, regardless of size.

A sales tax is a general tax levied on consumer purchases of nearly all products. Sales taxes have a regressive effect. A value-added tax is similar to a sales tax and is also regressive.

An income tax, a property tax and an inheritance tax are progressive taxes.

Much of the government’s revenue comes from the income and property taxes.

 

Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1. purpose a) способность
2. to protect b) покупка
3. level c) получать выгоду, прибыль
4. ability d) сделка
5. distributing e) заявить, сообщить
6. purchase f) цель
7. transaction g) уровень
8. to benefit h) защищать
9. to state i) распределение

 

Ex.2.Give English equivalents from the text:

Главная цель, облагать налогами, налоги выплачиваются из прибыли, распределение налогового бремени, принцип извлечения выгоды, принцип платёжеспособности, налог с оборота, налог на добавленную стоимость, подоходный налог, прогрессивный налог, налог на наследство, налог на собственность.

 

Ex3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

1. The principal purpose of taxes is to pay for the cost of government.

2. Taxes are paid by the government.

3. There are three principles of taxation.

4. The benefit-received principle of taxation states that those who benefit from government programme are the ones who ought to pay for it.

5. A progressive tax takes a smaller percentage of a higher income and a larger percentage of a lower income.

6. A regressive tax is one that takes a higher percentage of a low income and a lower percentage of a high income.

7. A proportional tax takes the largest percentage of all incomes, regardless of size.

8. A sales tax is a general tax levied on consumer purchases of nearly all products.

9. Much of the government’s revenue comes from the income and property taxes.

 

Ex.4. Answer the questions:

1. What is the main purpose of taxes?

2. What may taxes be imposed on?

3. Who pays taxes?

4. What are the principles of taxation?

5. What does the benefit-received principle state?

6. What does the ability-to-pay principle mean?

7. How can most taxes be classified?

8. What is a progressive tax?

9. What is the peculiar feature of a regressive tax?

10. What is a proportional tax?

11. What are the examples of progressive and regressive taxes?

 

Ex.5.Complete the sentences:

1. The principal purpose of taxes is…

2. The federal government can use its ability to tax…

3. Taxes may be imposed on…

4. But the most important thing is…

5. Two principles of taxation deal with…

6. The benefit-received principle of taxation states…

7. The ability-to-pay principle states that taxes ought to be paid…

8. Most taxes can be classified…

9. A progressive tax takes a larger percentage of a higher income and…

10. A regressive tax is one that takes…

11. A proportional tax takes…

12. A sales tax is a general tax levied…

13. A value-added tax is similar…

14. Much of the government’s revenue comes…

 

The World Bank

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1.to be founded (v) быть основанным
2.staff (n) штат, персонал
3.headquarters (n) штаб-квартира
4.to lend (v) давать взаймы, одалживать
5.to extend (v) оказывать
6.to promote (v) помогать, содействовать
7.to intermediate (v) быть посредником
8.bond (n) облигация

 

The World Bank was founded in July 1944. It is a group of four institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Finance Corporation, the International Development Association and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency.

The World Bank has about 40 offices throughout the world with the staff over 7,000 members including economists, engineers, agronomists, statisticians, lawyers, experts in telecommunications, water supply, transportation, education, energy, rural development, population and health care and other disciplines. The headquarters of the World Bank is situated in Washington.

The World Bank is a lending institution. The first loans were extended during the late 1940s to finance the reconstruction of the war-destroyed economies of Western Europe. When these countries recovered, the Bank turned its attention to assisting the world’s poorer nations, known as developing countries. The World Bank has one central purpose: to promote economic and social progress in developing countries by helping to raise productivity so that they may live a better and fuller life.

The World Bank is an investment bank, intermediating between investors and recipients, borrowing from the one and lending to the other. It obtains most of the funds through the issue of bonds. The World Bank also borrows money by selling bonds and notes to governments, their agencies and central banks. The proceeds of these bond sales are lent to developing countries to help to finance projects and policy that give promise of success.

The World Bank started working with the government of Belarus in 1992. The first project was focused on improving forest management in the Belavezhskaya Pushcha nature reserve. From that time the World Bank has assisted with an economic rehabilitation loan, institution building, forestry development and a number of technical assistance projects.

 

Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1. water supply a) развивающиеся страны
2. health care b) производительность, продуктивность
3. to recover c) выручка, доход
4. developing countries d) водоснабжение
5. productivity e) сосредоточивать (-ся)
6. to obtain f) восстанавливать
7. proceeds g) здравоохранение
8. to focus on h) получать

 

Ex.2. Give English equivalents from the text:

Заём, разрушенные войной экономики, обращать внимание, главная цель, жить лучшей и более полной жизнью, продажа облигаций, давать взаймы, способствовать, получать, финансировать проекты, быть посредником, средства, развитие, улучшение, заповедник, выпуск облигаций, помощь, правительство, штаб-квартира, восстанавливать.

 

Ex3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

1. The World Bank was founded in June 1944.

2. The World Bank has about 60 offices throughout the world.

3. The headquarters of the World Bank is situated in Washington.

4. The World Bank is a borrowing institution.

5.The World Bank has one central purpose: to promote economic and social progress in developing countries by helping to raise productivity so that they may live a better and fuller life.

6. The World Bank is an investment bank, intermediating between borrowers and recipients.

7. The World Bank also lends money by selling bonds and notes to governments, their agencies and central banks.

8. The World Bank started working with the government of Belarus in 1992.

 

Ex.4. Answer the questions:

1. When was the World Bank founded?

2. What institutions does it consist of?

3. How many offices does it have?

4. What kind of institution is the World Bank?

5. What is the central purpose of the World Bank?

6. In what ways does the World Bank obtain the funds?

7. When did the World Bank start working with the government of Belarus?

 

Ex.5.Complete the sentences:

1. The World Bank was founded in …

2. It is a group of four institutions: …

3. The World Bank has about 40 offices throughout the world with the staff over 7,000 members including…

4. The headquarters of the World Bank…

5. The World Bank is a lending …

6. The first loans were extended during the late 1940s to finance…

7. The World Bank has one central purpose: …

8. The World Bank is an investment bank, …

9. The World Bank started working with the government of Belarus …

 

Ecological Problems

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1. interference вмешательство
2. destruction разрушение
3. ecological imbalance нарушение экологического равновесия
4. to go beyond превосходить, выходить за
5. urgency срочность
6. densely populated густонаселенный
7. to exert a heavy load оказывать большую нагрузку
8. to endanger подвергать опасности

 

With the development of civilization man’s interference in nature increases leading to various negative changes in the environment. Among the negative factors that result in the destruction of ecological systems are the pollution of water and air and destruction of natural landscapes.

Ecological imbalance has become a global problem, drawing attention of practically all countries.

It is evident that owing to global nature and extreme complexity of the problem protection of the environment goes beyond the scientific, technological and economic abilities of even the best developed countries, if taken separately. The consideration of, for example transport of pollutants across state frontiers presupposes bilateral and multilateral cooperation of governments, public and international organizations.

Special urgency and complexity acquire the question of large-scale environmental protection in densely populated Europe where developed industry exerts a heavy load on all environmental components. The state of the environment in the USA and Canada also causes serious concern.

Due to the extreme significance of the problem more and more often suggestions are put forward about creating a system of international ecological security. Such a system presupposes a systematic analysis of global ecological situation, as well as trying to answer the following questions: at what point will nature cease to tolerate man? What amount of which resources can man use each year without endangering the environment? It also includes research and development of problems of a purely applied nature, such as international projects to develop no-waste technologies, ecologically clean production processes, improved technologies to purify water and air, alternative energy sources, methods for the rehabilitation of the environment.

Global monitoring of the environment would make it possible to isolate ecologically endangered areas on the planet. On the same level there should be a special world service concerned with elimination of large-scale ecological disasters, like forest fires, big oil slicks, accidents at major chemical factories or nuclear power plants.

The creation of a system of international ecological security cannot be delayed as the problem of environmental pollution poses much threat to humanity as could a nuclear war.

 

Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1. environment a) авария, катастрофа
2. pollution b) чрезвычайный, крайний
3. extreme c) утечка нефти
4. presuppose d) загрязнение
5. significance e) окружающая среда
6. to create f) угроза
7. elimination g) важность, значение
8. disaster h) предполагать
9. oil slick i) создавать
10. threat j) устранение, уничтожение

 

Ex.2. Give English equivalents from the text:

Многостороннее сотрудничество, нарушение экологического равновесия, окружающая среда, лесные пожары, атомные электростанции, экологическая безопасность, угроза человечеству, экологическая катастрофа, подвергать опасности, превосходить, разрушение, срочность, прекращать, терпеть.

 

Ex3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

1. Man’s interference in nature poses no problem to the environment. It helps to preserve natural landscapes and doesn’t affect water and air.

2. The problem of ecological imbalance can be settled by by separate countries, especially highly developed ones.

3. Special urgency and complexity acquire the questions of large-scale environmental protection in densely populated Europe.

4. The state of the environment in the USA and Canada is quite satisfactory and causes no serious concern.

5. Global monitoring of the environment would make it possible to isolate ecologically endangered areas on the planet.

6. The creation of a system of international ecological security cannot be delayed as the problem of environmental pollution poses as much threat to humanity as could a nuclear war.

 

Ex.4. Answer the questions:

1. What negative factors does man’s interference in nature lead to?

2. Ecological imbalance has become a global problem, drawing attention of practically all countries, hasn’t it?

3. Why does the problem of ecological imbalance go beyond scientific technological and economic abilities of even the best developed countries, if taken separately?

4. What can you say about the problem of large-scale environmental protection in Europe?

5. What suggestions are put forward more often? Why?

6. What does a system of global ecological security presuppose?

7. What does a system of global ecological security include?

8. What would global monitoring of the environment make it possible to do?

9. What other world service should there be on the same level?

10. The creation of a system international ecological security cannot be delayed, can it? Why not?

 

Ex.5.Complete the sentences:

1. With the development of civilization man’s interference in nature…

2. Ecological imbalance has become…

3. It is evident that owing to global nature…

4. Special urgency and complexity acquire…

5. Due to the extreme significance of the problem…

6. Such a system presupposes a systematic analysis…

7. It also includes research and development of problems…

8. Global monitoring of the environment would make it possible…

9. The creation of a system of international ecological security…

 

Belarus Economy

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1.acid soil (n) кислая почва
2.combustible slates (n) горючий сланец
3.arable land (n) пахотная земля
4.peat (n) торф
5.loam (n) жирная глина
6.fire-resistant and refractory clay (n) огнеупорная глина
7.amalgamation (n) объединение
8.potassium salts (n) калийные соли
9.backbone (n) основа

 

The Republic of Belarus is located in the center of Europe, on the crossroads of trade ways between West and East, North and South, in the East European Plain. The flat character of the territory, moderately continental climate create favorable conditions for habitation of population, building industrial enterprises.

The territory of the Republic of Belarus covers 207.6 thousand square kilometers. Minsk is the capital of the Republic of Belarus.

The total population of the republic reached about 10 million people. The Republic of Belarus consists of six regions with centers in the cities of Minsk, Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Mogilyov, which are further divided into 118 rural districts, 102 towns and over 24 thousand townships and villages.

Most of Belarus territory is farming land and in the past Belarus was mainly an agricultural country. The lands here are not very rich. Four-fifth of its arable land is constituted by acid soil which needs constant improvement. Today agriculture specializes in meat and milk production. The main crops grown here are potatoes, grain, flax and vegetables.

Belarus is not rich in mineral resources. There are some deposits of petroleum, combustible slates, brown coal, ferrous and non-ferrous ore, dolomites, potassium salts on the lands of the republic. The reserves of peat, fire-resistant and refractory clay, loam and sand for the manufacture of glass, various construction materials are great.

The backbone of Belarus economy is constituted by industry. The industry produces nearly 70% of GNP. The main branches are motor industry, manufacture of tractors, and agricultural engineering, machine-tool industry, and manufacture of bearings, electronics and electrical industry, manufacture and refining of petroleum, mining, manufacture of synthetic fibers, mineral fertilizers, radio engineering products, pharmaceutical industry, manufacture of construction materials, light industry and food-processing industry.

Over 100 large enterprises are the basis of Belarus economy. These are such large plants as Minsk Tractor Plant, the Refrigerator Producing Amalgamation Atlant, the TV sets Producing Amalgamation Gorizont, Belarus Amalgamation of Heavy-load Trucks Production BelavtoMAZ, Novopolotsk and Mozyr oil-processing plants, Zhlobin metallurgy plant, artificial fibers plants and many others.

The main trading partners are Russia, Ukraine, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Italy, Latvia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Brasil, China, Argentina. Development of export potential, improvement of the structure of export and import, rational use of external financing are the main perspectives for the republic.

Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1. habitation a) фармацевтическая промышленность
2. improvement b) зерно, хлебные злаки
3. crops c) проживание
4. synthetic fiber d) нефтеперерабатывающий завод
5. mineral fertilizers e) сельскохозяйственная культура
6. pharmaceutical industry f) агротехника
7. grain g) минеральные удобрения
8. deposit h) улучшение
9. agricultural engineering i) искусственное волокно
10.oil-processing plant j) залежь

 

Ex.2. Give English equivalents from the text:

Умеренно континентальный климат, лён, доломиты, благоприятные условия, мясное и молочное производство, создавать, промышленные предприятия, производство и очистка нефти, производство подшипников, внешнее финансирование, минеральные удобрения, производство строительных материалов, лёгкая и пищевая промышленность, нефтеперерабатывающий завод, торф, калийные соли, железная и цветная руда, производственное объединение.

 

Ex3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

1. The flat character of the territory, moderately continental climate create unfavorable conditions for habitation of population, building industrial enterprises.

2. The total population of the republic reached over 10 million people.

3. Most of Belarus territory is farming land and in the past Belarus was mainly an agricultural country.

4. One-third of its arable land is constituted by acid soil which needs constant improvement.

5. Today agriculture specializes in meat and milk production.

6. The main crops grown here are potatoes, grain, flax and vegetables.

7. The reserves of peat, fire-resistant and refractory clay, loam and sand for the manufacture of glass, various construction materials are not great.

8. The backbone of Belarus economy is constituted by agriculture.

9. The industry produces nearly 63% of GNP.

10. Over 100 large enterprises are the basis of Belarus economy.

Ex.4. Answer the questions:

1. What is location of the Republic of Belarus?

2. What is its population?

3. Is Belarus rich in mineral resources?

4. In what production does Belarus agriculture specialize today?

5. What deposits comprise our mineral wealth?

6. What are the main branches of Belarus economy?

7. Can you name large enterprises which form the basis of Belarus economy?

8. What are the basic trading and economic partners of the Republic of Belarus?

 

Ex.5. Complete the sentences:

1. The Republic of Belarus is located in the center of Europe, …

2. The flat character of the territory, moderately continental climate create …

3. Four-fifth of its arable land is constituted by …

4. The main crops grown here are …

5. There are some deposits of …

6. The main branches are motor industry, manufacture of tractors, and …

7. These are such large plants as …

8. The main trading partners are …

 

American Economy

Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents before reading the text:

1.to extract (v) извлекать
2. gross domestic product (n) валовой внутренний продукт
3. to contribute (v) делать вклад, способствовать
4. natural resources (n) природные богатства
5. to involve (v) включать в себя
6. manufacturing (n) производство
7. to account (v) считать
8.primary (a) первичный

 

The United States ranks first in the world in the total value of its economic production. The nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) amounts to over $7 trillion. The United States economy is based largely on a free enterprise system. In such a system, individuals and companies are free to make their own economic decisions. Individuals and companies own the raw materials, equipment, factories and other items necessary for production, and they decide how best to use them in order to earn a profit.

The US economy consists of three main sectors: the primary, secondary and tertiary.

Primary economic activities are those directly extracting goods from the natural environment, including agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining. The primary sector contributes about 3 percent of annual GDP.

Agriculture accounts for 2 percent of the US gross domestic product and employs 3 percent of the nation’s workers. Yet, the United States is a world leader in agriculture production. The country’s farms turn out as much food as the nation needs, with enough left over to export food to other countries. About a third of the world’s food exports come from U.S. farms.

Beef cattle rank as the most valuable product of American farms. Other leading farm products include milk, soybeans, chickens and eggs, hogs, wheat, cotton. United States farms also produce large amounts of hay, tobacco, turkeys, oranges, tomatoes and apples.

A variety of natural resources provide the raw materials that support the economy of the United States. The most valuable resources are minerals, soils, water, forests and fish.

The United States has large deposits of coal, iron ore, natural gas, petroleum, which are vital to the country’s industrial strength. Its many other important minerals include copper, gold, phosphates, silver and zinc.

Secondary economic activities involve processing or combining materials into new products, and include manufacturing and construction. They account for 22 percent of the gross domestic product and employ 20 percent of workers. The leading categories of U.S. products are chemicals, transportation equipment, food products, non-electrical machinery, electrical machinery and equipment, printed materials, scientific and medical instruments, fabricated metal products, paper products, rubber and plastic products, and primary goods.

Construction accounts for 4 percent of the US GDP and provides jobs for 4 percent of the work force. This industry employs such workers as architects, engineers, contractors, bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, plumbers, roofers, ironworkers and plasterers.

The tertiary sector includes the commercial services that help industry produce and distribute goods to the final consumers, as well as activities such as education, health care, leisure, tourism and so on.

 

Ex.1. Match the English words with the appropriate Russian equivalents:

1. secondary a) нефть
2. soybeans b) индейка
3. wheat c) железная руда
4. iron ore d) цинк
5. deposit e) соевые бобы
6. turkey f) пшеница
7. zinc g) вторичный
8. petroleum h) залежь

 

Ex.2.Give English equivalents from the text:

Валовой внутренний продукт, сырьё, окружающая среда, медь, третичный сектор экономики, строительство, переработка материалов, сантехник, сено, каменщик, химикалии, серебро, природные богатства, продукты питания, лесоводство, хлопок, жизненный, здравоохранение, оборудование, заработать прибыль.

Ex3. Say whether these statements are right or false:

1. The United States ranks second in the world in the total value of its econ






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