1. A. D. Sakharov was against _____________ and played a great role in the Partial Test Ban Treaty.
2. A. D. Sakharov conducted the research in_____________ together with the physicist Igor Tamm which led to the creation of the first Soviet hydrogen bomb.
3. ______________ fundamental physics, Sakharov spent two decades designing nuclear weapons before returning to the accomplishment of his major scientific work.
Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:
1. А. Д. Сахаров, выдающийся физик-теоретик является одним из создателей первой советской водородной бомбы.
2. Согласно расчетам А. Д. Сахарова, в результате взрыва водородной бомбы образуется гигантская волна, уничтожающая все на своем пути.
Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст о великом ученом М. В. Келдыше.
Определите истинно или ложно высказывание. Исправьте те высказывания, информация в которых не соответствует информации, представленной в тексте.
1. Academician Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh was born in the family with severe traditions organized by his grandfather – Full General of Artillery.
2. In all developed countries the aircraft construction industry had been stumbling on the flutter effect, but not in the USSR.
3. The calculations created by M. Keldysh were based on complicated mathematical researches which prevented the aircraft auto-oscillation (flutter) from emerging within a full range of flying speeds.
4. M. Keldysh organized the Calculation Bureau where the first Soviet computer was designed.
Ответьте письменно на вопросы.
1. What was the reason that prevented M. Keldysh from being enrolled at the Institute of Civil Engineers?
2. What was the research work done by Keldysh which was rewarded by the first Stalin Prize in 1946?
3. What was the event that marked the beginning of Space Age of the mankind?
MSTISLAV KELDYSH (1911 - 1978)
M. Keldysh was born in 1911 in Riga, in a professional family of Russian nobility. His grandfather, Mikhail Fomich Keldysh was a military physician, who retired with the military rank of General. His father Vsevolod Mikhailovich Keldysh was a civil engineer, Major General of the Engineering Service, and Professor (since 1918) at the Kuibyshev Military Engineering Academy. He was Distinguished Engineering Scientist of the Soviet Union. He was one of the authors of contemporary methods for calculating the strength of reinforced concrete, and a designer of the Moscow Canal and the Moscow Metro project.
In the first years of the Soviet Union he was refused in getting education at the Institute of Civil Engineers because of his attachment to a noble family. Anyway, in the next years he managed to enter and graduate from the Physics and Mathematics department of the Moscow State University. He obtained employment at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute and worked together with Mikhail Lavrentyev and Sergey Chaplygin.
Working for TsAGI he explained the auto-oscillation effects of flutter (in-flight auto-induced oscillations and structural deformations), and shimmy (auto-oscillation in the nose-wheel of aircraft undercarriages while on the ground). Both works were mathematically perfect, practical and important as they helped to avoid many aircraft catastrophes at the time.
In 1937 Keldysh became Doctor of Science (the title of his dissertation was “Complex Variableand Harmonic Functions Representation by Polynomial Series”). He became a Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. He got the first Stalin Prize in 1946 for his works on aircraft auto-oscillations. In 1943 he also became a full member of the Academy and the Director of NII-1 (Research Institute) of the Department of the Aviation Industry.
During the 1940s, M. Keldysh became the leader of a unique group of applied mathematicians involved in almost all large scientific projects of the Soviet Union. M. Keldysh created the Calculation Bureau that carried most of the mathematical problems related to the development of nuclear weapons. The bureau is also credited with design of the first Soviet computers. The main efforts made by Keldysh were devoted to jet propulsion and rockets including supersonic gas dynamics, heat and mass exchange and heat shielding. In 1959 there was a successful testing of the soviet first cruise missile which displayed better performance than the Navajo missile being designed in the U.S.A at the time.
In 1954 Keldysh, Sergey Korolyov and Mikhail Tikhonravov submitted a letter to the Soviet Government proposing development of an artificial satellite to orbit the Earth. This letter began the effort that culminated in the world’s first satellite, Sputnik in October 1957, which marks the beginning of Space Age of mankind. In 1955 M. Keldysh was appointed the chairman of the Satellite Committee at the Academy of Science. In recognition of his contribution to the problems of defense Keldysh was awarded the Hero of Socialist Labor (1956) and the Lenin Prize (1957). In 1961 he received a second Него of Socialist Labor medal for his contribution to Yuri Gagarin's flight into space, the first person who orbited the Earth.
Keldysh was 67 when he died. He was honoured with a state funeral and his ash was buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis on Red Square.
jet propulsion – реактивный двигатель
Distinguished Engineering Scientist of the Soviet Union – заслуженный деятель науки и техники СССР
the auto-oscillation effects of flutter – эффекты автоколебаний флаттера
the Calculation Bureau – вычислительный центр
to be honoured with – удостоиться чести
cruise missile – крылатая ракета
successful testing – успешное испытание
an artificial satellite – искусственный спутник
heat shielding – теплозащита
development – развитие
Вставьте пропущенные слова и словосочетания из раздела Vocabulary.
1. The main efforts made by Keldysh were devoted to ______________ and rockets.
2. In 1959 there was _______________ of the first Soviet cruise missile.
3. In 1954 Keldysh together with Sergey Korolyov and Mikhail Tikhonravov submitted a letter to the Soviet Government proposing development of_____________ to orbit the Earth.
Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:
1. М. Келдыш известен выдающимися разработками в области прикладной математики, механики, советской космической программы.
2. С именем М. Келдыша связывают развитие современных электронно- вычислительных машин, которые использовались для расчетов в атомной и ракетно-космической отраслях.