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Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст о великом ученом Андрее Дмитриевиче Сахарове.



ИНСТРУКЦИЯ К ВЫПОЛНЕНИЮ ЗАДАНИЯ

“READING” (чтение)

1. Для выполнения задания выберите правильный вариант. Ваш вариант определяется по последней цифре номера зачетной книжки.

№ 1-2 ВАРИАНТ I

№ 3-4 ВАРИАНТ II

№ 5-6 ВАРИАНТ III

№ 7-8 ВАРИАНТ IV

№ 9 ВАРИАНТ V

2.После определения своего варианта, читаете, письменно переводите и выполняете задания, указанные перед текстом.

3.Выполнив все задания, прикрепляете и высылаете на проверку по системе «ГЕКАДЕМ» тьютору.

ВАРИАНТ I

ЗАДАНИЕ 1

Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст о великом ученом Андрее Дмитриевиче Сахарове.

ЗАДАНИЕ 2

Определите истинно или ложно высказывание. Исправьте те высказывания, информация в которых не соответствует информации, представленной в тексте.

1. Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was the first scientist in physics who developed the theory of relativity.

2. Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was the “designer” of the Soviet thermonuclear weapons.

3. Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov provided the first explanation of baryon asymmetry in 1969.

4. Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was the first Russian physicist to win the Nobel Peace Prize.

ЗАДАНИЕ 3

Ответьте письменно на вопросы.

1. Where and when did A. D. Sakharov receive the Ph.D. degree?

2. What was the research carried out by A. D. Sakharov that led to the creation of the first Soviet hydrogen bomb?

3. Why did A. D. Sakharov stop his research in strategic weapon?

ANDREI DMITRIEVICH SAKHAROV (1921 – 1989)

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov was born in Moscow on May 21, 1921. His father was a well-known teacher of physics and the author of textbooks, exercise books and works of popular science. He was raised in a large communal apartment where most of the rooms were occupied by his family and relatives. In 1938 he entered Moscow State University and began studying at the Faculty of Physics. Having been evacuated in 1941 during the Great Patriotic War, he continued studying in Ashkhabad and later, he started to work in Ulyanovsk. He returned to Moscow in 1945 to study at the Theoretical Department of FIAN (the Physical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences), where he received the Ph.D. degree in 1947.

A year later, Sakharov conducted the research in controlled nuclear fusion, together with the physicist Igor Tamm. This work led to the creation of the first Soviet hydrogen bomb. The first Soviet bomb was tested on August 12, 1953. The same year, Sakharov received his D.Sc. degree, and was elected as a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences and was awarded the first of the three Hero of Socialist Labor titles. He continued to work at Sarov, helped working out the first genuine Soviet H-bombs, which was tested in 1955.

Devoted to fundamental physics, Sakharov spent two decades designing nuclear weapons before returning to academic research and producing his major scientific accomplishment. In 1966, by combining particle physics and cosmology he provided the first explanation of baryon asymmetry, the observed drastic disparity in the natural occurrence of matter and antimatter in the universe.

Just a few years later, based on his second domain of professional knowledge, strategic weaponry, together with his understanding of the machinery of the Soviet leadership and his feeling of personal responsibility, the “father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb” developed into one of the leading human rights advocates in the Soviet Union.

Politically active during the 1960s, Sakharov was against nuclear proliferation and protested against atmospheric testing of the hydrogen bomb in 1961. He played a great role in the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty, signed in Moscow. In 1965, he returned to fundamental science and began working on cosmology, but continued to oppose the political discrimination.



In 1968, Sakharov authored an essay calling for drastic reductions in nuclear arms. In 1970, he founded the Committee for Human Rights. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975, but the Soviet authorities did not permit him to go to Norway to accept the award. By 1980, for his unrelenting criticism of the Soviet policies, including the invasion of Afghanistan, Sakharov was sentenced to internal exile in Gorki.

In December 1986, Sakharov was allowed to return to Moscow. He remained a tireless advocate for political reform and human rights for the rest of his life. Sakharov died on December 14, 1989.

 

VOCABULARY

personal responsibility – личная ответственность

drastic disparity – резкое несоответствие

disparity – несоответствие, неравенство

occurrence of the matter (зд.) – происхождение материи

to be devoted to – быть преданным, посвященным

nuclear proliferation – нераспространение ядерного оружия

accomplishment – выполнение, завершение

controlled nuclear fusion – управляемый термоядерный синтез

 

ЗАДАНИЕ 4

ЗАДАНИЕ 5

Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1. А. Д. Сахаров, выдающийся физик-теоретик является одним из создателей первой советской водородной бомбы.

2. Согласно расчетам А. Д. Сахарова, в результате взрыва водородной бомбы образуется гигантская волна, уничтожающая все на своем пути.

ВАРИАНТ II

ЗАДАНИЕ 1

ЗАДАНИЕ 2

ЗАДАНИЕ 3

Ответьте письменно на вопросы.

1. What was the reason that prevented M. Keldysh from being enrolled at the Institute of Civil Engineers?

2. What was the research work done by Keldysh which was rewarded by the first Stalin Prize in 1946?

3. What was the event that marked the beginning of Space Age of the mankind?

MSTISLAV KELDYSH (1911 - 1978)

 

M. Keldysh was born in 1911 in Riga, in a professional family of Russian nobility. His grandfather, Mikhail Fomich Keldysh was a military physician, who retired with the military rank of General. His father Vsevolod Mikhailovich Keldysh was a civil engineer, Major General of the Engineering Service, and Professor (since 1918) at the Kuibyshev Military Engineering Academy. He was Distinguished Engineering Scientist of the Soviet Union. He was one of the authors of contemporary methods for calculating the strength of reinforced concrete, and a designer of the Moscow Canal and the Moscow Metro project.

In the first years of the Soviet Union he was refused in getting education at the Institute of Civil Engineers because of his attachment to a noble family. Anyway, in the next years he managed to enter and graduate from the Physics and Mathematics department of the Moscow State University. He obtained employment at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute and worked together with Mikhail Lavrentyev and Sergey Chaplygin.



Working for TsAGI he explained the auto-oscillation effects of flutter (in-flight auto-induced oscillations and structural deformations), and shimmy (auto-oscillation in the nose-wheel of aircraft undercarriages while on the ground). Both works were mathematically perfect, practical and important as they helped to avoid many aircraft catastrophes at the time.

In 1937 Keldysh became Doctor of Science (the title of his dissertation was “Complex Variableand Harmonic Functions Representation by Polynomial Series”). He became a Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. He got the first Stalin Prize in 1946 for his works on aircraft auto-oscillations. In 1943 he also became a full member of the Academy and the Director of NII-1 (Research Institute) of the Department of the Aviation Industry.

During the 1940s, M. Keldysh became the leader of a unique group of applied mathematicians involved in almost all large scientific projects of the Soviet Union. M. Keldysh created the Calculation Bureau that carried most of the mathematical problems related to the development of nuclear weapons. The bureau is also credited with design of the first Soviet computers. The main efforts made by Keldysh were devoted to jet propulsion and rockets including supersonic gas dynamics, heat and mass exchange and heat shielding. In 1959 there was a successful testing of the soviet first cruise missile which displayed better performance than the Navajo missile being designed in the U.S.A at the time.

In 1954 Keldysh, Sergey Korolyov and Mikhail Tikhonravov submitted a letter to the Soviet Government proposing development of an artificial satellite to orbit the Earth. This letter began the effort that culminated in the world’s first satellite, Sputnik in October 1957, which marks the beginning of Space Age of mankind. In 1955 M. Keldysh was appointed the chairman of the Satellite Committee at the Academy of Science. In recognition of his contribution to the problems of defense Keldysh was awarded the Hero of Socialist Labor (1956) and the Lenin Prize (1957). In 1961 he received a second Него of Socialist Labor medal for his contribution to Yuri Gagarin's flight into space, the first person who orbited the Earth.

Keldysh was 67 when he died. He was honoured with a state funeral and his ash was buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis on Red Square.

VOCABULARY

jet propulsion – реактивный двигатель

Distinguished Engineering Scientist of the Soviet Union – заслуженный деятель науки и техники СССР

the auto-oscillation effects of flutter – эффекты автоколебаний флаттера

the Calculation Bureau – вычислительный центр

to be honoured with – удостоиться чести

cruise missile – крылатая ракета

successful testing – успешное испытание

an artificial satellite – искусственный спутник

heat shielding – теплозащита

development – развитие

ЗАДАНИЕ 4

Вставьте пропущенные слова и словосочетания из раздела Vocabulary.

 

1. The main efforts made by Keldysh were devoted to ______________ and rockets.

2. In 1959 there was _______________ of the first Soviet cruise missile.

3. In 1954 Keldysh together with Sergey Korolyov and Mikhail Tikhonravov submitted a letter to the Soviet Government proposing development of_____________ to orbit the Earth.

ЗАДАНИЕ 5

Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1. М. Келдыш известен выдающимися разработками в области прикладной математики, механики, советской космической программы.

2. С именем М. Келдыша связывают развитие современных электронно- вычислительных машин, которые использовались для расчетов в атомной и ракетно-космической отраслях.

 

ВАРИАНТ III

ЗАДАНИЕ 1

ЗАДАНИЕ 2

ЗАДАНИЕ 3

Ответьте письменно на вопросы.

1. What helped Copernicus to fund the continuation of his studies in astronomy?

2. Who significantly influenced Copernicus’s research that led to developing his own celestial model, a heliocentric planetary system?

3. What made Copernicus think that the size of each planet’s orbit depended on its distance from the Sun?

4. Ptolemy together with Aristotle invented the first geometric planetary model.

 

NICOLAUS COPERNICUS

 

Nicolaus Copernicus was born on February 19, 1473 in Torun,

 

Poland. Copernicus developed his own celestial model of a heliocentric planetary system. He shared his findings inthe Commentariolus. His second book on the topic, “De revolutionibus orbium coelestium” was banned by the Roman Catholic Church not long after his death, May 24, 1543 in Frauenburg, Poland.

When Copernicus was 10, his father, a well-to-do merchant who dealt in copper, selling it mostly in Danzig (Gdańsk), passed away. His maternal uncle, Bishop of Varmia Lucas Watzenrode, generously assumed the paternal role, taking it upon himself to ensure that Copernicus received the best possible education. In 1491, Copernicus entered the University of Cracow, where he studied painting and mathematics. Though he did not take astronomy classes at that time, he developed a growing interest in Cosmos, and started collecting books on the topic. After graduating from the university in 1494, Copernicus returned to Torun, where he took a canon’s position, arranged by his uncle at Frombork cathedral. Though the opportunity was only typically available to priests, Copernicus was able to hold onto the job for the rest of his life. It was a fortunate chance for Copernicus. The canon’s position afforded him the opportunity to fund the continuation of his studies for as long as he liked. Still, the job demanded much of his schedule; he was only able to pursue his academic interests intermittently, during his free time.

In 1496, Copernicus took leave and traveled to Italy, where he was enrolled in a religious law program at the University of Bologna. There, he met astronomer Domenico Maria Novara, a fateful encounter, as the two began exchanging astronomical ideas and observations. Historian Edward Rosen described the relationship as follows: “In establishing close contact with Novara, Copernicus met, perhaps for the first time in his life, a mind that dared to challenge the authority of Ptolemy the most eminent ancient writer in his chosen fields of study.” The friends were so enthralled in their intellectual exchange, they decided to become roommates. In 1500, after completing his law studies in Bologna, Copernicus went on to study practical medicine at the University of Padua. He did not, however, stay long enough to earn a degree, since the two-year leave of absence from his canon position was nearing expiration. In 1503, Copernicus attended the University of Ferrara, where he prepared to take the canon law exam. After passing the test on his first attempt, he hurried back home to Poland, where he resumed his position as canon and rejoined his uncle at a nearby Episcopal residence. Copernicus remained at the Lidzbark-Warminski residence for the next seven years, working and tending to his elderly, ailing uncle, and exploring astronomy whenever he could find the time. In 1510, Copernicus moved to a residence in the Frombork Cathedral Chapter in hopes of clearing additional time to study astronomy. He would live there as a canon for the duration of his life.

 
 


HELIOCENTRIC SOLAR SYSTEM

Throughout the seven years Nicolaus Copernicus spent in Lidzbark-Warminski. Copernicus read several books on the subject of astronomy. Among the sources that Copernicus consulted there was “Regiomontus’s Epitome of the Almagest”, which presented an alternative to astrologist Claudius Ptolemy’s model of the Universe, and significantly influenced his research. By 1508, Copernicus had begun developing his own celestial model, a heliocentric planetary system. Ptolemy had previously invented a geometric planetary model, which was inconsistent with Aristotle’s idea that celestial bodies moved in a circular motion at different speeds around a fixed point, the Earth. In an attempt to reconcile such inconsistencies, Copernicus’s heliocentric solar system named the Sun, rather than the Earth, as the center of the Solar system. Subsequently, Copernicus believed that the size of each planet’s orbit depended on its distance from the Sun.

 

VOCABULARY

celestial model – небесная модель

heliocentric planetary system – гелиоцентрическая планетарная модель

canon position – должность каноника (церк.)

to enroll – записывать, регистрировать

to depend on – зависеть от

the Solar system – солнечная система

a fixed point – фиксированная точка

the Universe – Вселенная

to influence – оказывать влияние, влиять

“De revolutionibus orbium coelestium” – вращение небесных сфер

significantly – значительно

 

ЗАДАНИЕ 4

Вставьте пропущенные слова и словосочетания из раздела Vocabulary в предложениях.

 

1. N. Copernicus believed that the size of each planet’s orbit ________ its distance from the Sun.

2. Aristotle’s idea was that celestial bodies moved in a circular motion at different speeds around ____________, the Earth.

3. Claudius Ptolemy’s model of the Universe ___________ influenced N. Copernicus’s research.

ЗАДАНИЕ 5

Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1. Н. Коперник – астроном, математик, экономист, каноник эпохи Возрождения родился в Польше 19 февраля 1473 года.

2. В Болонском университете Н. Коперник помимо богословия, права и древних языков занимался астрономией.

 

ВАРИАНТ IV

ЗАДАНИЕ 1

ЗАДАНИЕ 2

ЗАДАНИЕ 3

Ответьте письменно на вопросы.

1. What was the Copernicus’s work “Commentariolus” about? (the main points)

2. Who suggested reforming the calendar that Copernicus rejected to implement?

3. Who did Copernicus dedicate “De revolutionibus orbium coelestium” to?

 

 

COMMENTARIOLUS’ AND CONTROVERSY

 

 

After moving to the Frombork Cathedral Chapter in the early 1500s, Copernicus further developed his heliocentric model, and went on to design and apply a complex mathematical system for proving his theory. In 1513, his dedication prompted him to build his own modest observatory so that he could view the planets in action at any given time. The observations done by Copernicus led him to inaccurate conclusions, including his assumption that planets’ orbit occurred in perfect circles. As the German astronomer Johannes Kepler later proved in the 17-th century, planetary orbits were actually elliptical in shape.

In 1514, Copernicus completed a written work “Commentariolus” (Latin for “Small Commentary”), a 40-page manuscript that he referred to as the “Sketch of Hypothesis Made by Nicolaus Copernicus on the Heavenly Motions.” “Commentariolus” summarized Copernicus’s heliocentric planetary system and strove to provide systematic proof in the form of both astronomical observations and mathematical formulas of the model.

The sketch set seven axioms, each describing an aspect of the heliocentric solar system: 1) Planets don’t revolve around one fixed point; 2) the Earth is at the center of the Moon’s orbit; 3) The Sun is at the center of the Universe, and all celestial bodies rotate around it; 4) The distance between the Earth and the Sun is only a tiny fraction of stars’ distance from the Earth and the Sun; 5) Stars do not move, and if they appear to, it is only because the Earth itself is moving; 6) the Earth moves in a sphere around the Sun, causing the sun’s yearly movement; 7) the Earth’s orbit around the Sun causes the planets to orbit in the opposite direction.

“Commentariolus” also went on to describe in detail Copernicus’s assertion that a mere 34 circles could sufficiently illustrate planetary motion. Copernicus sent his manuscript to several friends and contemporaries, and while the manuscript received had little response among his colleagues, a buzz began around Copernicus and his unconventional theories within two years of “Commentariolus’s” release. More mystery to Copernicus’s growing reputation and notoriety was added by his rejection to an invitation by the Lateran Council, which invited astronomers to provide advice in reforming the calendar.

Copernicus’s written works, “Commentariolus” and, later, “De revolutionibusorbium coelestium” (Latin for “On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres”), raised a fair share of controversy. Copernicus’s critics claimed that he failed to solve the mystery of the parallax, the seeming displacement in the position of a celestial body, when viewed along varying lines of sight and that his work lacked a sufficient explanation for why the Earth orbited the Sun. In addition to the criticism from scholars, Copernicus’s theories incensed the Roman Catholic Church. His model was considered to be heretical because it was contrary to the Church’s teachings. When “De revolutionibus orbium coelestium” was published in 1543, just before Copernicus’s death, religious leader Martin Luther voiced his opposition to the heliocentric solar system model. His underling, Lutheran minister Andreas Osiander, quickly followed suit, saying of Copernicus, “This fool wants to turn the whole art of astronomy upside down.” Osiander even went so far as to write a disclaimer stating that the heliocentric system was a theory, not a fact, and added it to the book’s preface, leading readers to assume that Copernicus himself had written it. By this time, Copernicus was ailing and unfit for the task of defending his work. Ironically, Copernicus had dedicated “De revolutionibus orbium coelestium” to Pope Paul III. If his tribute to the Pope was an attempt to cull the Catholic Church’s softer reception, it was to no avail. The Church ultimately banned “De revolutionibus” posthumously, and the book remained on the list of forbidden reading material for nearly three centuries thereafter.

Death and Legacy

In May of 1543, mathematician and scholar Georg Joachim Rheticus presented Copernicus with a copy of a newly published “De revolutionibus orbium coelestium”. Copernicus is said to have been clutching the book when he died in his bed on May 24, 1543 in Frauenburg, Poland.

Copernicus was born and died in Royal Prussia, a region that had been a part of the Kingdom of Poland since 1466. He was a polyglot and polymath, obtaining a doctorate in canon law and also practiced as a physician, classics scholar, translator, governor, diplomat and economist. In 1517, he worked out a quantity theory of money, a key concept in economics, and, in 1519, formulated a version of what later became known as Gresham’s law.

VOCABULARY

 

the Heavenly motions – небесные движения

planetary motion – движение планет

unconventional – нетрадиционный

legacy – наследие

a quantity theory of money – количественная теория денег

Gresham’s law – закон Коперника – Грешема

“De revolutionibus orbium coelestium” – вращение небесных сфер

to ban – запрещать

heretical – еретический

the heliocentric solar system model – гелиоцентрическая модель Солнечной системы

rejection – отказ, отклонение

disclaimer – отречение

ЗАДАНИЕ 4

Вставьте пропущенные слова и словосочетания в предложениях из раздела Vocabulary.

1. N. Copernicus worked out a ____________, a key concept in economics.

2. The Church _________ “De revolutionibus” posthumously and the book remained on the list of forbidden reading material for nearly three centuries thereafter.

3. N. Copernicus’s model of planetary motions was considered to be _______ because it was contrary to the Church’s teachings.

 

ЗАДАНИЕ 5

Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1. Гелиоцентрическая система мира это представление о том, что Солнце является центральным небесным телом, вокруг которого вращается Земля и другие планеты.

2. Солнце считается неподвижным относительно звезд по гелиоцентрической модели Вселенной.

ВАРИАНТ V

ЗАДАНИЕ 1

ЗАДАНИЕ 2

ЗАДАНИЕ 3

Ответьте на вопросы (письменно).

1. What are Jobs and Wozniak credited for in the computer world?

2. What was the value of the market when Apple Computer became a publicly traded company?

3. Why did Jobs and Wozniak name their own business as “Apple Computer Company”?

STEVE JOBS

 

 

Steve Jobs (Steven Paul) was born in San Francisco, California, on February 24, 1955. Smart but directionless, Jobs experimented with different pursuits before starting Apple Computers with Steve Wozniak in 1976. Apple's revolutionary products, which include the iPod, iPhone and iPad, are now seen as dictating the evolution of modern technology.

Steve was adopted at birth by Paul Reinhold Jobs (1922–1993) and Clara Jobs. The Jobs family moved from San Francisco to Mountain View, California when Jobs was five years old. Paul worked as a mechanic and a carpenter, and taught his son rudimentary electronics and how to work with his hands. Paul showed Steve how to work on electronics in the family garage, demonstrating to his son how to take apart and rebuild electronics such as radios and televisions. As a result, he became interested in it and developed a hobby of technical tinker.

Clara was an accountant who taught him to read before he went to school. Clara Jobs had been a payroll clerk for Varian Associates, one of the first high-tech firms, later known as Silicon Valley.

S. Jobs’s youth was riddled with frustrations over formal schooling. At Monta Loma Elementary school in Mountain View, he frequently played pranks on others. Though school officials recommended two grades skipping on account of his test scores, his parents agreed to skip only one grade.

Jobs then attended Cupertino Junior High and Homestead High School in Cupertino, California. At Homestead, Jobs became friends with Bill Fernandez, a neighbor who shared the same interests in electronics. Fernandez introduced Jobs to his neighbor, Steve Wozniak, a computer and electronics kid, who was also known as “Woz”. In 1969 Wozniak started creating a little computer board with Fernandez that they named “The Cream Soda Computer”, which they showed to Jobs and he seemed really interested. Wozniak stated that they called it the Cream Soda Computer because he and Fernandez drank cream soda all the time whilst they were working on it.

Following high school graduation in 1972, Jobs was enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Reed was an expensive college which Paul and Clara could ill afford. They were spending much of their life savings on their son’s higher education. Jobs dropped out of the college after six months and spent the next 18 months dropping in on creative classes, including a course on calligraphy. In the commencement address he gave at Stanford, Jobs said that, while he continued to audit classes at Reed, he slept on the floor in friends’ dorm rooms, returned Coke bottles for food money, and got weekly free meals at the local Hare Krishna temple. In that same speech, Jobs said: “If I had never dropped in on that single calligraphy course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts.” Steve Jobs attended Homestead High School in Cupertino California and went to Reed College in Portland Oregon in 1972 but dropped out after only one semester, staying on to “drop in” on courses that were interesting for him. He took a job with video game manufacturer Atari to save enough money for a trip to India. Back in Cupertino after the trip he returned to Atari where his old friend Steve Wozniak was still working. Wozniak was creating his own computer and in 1976 Jobs presold 50 of the yet unmade computers to a local store and managed to buy the components on credit solely on theAPPLE COMPUTER.In 1972, Wozniak designed his own version of the classic video

game, Pong. After finishing it, Wozniak gave the board to Steve Jobs, who then took the game down to Atari Inc. in Los Gatos, California. Atari thought that Jobs had built it and gave him a job as a technician. Atari’s co-founder Nolan Bushnell later described him as “difficult but valuable”, pointing out that he was very often the smartest guy in the room, and he would let people know that. S. Jobs

was assigned to create a circuit board for the arcade video game Breakout. According to Bushnell, Atari offered $100 for each chip that was eliminated in the machine. Jobs had little specialized knowledge of circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the fee between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips. Much to the amazement of Atari engineers, Wozniak reduced the number of chips by 50.

Wozniak had designed a low-cost digital “blue box” to generate the necessary tones to manipulate the telephone network, allowing free long-distance calls. Jobs decided that they could make money selling it. The clandestine sales of the illegal “blue boxes” went well, and perhaps planted the seed in Jobs’s mind that electronics could be fun and profitable. S. Jobs, in a 1994 interview, recalled that it took six months for him and Wozniak to figure out how to build the “blue boxes”. Jobs said that if not for the “blue boxes”, there would have been no Apple. He states it showed them that they could take on large companies and beat them.

Jobs began attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club with Wozniak. He greatly admired Edwin H. Land, the inventor of instant photography and founder of Polaroid Corporation, and would explicitly model his own career after that of Land’s. In 1976, Jobs and Wozniak formed their own business, which they named “Apple Computer Company” in remembrance of a happy summer Jobs had spent picking apples. At first they started off selling circuit boards. In 1976, Wozniak single-handedly invented the Apple I computer. After Wozniak showed it to Jobs, who suggested that they would sell it. They formed Apple Computer in the garage of Jobs’s parents in order to sell the product. They received funding from a semi-retired Intel product marketing manager and engineer Mike Markkula. Scott McNealy, one of the co-founders of Sun Microsystems, said that Jobs broke a ‘glass age ceiling’ in Silicon Valley because he had created a very successful company at a young age.

In 1978, Apple recruited Mike Scott from National Semiconductor to serve as CEO for what turned out to be several turbulent years. In 1983, Jobs lured John Sculley away from Pepsi-Cola to serve as Apple’s CEO, asking, “Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared water, or do you want a chance to change the world?” In the early 1980s, Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential of Xerox PARC’s mouse-driven graphical user interface, which led to the creation of the Apple Lisa. A year later, Apple completed the Macintosh.

VOCABULARY

pursuit – поиск, стремление, занятие

commencement – начало, старт

rudimentary – элементарный, начальный

clandestine – нелегальный, тайный

circuit board – печатная плата

arcade – аркада

recruit – нанимать на работу

low-cost – бюджетный

single-handedly – единолично

chip – микросхема, чип

mouse-driven interface – интерфейс, управляемый мышью

video game manufacturer – производитель видео-игр

ЗАДАНИЕ 4

ЗАДАНИЕ 5

Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1. Стив Джобс представил оригинальный компьютер the Macintosh, первый персональный компьютер с интерфейсом, управляемым мышью.

2. Стив Джобс и его друг Стив Возняк разработали один из первых персональных компьютеров, обладавший большим коммерческим потенциалом в конце 1970-х.

 

 

ИНСТРУКЦИЯ К ВЫПОЛНЕНИЮ ЗАДАНИЯ

“READING” (чтение)

1. Для выполнения задания выберите правильный вариант. Ваш вариант определяется по последней цифре номера зачетной книжки.

№ 1-2 ВАРИАНТ I

№ 3-4 ВАРИАНТ II

№ 5-6 ВАРИАНТ III

№ 7-8 ВАРИАНТ IV

№ 9 ВАРИАНТ V

2.После определения своего варианта, читаете, письменно переводите и выполняете задания, указанные перед текстом.

3.Выполнив все задания, прикрепляете и высылаете на проверку по системе «ГЕКАДЕМ» тьютору.

ВАРИАНТ I

ЗАДАНИЕ 1

Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст о великом ученом Андрее Дмитриевиче Сахарове.

ЗАДАНИЕ 2






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