36-38 Practical lesson
Rules of reading: Theletter Rr
Word formation: suffixes of nouns – or, -er
Assignments to do:
a) The rules of reading the letter Rr:
- Before vowels is pronounced as [r]: ring, rule, rose
- After the vowels letter Rr is not pronounced: filter, yesterday
b) Suffixes: – or, - er form the nouns from the verbs: to read – reader, to react - reactor
II Read the words paying attention to their pronunciation:
Red, try, cry, country, department, car, to learn.
III Give the transcription to the following words:
Green, arm, ribose, rose, word, part, to run, air, are, to bring, to impel.
IV Form the nouns from the verb:
To diffuse, to bake, to design, to act, to drive, to paint.
V Read the international words and guess their meaning:
Industrial, production, fermentation, cultivation, to produce, aeration, temperature, design, bioreactor, to control.
VI Read and translate the text about fermentation technology
The industrial production of microbial products usually involves fermentation. Industrial fermentation is the large-scale cultivation of microbes or other single cells to produce a commercially valuable substance.
Vessels for industrial fermentation are called bioreactors; they are designed with close attention to aeration, pH control, and temperature control. There are many different designs, but the most widely used bioreactors are of the continuously stirred type (Figure). The air is introduced through a diffuser at the bottom (which breaks up the incoming airstream to maximize aeration), and a series of impeller paddles and stationary wall baffles keep the microbial suspension agitated. Oxygen is not very soluble in water, and keeping the heavy microbial suspension well aerated is difficult. Highly sophisticated designs have been developed to achieve maximum efficiency in aeration and other growth requirements, including medium formulation. The high value of the products of genetically modified microorganisms and eukaryotic cells has stimulated the development of newer types of bioreactors and computerized controls for them.
VI Remember the following word and word-combinations:
Large-scale, commercially valuable substance, vessel, stirred type, bottom, impeller paddle, stationary wall baffle, soluble in water, to achieve, high value of the products, cooling jacket, motor, culture broth, liquid level, foam breaker, sterile air, harvesting drain, steam for sterilization.
VII Make the sentences using these words:
1. Products, the industrial, fermentation, production, of, involves, microbial.
2. Bioreactors, fermentation, industrial, vessels, called, for, are.
3. Is, in, very, oxygen, not, soluble, water.
4. Value, the high, microorganisms, of, of genetically, the products, modified.
5. Type, the most, bioreactors, stirred, are, used, continuously, widely, of, the.
VIII Give English equivalents to the following words:
Промышленное производство, ценное вещество, реактор с мешалкой, генетически модифицированные организмы, пеногаситель, охлаждающая рубашка, культуральная жидкость, компьютеризированный контроль.
IX Fill in the gaps with the proper words:
1. The industrial production of microbial products usually involves ...
2. They are designed with close attention to aeration, pH control, and … control.
3. Oxygen is not very … in water, and keeping the heavy microbial suspension well aerated is difficult.
4. Vessels for industrial … are called bioreactors.
5. The most widely used bioreactors are of the continuously … type.
X Answer the questions:
1. What does involve the industrial production of microbial products?
2. What do mean bioreactors?
3. What do mean industrial fermentation?
4. How are designed bioreactors?
5. What kind of bioreactors are widely used in industrial production?
XI Describe the figure 9.
39-41 Practical lesson
Read and translate the text about application of microorganisms in food industry