HOW TO READ CHEMICAL FORMULAS — КиберПедия 

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HOW TO READ CHEMICAL FORMULAS



 

При чтении химических формул буквы латинского алфавита, обозначающие название элементов, читаются согласно английским названиям букв алфавита.

Знак – обозначает одну связь или единицу родства и не читается.

Знак = читается: give, form, produce.

Знак → читается: give, pass over, lead to.

Знак ↔ читается: forms and is formed from.

Цифра (внизу) после названия элемента обозначает число атомов в молекуле.

Цифра перед названием элемента обозначает число молекул.

 

Примеры:

 

H2O [‘eit∫ 'tu: 'ou];

 

HNO3 ['eit∫ 'en 'ou 'θri:];

 

AgNO3 ['ei'dʒi: 'en 'ou 'θri:];

 

C + O2 → CO2: C plus O two give CO two or: one atom of carbon reacted with one two-atom molecule of oxygen and produces one molecule of carbon dioxide;

 

2H2 + O2 → 2H2O: two molecules of H two plus O two give two molecules of H two O ['tu: 'mɔlikju:lz əv 'eit∫ 'tu: pl ʌ s 'ou 'tu: giv 'tu: 'mɔlikju:lz əv 'eit∫ 'tu: 'ou] или: two two-atom molecules of hydrogen react with one two-atom molecule of oxygen and produce two molecules of water;

 

N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3: N two plus three molecules of H two from and are formed from two molecules of NH three ['en 'tu: plлs 'θri: 'mɔlikju:lz əv 'eit∫ 'tu: 'fɔ:m ənd a: 'fɔ:md frəm 'tu: 'mɔlikju:lz əv 'en 'eit∫ 'θri:]

 

Reading of an equation: Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2

The “plus” sign on the left of the arrow means “reacts with”; the arrow means “forming” or “producing”; and the “plus” sign on the right of the arrow means “and”.

So this equation is read:“One atom of zinc reacts with one molecule of sulphuric acid producing one molecule of zinc sulphate and one molecule of hydrogen”.

 

III

HOW TO READ CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

 

CH4 + 2O2 → CO + 2H2O ['si: 'eit∫ 'fɔ : 'plлs 'tu: 'mɔ likju:lz əv 'ou 'tu: 'givz 'si: 'ou 'plлs 'tu: 'mɔ likju:lz əv 'eit∫ 'tu: 'ou].

 

H++ NaHCO3 → Na+ + H2CO4 → Na+ + H2O + CO2 ['haidrədʒən 'aiən 'plлs 'en 'ei 'eit∫ 'si: 'ou'θri: 'givz 'neitriəm 'aiən 'plлs 'eit∫ 'tu: 'si: 'ou 'θri: 'givz 'neitriəm 'aiən 'plлs 'eit∫ 'tu: 'ou 'plлs 'tu:'si: 'tu:].

 

4HCl + O2 = 2Cl2 + 2H2O ['fɔ : 'mɔ likju:lz əv 'eit∫ 'si: 'el 'plлs 'ou 'tu: 'givz 'tu: 'mɔ likju:lz 'si: 'el 'ənd 'tu: 'mɔ likju:lz əv 'eit∫ 'tu: 'ou].

 

AcOH ↔ AcO + H+ ['ei 'si: 'ou 'eit∫ 'fɔ :mz ənd iz 'fɔ :md frəm 'ei 'si: 'ɔ ksidʒən 'aiən 'plлs 'haidrədʒən 'aiən].

 

AcO −− acyloxy ion.

IV

IRREGULAR VERBS

 

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
arise [ə'raiz] arose [ə'rəuz] arisen [ə'riz(ə)n]
awake [ə'weik] awoke [ə'wəuk] awoken [ə'wəukən]
be [bi:] was [wɔz], were [wз:] been [bi:n]
bear [bɛə] bore [bɔ:] born [bɔ:n]
beat [bi:t] beat [bi:t] beaten ['bi:tn]
become [bi:kʌm] became [bi:keim] become[bi:kʌm]
begin [bi'gin] began [bi'gæn] begun [bi'gʌn]
bend [bend] bent [bent] bent [bent]
bet [bet] bet [bet] bet [bet]
bind [baind] bound [baund] bound [baund]
bite [bait] bit [bit] bitten ['bitn]
bleed [bli:d] bled [bled] bled [bled]
blow [blou] blew [blu:] blown [bloun]
break [breik] broke [brouk] broken ['brouk(e)n]
breed [bri:d] bred [bred] bred [bred]
bring [briŋ] brought [brɔ:t] brought [brɔ:t]
broadcast ['brɔ:dka:st] broadcast ['brɔ:dka:st] broadcast ['brɔ:dka:st]
browbeat ['braubi:t] browbeaten ['braubi:tn] browbeaten ['braubi:tn]
build [bild] built [bilt] built [bilt]
burn [bз:n] burnt [bз:nt] burnt [bз:nt]
burst [bз:st] burst [bз:st] burst [bз:st]
bust [bʌst] bust [bʌst] bust [bʌst]
buy [bai] bought [bɔ:t] bought [bɔ:t]
catch [kætʃ] caught [kɔ:t] caught [kɔ:t]
choose [tʃu:z] chose [ʃəuz] chosen [tʃəuz(ə)n]
come [kʌm] came [keim] come [kʌm]
cost [cɔst] cost [cɔst] cost [cɔst]
creep [kri:p] crept [krept] crept [krept]
cut [kʌt] cut [kʌt] cut [kʌt]
do [du:] did [did] done [dʌn]
draw [drɔ:] drew [dru:] drawn [drɔ:n]
dream [dri:m] dreamt [dremt] dreamt [dremt]
drink [driŋk] drank [dræŋk] drunk [drʌŋk]
drive [draiv] drove [drouv] driven ['drivn]
eat [i:t] ate [et] eaten ['i:tn]
fall [fɔ:l] fell [fel] fallen ['fɔ:lən]
feed [fi:d] fed [fed] fed [fed]
feel [fi:l] felt [felt] felt [felt]
fight [fait] fought [fɔ:t] fought [fɔ:t]
find [faind] found [faund] found [faund]
fit [fit] fit [fit] fit [fit]
fly [flai] flew [flu:] flown [floun]
forget [fə'get] forgot [fə'gɔt] forgotten [fə'gɔt(ə)n]
forgive [fo'giv] forgave [fo'geiv] forgiven [fo'givn]
freeze [fri:z] froze [frouz] frozen ['frouzn]
get [ get ] got [gɔt] got [gɔt]
give [giv] gave [geiv] given [givn]
go [gou] went [went] gone [gɔn]
grow [grou] grew [gru:] grown [groun]
hang [hæŋ] hung [hʌŋ] hung [hʌŋ]
have [hæv] had [hæd] had [hæd]
hear [hiə] heard [hз:d] heard [hз:d]
hide [haid] hid [hid] hidden ['hidn]
hit [hit] hit [hit] hit [hit]
hold [hould] held [held] held [held]
hurt [hз:t] hurt [hз:t] hurt [hз:t]
keep [ki:p] kept [kept] kept [kept]
kneel [ni:l] knelt [nelt] knelt [nelt]
know [nou] knew [nju:] known [noun]
lay [lei] laid [leid] laid [leid]
lead [li:d] led [led] led [led]
lean [li:n] leant [lent] leant [lent]
learn [lз:n] learnt [lз:nt] learnt [lз:nt]
leave [li:v] left [left] left [left]
lend [lend] lent [lent] lent [lent]
let [let] let [let] let [let]
lie [lai] lay [lei] lain [lein]
light [lait] lit [lit] lit [lit]
lose [lu:z] lost [lɔst] lost [lɔst]
make [meik] made [meid] made [meid]
mean [mi:n] meant [ment] meant [ment]
meet [mi:t] met [met] met [met]
mistake [mis'teik] mistook [mis'tuk] mistaken [mis'teik(e)n]
pay [pei] paid [peid] paid [peid]
prove [pru:v] proved [pru:vd] proven [pru:vn]
put [put] put [put] put [put]
quit [kwit] quit [kwit] quit [kwit]
read [ri:d] read [red] read [red]
ride [raid] rode [roud] ridden ['ridn]
ring [riŋ] rang [ræŋ] rung [rʌŋ]
rise [raiz] rose [rouz] risen ['rizn]
run [rʌŋ] ran [ræŋ] run [rʌŋ]
say [sei] said [sed] said [sed]
see [si:] saw [sɔ:] seen [si:n]
seek [si:k] sought [sɔ:t] sought [sɔ:t]
sell [sel] sold [sould] sold [sould]
send [send] sent [sent] sent [sent]
set [set] set [set] set [set]
sew [sou] sewed [soud] sewn [soun]
shake [ʃeik] shook [ʃuk] shaken ['ʃeik(ə)n]
show [ʃəu] showed [ʃəud] shown [ʃəun]
shrink [ʃriŋk] shrank [ʃræŋk] shrunk [ʃrʌŋk]
shut [ʃʌt] shut [ʃʌt] shut [ʃʌt]
sing [siŋ] sang [sæŋ] sung [sʌŋ]
sink [siŋk] sank [sæŋk], sunk [sʌŋk] sunk [sʌŋk]
sit [sit] sat [sæt] sat [sæt]
sleep [sli:p] slept [slept] slept [slept]
slide [slaid] slid [slid] slid [slid]
sow [sou] sowed [soud] sown [soun]
speak [spi:k] spoke [spouk] spoken ['spouk(e)n]
spell [spel] spelt [spelt] spelt [spelt]
spend [spend] spent [spent] spent [spent]
spill [spil] spilt [spilt] spilt [spilt]
spoil [spɔil] spoilt [spɔilt] spoilt [spɔilt]
spread [spred] spread [spred] spread [spred]
spring [spriŋ] sprang [spræŋ] sprung [sprʌŋ]
stand [stænd] stood [stu:d] stood [stu:d]
steal [sti:l] stole [stoul] stolen ['stəulən]
stick [stik] stuck [stʌk] stuck [stʌk]
sting [stiŋ] stung [stʌŋ] stung [stʌŋ]
sweep [swi:p] swept [swept] swept [swept]
swell [swel] swelled [sweld] swollen ['swoul(e)n]
swim [swim] swam [swem] swum [swʌm]
swing [swiŋ] swung [swʌŋ] swung [swʌŋ]
take [teik] took [tuk] taken ['teik(ə)n]
teach [ti:tʃ] taught [tɔ:t] taught [tɔ:t]
tear [tɛə] tore [tɔ:] torn [tɔ:n]
tell [tel] told [tould] told [tould]
think [θiŋk] thought [θɔ:t] thought [θɔ:t]
throw [θrəu] threw [θru:] thrown [θrəun]
understand [ʌndə'stænd] understood [ʌndə'stud] understood [ʌndə'stud]
wake [weik] woke [wouk] woken ['wouk(e)n]
wear [wɛə] wore [wɔ:] worn [wɔ:n]
weep [wi:p] wept [wept] wept [wept]
wet [wet] wet [wet] wet [wet]
win [win] won [wʌn] won [wʌn]
wind [waind] wound [waund] wound [waund]
write [rait] wrote [rout] written ['ritn]

 





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