1. The preliminary exploration gives reliable information only
on the place of the deposit.
2. The quality of the mineral deposit can be determined without
182______________________________________________ Unit 7
3. The data obtained from the exploratory workings allow the
geologist to estimate the mineral reserves and to plan current pro
4. In prospecting for loose rocks, only core-drilling is used.
36. Суммируйте содержание текста Б по плану.
1. The task of the preliminary exploration.
2. Exploratory workings used at the preliminary stage of exploration.
3. Sampling as a means of determining the quality of the min
4. The aims of the detailed proving and exploitation exploration.
37. Скажите, какие основные сведения необходимы геологу для описа
38. Расскажите о вкладе выдающихся ученых-геологов в науку о Земле и
39. Прочитайте текст В. Перечислите основные методы разведки, упомянутые в тексте, и скажите, какой из них вы считаете наиболее прогрессивным. Дайте обоснование своего ответа.
1. World-wide economic development has been characterized by the
growth rates in the demand of raw materials and especially for the
primary sources of energy. Despite the development of nuclear energy,
the expansion of off-shore oil and natural gas production, the extraction
of oil from bituminous sands and oil shales, the liquefaction
(разжижение) and gasification of coal, and the application of such
sources as geothermal and solar energy, the burden (бремя) of energy
supply will 'continue to fall on the producers of fossil fuels for many
years to come. This applies particularly to the production of solid fuels.
2. As is known, most minerals are mined from surface deposits now.
Even though the mining industry continues the search for low-grade
surface deposits, it is increasingly necessary that the economic
subsurface deposits should be mined. This fact leads to the development
of new methods of prospecting.
3. New techniques have been developed for rapid mapping and
geochemical sampling from light aircraft while in flight. Statistical
studies of regional geochemical sampling aided (помогать) by
computers are being widely adopted. In general, computers play an
Unit 7_________ -______________________________ 183
important role in the quick interpretation of geological problems. Colour photography is also being used as an aid in certain geological work and mining studies.
4. A method of prospecting for mineral, gas, oil, etc. which is based
on a combination of X-rays and ultrasonic transmissions came into use
recently. The method is fully portable and of great value in drilling. In
addition, this method determines the areas of interest during drilling
and gives close grade control during mining operations.
5. At present, the scientists are conducting intensive research aimed
at using geocosmic rays as a means of determining the size of an ore
deposit in the prospecting stage. As is known, until recently scientists
dealt only with the interplanetary functions of cosmic rays. Cosmic rays
coming in from the depths of the Universe are expected to explore near-
earth and interplanetary space.
6. The geocosmic method is based on the fact that when the cosmic
rays get into the atmosphere, the so-called secondary cosmic rays,
muons, appear. These particles are capable of penetrating rather deep
into the Earth's crust. The greatest muon penetration depth registered
today is stated to be about three thousand metres. This fact has suggested
the idea of using the rays in mineral prospecting.
7. Besides, successful development of space research has made it
possible to survey the Earth's resources from space by satellites. The
advantages of the surveys of the Earth's resources by satellites are such
that vast areas such as entire mountain belts and continents can be
mapped synoptically. The greatest potential of surveying the Earth's
resources from space for mineral exploration is based on the ability to
map synoptically the geomorphology and general geological
environment (окружающая среда) of very large areas. The results
obtained provide more accurate and complete information than is
available from conventional (обычный) surveys.
40. •) В каждом абзаце текста В найдите предложение, передающее его