Exercise 1. State the morphological composition of the following nouns. — КиберПедия


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Exercise 1. State the morphological composition of the following nouns.



Part I. ACCIDENCE

THE NOUN

Exercise 1. State the morphological composition of the following nouns.

Snow, sandstone, impossibility, widower, opinion, exclamation, passer-by, misunderstanding, inactivity, snowball, kingdom, anticyclone, mother-of-pearl, immobility, might, warmth, succession, ex-president, nurse, misdeed, wisdom, blackbird, attention, policeman, merry-go-round, girlhood, usefulness, fortune, friendship, statesman, brother-in-law, population, fellow-boarder, smelling-salt.

Exercise 2. Point out the nouns and define the class each belongs to.

1. Don't forget, Pettinger, Europe is still the heart of the world, and Germany the heart of Europe. (Heym) 2. Pursuing his inquiries, Clennam found that the Gowan family were a very distant ramification of the Barnacles... (Dickens) 3. His face was sick with pain and rage. (Maltz) 4. He drank coffee, letting the warmth go through his cold, tired body. (This is America) 5. But there is only one place I met with the brotherhood of man, and it was in the Communist Party. (This is America) 6. The mysteries of storm and the rain and tide were revealed. (Galsworthy) 7. Having set the tea, she stood by the table and said slowly: "Tea's ready, Father. I'm going to London." (Galsworthy) 8. By this time, quite a small crowd had collected, and people were asking each other what was the matter. (Jerome i(. Jerome) 9. There were several small losses: a spoon used for the baby's feeding, a pair of scissors. (Lessing) 10. He was professor of physics. (London) 11. A band of dark clouds lay across the sky, and underneath it was the last pale brilliance of the evening. (Murdoch) 12. "I have some luggage," he said, "at the Brumblehurst Station," and he asked her how he could have it. (Wells) 13. In the kitchen Bowen read the telegram aloud. (Amis) 14. The crowd laughed and moved, pushing every way and everybody. (This is America) 15. De Witt fished through his pockets, found his eyeglasses, carefully slipped them out of their case... (Heylri) 16. A stone caught her heel. (Maltz) 17. George suggested meat and fruit pies, cold meat, tomatoes, fruit and green stuff. (Jerome K. Jerome) 18. The silvercoloured carpet felt wonderfully soft beneath his feet, the furniture was of a golden wood. (Galsworthy) 19. The major seemed to be looking out at the sky... (Heytn) 20. Winslow spoke with his usual caustic courtesy. (Snow) 21. The bourgeoisie is cowardly. (London) 22. The moon was shining through the tree stems when they sax again side by side on the log seat. (Galsworthy) 23. "It's not Sunday, tomorrow," said Karg. (Heytn) 24. He looked down at his audience. (Heyrri) 25. His hair was grey and he was short and fat. (Hemingway)

Exercise 3. Give the plural oi the following nouns.

Face, portfolio, swine, house, tomato, hearth, mother-in-law, basis, clergyman, ox, cry, key, fox, downfall, looker-on, rock, bush, enemy, leaf, roof, genius, hero, bunch, sheep, ship, criterion, youth, journey, penknife, man-of-war, loss, datum, goose, deer, pie, Englishwoman, wolf, mouse, formula, bath, volcano, possibility, forget-me-not, foot, handkerchief, thief, crisis, stepdaughter, birth, echo, finger-tip, court martial, joy, mischief-maker, extremity, spy, lie.

Exercise 7. Translate into English, using a noun in the genitive case where possible.

1. Давид провел две недели в Ярмуте у мистера Пеготти. 2. Уезжая в Ярмут, мальчик ничего не знал о предполагаемом (intended) браке своей матери. 3. После путешествия, которое длилось несколько часов, Пеготти с Давидом прибыли в Ярмут. 4. Приближаясь к дому мистера Пеготти, Давид увидел детскую фигурку, стоявшую на пороге. 5. Дядя Хэма и Эмили усыновил их, когда они были детьми. 6. Пеготти с гордостью говорила о доброте своего брата. 7. Двухнедельное пребывание в Ярмуте доставило Давиду большое удовольствие. 8. В присутствии мужа миссис Копперфильд боялась приласкать своего сына. 9. После минутной нерешительности Давид подошел к миссис Копперфильд и поцеловал ее. 10. После смерти жены мистер Мердстон послал Давида в Лондон, где мальчик должен был работать в торговом доме (warehouse) Мердстона и Гринби.



THE USE OF ARTICLES

Exercise 6. (A) Insert articles or some where necessary. (Articles with nouns- of material.)

1. We sipped __ tea so weak that it tasted like __ metal against the teeth. (Snow) 2. You will be wishing to have __ tea after your journey, I'm thinking. (Shaw) 3. George said that we must take __ rug, __ lamp, __.soap, __ brush and __ comb, __ tooth-brush, __ tooth-powder and __ couple of big towels for bathing. (Jerome K. Jerome) 4. __ children of his age seldom have natural pleasure in __ soap and water. (E. Bronte) 5. He bought __ cold beef, and __ ham, and __ French bread and butter, and came back with his pockets pretty heavily laden. (Dickens) 6. There were two bottles of __ wine, __ plate of __ oranges... with _ powdered sugar. (Dickens) 7. Here, have __ champagne, I quite forgot to offer you any, or would you rather have __ tea? (Murdoch) 8. She made __ coffee. (Murdoch) 9. __ coffee without __ bread could never honestly serve as supper. (Saroyan) 10 __ rest of us had finished eating, but Cave had cut himself another slice of __ cheese. (Snow) 11. Mrs. Leek... frankly gave way to __ soft tears while eating __ bread-and-butter, (Bennett) 12. You've caught cold: I saw you shivering, and you must have __ gruel to drive it out. (E. Bronte) 13. She did not answer, but her face was hard and pale as __ stone. (Galsworthy)

(b) Insert articles where necessary. (Articles with nouns of material.)

1. She hurried in again and found __ water almost boiled away. (Lindsay) 2.... __ blood is thicker than __ water. (Galsworthy) 3. She went about looking into __ dining room, which... had been transformed into __ kind of jewel box glowing with __ flowers, __ silver, __ gold, __ tinted glass. (Dreiser) 4. Rosa tasted __ wine. It was harsh but refreshing. (Murdoch) 5. You drank __ wine with breakfast, dinner and supper, and fifty people always drank it with you. (/. Shaw)6. She looked with __ eager, hungry eyes at __ bread and __ meat and __ beer that __ landlady brought her. (Eliol) 7....Willows replied that he had made friends with __ sculptor in Pisa... and had commissioned this artist to make __ bust of himself in __ marble. (Hardy) 8. __ coffee was better than Dinny had hoped and very hot. (Galsworthy) 9. Without giving her __ opportunity to protest any more, he went to __. thelephone and ordered __ coffee and several sandwiches. (Caldwell) 10. She wears __ little sailor hat of __ black straw that has long been exposed to __ dust and soot of London. (Shaw) 11. The mother was yellow in colour and her skin resembled __ leather. (Murdoch) 12. The maid brought in __ pears, __ cold chicken, __ tongue, __ cheese. (Snow) 13. My heart... felt as heavy as __ lead. (Dи Maurier) 14. Every meal was __ bread and __ coffee and __ cigarettes, and now -he had no more bread. (Saroyan)

THE ADJECTIVE

THE PRONOUN

WORDS DENOTING STATE

THE VERB

TENSES IN THE ACTIVE VOICE

THE PASSIVE VOICE

MODAL VERBS

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

Exercise 1. Insert the appropriate form o! the Subjunctive Mood. Comment on the form and the use of the Subjunctive Mood. Translate into Russian (conditional sentences).

1. I honestly think it __ better if we __ each other for awhile. (to be, to see — negative) (Hansford Johnson) 2. If you __ already married, Mr. Clay, I __ ior you. (to be — negative, to wait) (Stone) 3. Now if only Betty __ able to come this evening she __ it. But, of course, she had to choose this evening to go and see her mother, (to be, to do) (A. Wilson) 4. If he __ ordinary, I __ him (to be, to love — negative) (Galsworthy) 5. And if anything __ to him, there __ something in the Press, (to happen, to be) (Priestley) 6, I __ it a few months ago, Mr. Chapin. (to believe) (Dreiser) 7. If I __ you, I think I __ very much as you do. (to be, to feel) (Snow) 8. You first brought your friend into my sister's company, and but for you we __ never __ him. (to see) (Dickens) 9. I certainly won't leave you so long as you are in mourning. It __ most unfriendly. If I __ in mourning you __ with me, I suppose, (to be, to be, to stay) (Wilde) 10. He was a power in the College, and __ in any society, (to be) (Snow) 11. If you __ news before morning, ring me up at once, (to have) (Hansford Johnson) 12. I like the place. The air suits me. I __ surprised if I __ here, (to be — negative, to settle down) (Shaw) 13. There is nothing the Barkers __ for a few pounds, (to do — negative) (Wilson) 14. Well that wasn't true what she said and, if it __ that __ no business of hers, (to be, to be) (A. Wilson) 15, "She told me the other day that her heart stopped for five minutes when that horrid nurse was rude to her." "Nonsense! She __ alive now if her heart __ for five seconds." (to be — negative, to stop) (Shaw) 16. I think it __ her so much good to have a short stroll with you in the Park, Dr. Chasuble. (to do) (Wilde) 17. The story I have to tell __. never __ if one day I __ across the street, (to happen, to walk — negative) (Maugham) 18. "She is so wretched," I told him, "that she __ gladly __ to-morrow morning if it __ for the baby." (to die, to be — negative) (Hansford Johnson) 19. If I __ you I _ abroad agaia.. (to be, to go) (Hardy) 20. "I think, Edward," said Mrs. Dashwood, "you — a happier man if you __ any profession to engage your time and give an interest-to your plans and actions. Some inconvenience to your friends, indeed, might result from it: you __ able to give them so much of your time." (to be, to have, to be — negative) (Austen) 21. Jago was longing for me to say that he ought to be the next Master. A few years before I __ yes on the spot, (to say) (Snow) 22. And if I __ I was going to meet you, I __ differently. (to know, to dress) (/. Shaw)23. If he __ here, send him to us at once, (to return) (Priestley) 24. 1 __ what I am but for him. (to be— negative) (Maugham) 25. "Why are you talking this rubbish," he said, "and making me talk it too?" "If what you say __ true, women __ either poisonous or boringl" (to be, to be) (Murdoch) 26. Just think, if I __ the pictures I __ a rich woman now. (to buy, to be) (Maugham) 27. Mr. Gresham, this marriage will, at any rate, put an end to your pecuniary embarrassment, unless, indeed, Frank __ a hard creditor, (to prove) (Trollope) 28. Anyhow, a fire started, and if a young fellow who's working here __ instantly __ with an axe, their big storage tank of gasolene __ in the air and God knows what __ then, (to set about — negative, to go up, to happen) We all __ with it. (to go) Honestly, we're all lucky to be alive. If it __ for this chap, we __ (to be — negative, to be — negative) (Priestley)



Exercise 4. Insert the appropriate form of the Subjunctive Mood. Comment on the form and the use of the Subjunctive Mood. Translate into Russian (simple sentences, conditional sentences, adverbial clauses of purpose and concession).

1. She wanted him to be a member of Parliament only that he __ a claim on the gratitude of his party, (to have) (Maugham) 2. God __ me from such friends in future, (to save) (Lindsay) 3. Andrews turned up the collar of his coat, lest he __ (to recognize— passive) (Greene) 4. I am prepared to gratify all your whims, however unreasonable they __ (to be) (Maugham) 5. Do you think she __ and have lunch with me if I „her? (to come, to telephone) (Hansford Johnson) 6. "Oh God __ you! How could you strike an otd woman like that?" (to forgive) (Shaw) 7. Tell them I leave my country that I __ free, and it is the end and the beginning, (to be) (Buck) 8. "Mr. Penty," said the doctor.... "in my experience, very few people are perfectly well, although they __ they are." (to imagine) (Priestley) 9. I keep a diary in order to enter the wonderful secrets of my life. If I __ them down, I __ probably __ all about them, (to write — negative, to forget) (Wilde) 10. He seemed to be dozing when she returned, and she put the low fire together very softly lest she __ him. (to awake) (Dickens) 11. Whatever your father __ once __, to day he's decay; he's age; he's everything that's corrupt and evil, (to be) (Gow and D’Usseau) 12. God __ for her kind heart, (to thank — passive) (Lindsay) 13. If necessary, 1 could cable her to tell her his address in order that she __ Australia without seeing him. (to leave — negative) (Shute) 14. I __ you if I __ a way out, but there isn't one. (to press — negative, to see) (Maugham) 15. It was plain that however conscientious Cassilis __, however desperately hard and intelligently he __, he would never get his captaincy, (to be, to work) (Hansford Johnson) 16. And, fearful lest he __ Soames turned away and mounted slowly to his room, (to see — passive) (Galsworthy) 17. This was true, and he __ to meditate on this sad confession if he __ otherwise engaged, (to pause, to be — negative) (Murdoch) 18. He had to admit to himself that whatever Miss Dobb's faults __, she was the right sort of girl to take to a restaurant, (to be) (Lessing)

THE PARTICIPLE

THE GERUND

Exercise 8. Translate into English, using the gerund where possible. (A) Based on an episode from The Pickwick Papers by Ch. Dickens.

1. После завтрака мистер Уордль сказал, обращаясь к своим гостям: «Вы ничего не имеете против того, чтобы покататься на коньках? Погода прекрасная, и времени у нас хватит». 2. Все охотно согласились, и дамы стали просить мистера Уинкля присоединиться к ним. Они были уверены, что он великолепный спортсмен, так как он никогда не упускал случая похвастаться своим искусством. 3. Но мистер Уинкль сказал, что он давно не практиковался (to be out of practice): ему не улыбалась мысль показать в присутствии дам, что он не умеет кататься на коньках. 4. Дамы стали настаивать, чтобы он пошел с ними и показал им свое искусство. 5. Было бесполезно говорить, что у него нет коньков: ему тотчас же предложили несколько пар. 6. После этого мистер Уинкль не мог не пойти на каток. 7. Когда они подошли к озеру, мистер Боб Сойер надел коньки и стал описывать круги (to make circles) на льду, не останавливаясь ни на минуту, чтобы перевести дыхание. 8. Бедный мистер Уинкль постоял несколько минут с коньками в руках и, не зная, как их надеть, стал привинчивать их острыми концами назад (with the points behind). 9. Наконец, коньки были надеты. Прежде чем подняться на ноги, мистер Уинкль попросил Сэма помочь ему. 10. Он начал с того, что заметил, что очень скользко: он не мог даже стоять на льду, если кто-нибудь не поддерживал его. 11. Вдруг мистер Пиквик, не зная, что его молодой друг не может стоять на льду без посторонней помощи (unassisted), позвал Сэма с другого берега озера. 12. Сэм смог вырваться из рук мистера Уинкля (to disengage oneself from somebody's grasp), только оттолкнув его от себя. 13. Несчастный мистер Уинкль упал и сидел на льду, даже не делая попытки подняться. 14. Мистер Пиквик был возмущен тем, что его друг говорил всем, что он хороший спортсмен. 13. Он выразил свое негодование тем, что назвал мистера Уинкля хвастуном и обманщиком (humbug).

(В)1. Увидя меня, она [Маша] вздрогнула и закричала. (Пушкин) 2. Мысль увидеть императрицу лицом к лицу так устрашила ее, что она с трудом могла - держаться (to stand) на ногах. (Пушкин) 3. Тут он остановился и стал набивать свою трубку. (Пушкин) 4. «Извините меня, — сказал он мне по-французски, — что я без церемонии прихожу с вами познакомиться». (Пушкин) 5. Ты уже оскорбил казаков, посадив дворянина им в начальники (to set a nobleman over somebody); не пугай же дворян, казня их по первому наговору (accusation). (Пушкин) 6. Единственное развлечение мое состояло в наездничестве (to ride). (Пушкин) 7. Ибрагим не мог не улыбнуться. (Пушкин) 8. За сим он почтительно поцеловал ее руку и уехал, не сказав ей ни слова о решении Кирила Петровича. (Пушкин) -9. Написавши несколько писем... Лаврецкий отправился кКалитиным. (Тургенев) 10. Впрочем, он (Лаврецкий] скоро догадался, что никто не мешал ему уединиться... (Тургенев) 11. Как все женщины, которым не удалось полюбить, она [Анна Сергеевна] хотела чего-то, сама не зная, чего именно. (Тургенев) 12.... ее самолюбие (vanity) было глубоко уязвлено тем, что ни тот, ни другой (neither of them) не обратил на нее внимания. (Тургенев) 13. Девушка извинилась, что вошла... (Л. Толстой) 14. Услыхав это, Анна быстро села и закрыла лицо веером. (Л. Толстой) 15. Теперь же Анна, в надежде увидать Вронского, пожелала ехать. (Л. Толстой) 16. Левин любил своего брата, но быть с ним вместе всегда было мученье. (Л. Толстой) 17. Левин нахмурился и, не отвечая ей, сел опять за свою работу... (Л. Толстой). 18. Поговорив о своей старой гувернантке, о ее странностях, она [Кити] спросила его о его жизни. (Л. Толстой)19. «Дарья Александровна, — сказал он, краснея до корней волос (to blush up to the roots of one's hair), —я удивляюсь даже, что вы... не чувствуете этого». (Л. Толстой) 20.... она [Долли] не могла не говорить себе, что у нее прелестные дети... и была счастлива ими (in them) и гордилась ими. (Л. Толстой) 21. Он [Левин] сошел вниз, избегая подолгу смотреть на нее... но он видел ее... и не глядя. (Л. Толстой) 22. Она [Анна] плакала о том, что мечта ее об уяснении, определении (to be made clear and definite) своего положения разрушена навсегда. (Л. Толстой)23. Варвара Ивановна говорила, что чуть не убил ее народ за то, что она по-французски заговорила. (Л. Толстой)24. Солдаты ели, не обращая внимания на Пьера. (Л. Толстой)25. Получив приказание (orders), он... поскакал вдоль -линии фронта. (Л. Толстой)26. И Николай... стал рассказывать о возможности в весьма скором времени выкупить (to buy back) Отрадное. (Л. Толстой)27. Сказав с Карлом Ивановичем еще несколько слов о понижении (fall) барометра... папа... послал нас учиться (to our lessons). (Л. Толстой) 28....через несколько минут в доме все пришло в прежнее движение (to resume its former course), как будто никто не знал и не думал о том, что я сижу в темном чулане. (Л. Толстой) 29. Когда привезено было известие о взятии в плен Мюрата и штабные (the members of the staff) поздравляли Кутузова, он улыбнулся. (Л. Толстой)

THE INFINITIVE

THE ADVERB

MODAL WORDS

THE INTERJECTION

THE PREPOSITION

Exercise 1. State the morphological composition of the following prepositions:

In, below, with regard to, during, concerning, till, in front of, without, behind, under, in view of, outside, off, into, until, across, according to, with, along, up, inside, out of, owing to, at, regarding.

THE CONJUNCTION

Exercise 1. State the morphological composition oi the following conjunctions:

For, as well as, unless, now that, and, neither... nor, while, although, not only... but also, provided, as though, supposing, no sooner... than, or, so that, if, both... and, as long as, so, either... or, as... as, when, until, before, after, as if, as soon as, lest, for fear that, notwithstanding, nor.

THE PARTICLE

GRAMMATICAL HOMONYMS

Part II. SYNTAX

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE

WORD ORDER

SEQUENCE OF TENSES

INDIRECT SPEECH

Table of contents

Part I. ACCIDENCE … 2

THE NOUN 2

THE USE OF ARTICLES 4

THE ADJECTIVE 19

THE PRONOUN 20

WORDS DENOTING STATE 22

THE VERB 22

TENSES IN THE ACTIVE VOICE 23

THE PASSIVE VOICE 39

MODAL VERBS 43

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD 51

THE NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERBS (VERBALS) 63

THE PARTICIPLE 63

THE GERUND 70

THE INFINITIVE 78

THE ADVERB 91

MODAL WORDS 92

THE INTERJECTION 92

THE PREPOSITION 92

THE CONJUNCTION 93

THE PARTICLE 94

GRAMMATICAL HOMONYMS 94

Part II. SYNTAX 96

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE 96

WORD ORDER 105

THE COMPOUND AND THE COMPLEX SENTENCE 108

SEQUENCE OF TENSES 116

INDIRECT SPEECH 117

 

 

Part I. ACCIDENCE

THE NOUN

Exercise 1. State the morphological composition of the following nouns.

Snow, sandstone, impossibility, widower, opinion, exclamation, passer-by, misunderstanding, inactivity, snowball, kingdom, anticyclone, mother-of-pearl, immobility, might, warmth, succession, ex-president, nurse, misdeed, wisdom, blackbird, attention, policeman, merry-go-round, girlhood, usefulness, fortune, friendship, statesman, brother-in-law, population, fellow-boarder, smelling-salt.






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