Glossary for the Course of Stylistics — КиберПедия 

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Glossary for the Course of Stylistics


acoustic[q'ku:stik] adj. concerned with sound

adherent[qd'hiqrqnt] adj. added shades ofmeaning

affinity[q'fmiti] n. similarity, inherent likeness

allegory['xligqri] n. a story, poem, painting, etc. in which the characters and actions represent general truths, good and bad qualities, etc.

alliteration[q,litq'reSh] n. repetition of the same consonant or sound group at the beginning of two or more words that are close to each other

allusion[q'lu:Zn] n. reference to some literary, historical, mythologi­cal, biblical, etc. character or event commonly known

anadiplosis[qnqdip'lousis] n. repetition of the last word or phrase in one clause or poetic line at the beginning of the next

anaphora[q'nxfqrq] n. repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or lines of verse

anastrophe [q'nxstrqfi] n. a term of rhetoric, which means upsetting for effect of the normal order of a preposition before a noun or of an object after a verb, cf. inversion

anticlimax['xnti'klaimqks] n. a sudden drop from the dignified or important in thought or expression to the commonplace or trivial, sometimes for humorous effect

antique[qn'ti:k] adj. the ancient style, esp. Greek or Roman; classical

antithesis[an'tiTqsis] n. opposition or contrast of ideas, notions, qualities in the parts of one sentenceor in different sentences

antonomasia[qntqnq'meiSq] n. the use of a proper name in place of a common one or vice versa to emphasise some feature or quality

apokoinu [qpq'koinu] n. a construction in which the subject of one sentence is at the same time the subject of the second, a kind of ellipsis

aposiopesis[q'pousio'pi:sis] n. a sudden breaking off in the midst of a sentence as if from inability or unwillingness to proceed

argot['a:gou] n. the vocabulary peculiar to a particular class of people, esp. that of an underworld group devised for private communication

Aristotle['xristotl] n. Greek philosopher, pupil of Plato (384-382 ВС)

assonance['xsqnqns] n. 1. resemblance of sounds 2. partial rhyme created by the stressed vowel sounds

astheism['qsTi:zm] n. deprecation meant as approval

asyndeton[q'sindqtqn] n. the omission of conjunctions


belles lettres['bel'letq] n. literature or writing about literary subjects


catachresis['kqtq'kri:sis] n. incorrect use of a word, as by misappli­cation of terminology or by strained or mixed metaphor

chiasmus[kai'xzmqs] n. inversion of the second of two parallel phrases or clauses

cliche['kli:Sei] n. an expression or idea that has become trite

climax['klaimqks] n. a rhetorical series of ideas, images, etc. arranged progressively so that the most forceful is last

colon['kolqn] n. in Greek prosody a section of a prosodic period, consisting of a group from two to six feet forming a rhythmic unit with a principal accent

connotation['konq'teiSn] n. idea or notion suggested by or associated with a word, phrase, etc. in addition to its denotation

connotative[kq'noutqtrv] ['konq'teitiv] adj. having connotations

convergence[kqn'vq:dZqns] n. concentration of various devices and expressive means in one place to support an important idea and ensure the delivery of the message

couplet['kApqt] n. two successive lines of poetry, esp. of the same length that rhyme

coupling ['kApliN]n. the affinity of elements that occupy a similar position and contribute to the cohesion of the text


dactyl['dxktrl] n. a metrical foot that consists of one accented syllable followed by two unaccented ones

Demetrius of Alexandria[di'metriqs qv xlig'zxndriq] n. Greek orator and philosopher (b. 350 ВС)

denotative[di noutqtiv] [dinou'teitiv] adj. indicative of the direct explicit meaning or reference of a word orterm

detachment[di'txtSmqnt] n. a seemingly independent part of a sentence that carries some additional information

device[di'vais] n. a literary model intended to produce a particular effect in a work of literature

Dionysius of Halicarnassus[daiq'niSqs qv hxlika' nxsqs] n. Greek rhetorician, critic and historian (1st cent. ВС)


ellipsis[q'lipsis] n. all-sorts of omission in a sentence

emotive[i'moutiv] adj. characterised by, expressing or producing emotion

empathy['empqTi] n. ability to share in another's emotions, thoughts or feelings

enjambinent[in'dZxment] n. in prosody: the running on of a sentence from one line to the next without a syntactical break

enumeration[i,njume'reiSn] n. a device by means of which homo­geneous parts of a sentence are made semantically heteroge­neous

epenalepsis[epqnq'lepsis] n. a term of rhetoric meaning repetitive use of conjunctions in close succession, (cf. polysyndeton)

epigram['qpigram] n. 1. a short poem with a witty or satirical point 2. any terse, witty, pointed statement, often with a clever twist in thought.

epiphora[q'pifqrq] n. repetition of words or phrases at the end of consecutive clauses or sentences

epithet['epiTqt] n. an adjective or descriptive phrase used to char­acterise a person or object with the aim to give them subjective evaluation

euphonic[ju'fonik] adj. characterised by euphony

euphony['ju:fqni] n. a harmonious combination of sounds that create a pleasing effect to the ear

evaluative[i:vxelju'eitiv] adj. giving judgement about the value of something

explicit [iks'plisit] adj. clearly stated and leaving nothing implied


figure of speechn. a stylistic device of whatever kind, including tropes and syntactical expressive means

figures of contrast*:those based on opposition (incompatibility) of co-occurring notions

figures of co-occurrence*:devices based on interrelations of two or more units of meaning actually following one another

figures of identity*:co-occurrence of synonymous or similar notions

figures of inequality*:those based on differentiation of co-occurring notions

figures of quality*:renaming based on radical qualitative difference between notion named and notion meant

figures of quantity*:renaming based on only qualitative difference between traditional names and those actually used

figures of replacement*:tropes, 'renamings', replacing traditional names by situational ones


gap-sentence linkseemingly incoherent connection of two sentences based on an unexpected semantic leap; the reader is supposed to grasp the implied motivation for such connection

* These terms and their definitions belong to Prof. Skrebnev

Gorgias['gLdZiqs] n. Greek philosopher (483-375 B.C.), founded one of the first rhetoric schools

graphon[grq'fon] n. intentional misspelling to show deviations from received pronunciation: individual manner, mispronunciation, dialectal features, etc.


Hellenistic [hqlq'nistik] adj. of Greek history, language and culture after the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.)

hierarchical [hai'ra:kikql] adj. arranged in order of rank, grade, class, etc.

hyperbole[hai'pq:boli] n. exaggeration for effect not meant to be taken literally


iambus[ai'xmbqs] n. a metrical foot, consisting of one unaccented syllable followed by one accented

idiolect[' idiolqkt] n. a particular person's use of language, individual style of expression

imagery['imqdZqri] n. ideas presented in a poetical form; figurative descriptions and figures of speech collectively

implicit[imp'liisit] adj. implied: suggested or to be understood though not plainly expressed


inherent[in'hiqrqnt] adj. existing in something or someone as a permanent and inseparable element, quality or attribute

inversion[in'vq:Sn] n. a reversal of the normal order of words in a sentence

irony['airqni] n. a stylistic device in which the words express a meaning that is often the direct opposite of the intended meaning

irradiation[i,rqdi'eiSn] n. the influence of a specifically coloured word against the stylistically different tenor of the narration


jargon['dZa:gqn] n. the language, esp. the vocabulary, peculiar to a particular trade, profession or group

juridical[dZu'ridikql] adj. related to the law


litotes[lai'touti:s] n. understatement for effect, esp. that in which an affirmative is expressed by a negation of the contrary


malapropism['mxlqpropizqm] n. ludicrous misuse of words, esp. through confusion caused by resemblance in sound

meiosis[mi'ousis] n. expressive understatement, litotesmetaphor['metapho:] n. the application of a word or phrase to an object or concept it does not literally denote, in order to suggest comparison with another object or concept

metaphor sustained/extendeda chain of metaphors containing the central image and some contributory images

meter['mi:tq] n. rhythm in verse; measured patterned arrangement of syllables according to stress or length

metonymy[me'tonimi] n. transfer of name of one object onto another to which it is related or ofwhich it is a part

mythology[mi'TolodZi] n. myths collectively and the beliefs that they contain


normative['no: mqtiv] adj. having to do with usage norms


onomatopoeia[,onqmqtou'pi:q] n. the formation of a word by imitat­ing the natural sound; the use ofwords whose sounds reinforce their meaning or tone, esp. in poetry

oratorical[,orq'torikql] n. characteristic of or given to oratory

oratory['oretri] n. the art of an orator; skill or eloquence in public speaking

oxymoron[,oksi'mo:rqn] n. a figure of speech in which opposite or contradictory ideas are combined


paradiastola[pqrqdi'xstqlq] n. in Greek poetic texts: the lengthening of a syllable regularly short

parallellism['pxrqlqlizm] n. the use of identical or similar parallel syntactical structure in two or more sentences or then parts

paranomasia[,pqrqnq'meiZq] n. using words similar in sound but different in meaning for euphonic effect

parlance['pa: lqns] n. a style or manner of speaking or writing

periphrasis[pe'rifrqsis] n. renaming of an object by a phrase that emphasises some particular feature of the object

personage['pq:sqnqdZ] n. a character in a play or book, or in history

personification[pq,sonifikeiSn] n. the attribution of personal nature or character to inanimate objects or abstract notions

polysyndeton[poli'sindeton] n. the use of a number of conjunctions in close succession

prosody['prosqdi] n. 1. the science or art of versification, including the study of metrical structure, stanza form, etc. 2. the stress patterns of an utterance

proximity[pro'ksimiti] n. nearness in place, time, order, occurrence or relation


publicist['pAblisist] n. referring to writing and speaking on current public or political affairs


recur[п'кэ:] v. to happen or occur again, appear at intervals

recurrence[n'kvrans] n. the instance of recurring, return, repetition

rhetoric['retorik] n. 1. the art or science of all specialized literary-uses of language in prose or verse, including the figures of speech 2. the art of using language effectively in speaking or writing 3. artificial eloquence

rhetorical[n'torikal] adj. using or characterised by rhetoric

rhyme[raim] n. a regular recurrence of corresponding sounds at the ends of lines in verse

rhythm[пбт] n. 1. a regular recurrence of elements in a system of motion: the rhythm of speech, dancing music, etc. 2. an effect of ordered movement in a work of art, literature, drama, etc. attained through patterns in the timing, spacing, repetition, accenting, etc. of the elements 3. in prosody: a metrical (feet) or rhythmical (iambus, trochee, etc.) form

simile['simili] n. a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared by the use of like, as, resemble, etc.

solemn['solam] adj. arousing feelings of awe, very impressive

sophistry,['sofistri] n. in ancient Greece: the methods or practices of the sophists, any group of teachers of rhetoric, politics, philosophy, some of whom were notorious for their clever specious arguments. 2. misleading but clever, plausible and subtle reasoning

stanza['stxnzq] n. a group of lines in a repeating pattern forming a division of a poem

suspense[sqs'pens] n. a compositional device that consists in with­holding the most important information or idea till the end of the sentence, passage or text

syllepsis[si'lepsis] n. a term of rhetoric: the use of a word or expression to perform two syntactic functions, cf. zeugma

synecdoche[si'nekdoki] n. a figure of speech based on transfer by contiguity in which a part is used for a whole, an individual for a class, a material for a thing or the reverse of any of these; a variety of metonymy

tautology[tL'tolqdZi] n. needless repetition of an idea in a different word, phrase or sentence; redundancy; pleonasm

terminology['tq:mi 'nolqdZi] n. the system of terms used in a specific science, art or specialised subject

trochee['trouki:] n. in prosody: a foot of two syllables, a stressed followed by an unstressed one

transfer[traens'fb:] v. to convey, carry, remove or send from one position, place or person to another

transfer['traensfa:] n. the act of transferring

transference['trsensfarans] n. the act or process of transferring

Trasimachus[tre'zimskas] n. Greek philosopher, together with Gorgius created one of the first schools of rhetoric in ancient Greece (c. 4 ВС)

trope [troup] n. a figure of speech based on some kind of transfer of denomination


versification[,vq,sifi'keiSh] n. 1. the art, practice or theory of poetic composition 2. the form or style of a poem; metrical structure


zeugma['zju:gmq] n. a figure of speech in which a single word, usually a verb or adjective, is syntactically related to two or more words, though having a different sense in relation to each


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