To my mind; In my opinion; on the contrary; I'd like to say a few words about; it seems to be wrong; it is quite obvious that; as for; as I know — КиберПедия


Организация стока поверхностных вод: Наибольшее количество влаги на земном шаре испаряется с поверхности морей и океанов (88‰)...

Папиллярные узоры пальцев рук - маркер спортивных способностей: дерматоглифические признаки формируются на 3-5 месяце беременности, не изменяются в течение жизни...

To my mind; In my opinion; on the contrary; I'd like to say a few words about; it seems to be wrong; it is quite obvious that; as for; as I know



1. Lignite is a high-rank coal, containing about 90 per cent of
carbon. It is slightly liable to spontaneous combustion.

2. Bituminous coals cannot be stored in open piles. These coals
are primarily used for domestic purposes.

3. Anthracites are soft coals being used mainly for metallurgical
purposes. In future coal will be used only for domestic purposes.

37. Суммируйте содержание текста Б, используя следующие слова и
выражения:

coal ranks; carbon and volatile matter content; moisture con­tent; heat effect; liability to spontaneous combustion; coking quality; the use of different types of coal in industry

38. Подготовьте сообщение на тему:

Different types of coals and their comparison with each other (for example, lignite and anthracite or anthracite and brown coal, etc.), their carbon content, heat value, liability to spontaneous combustion and the use of each grade of coal.


Unlt6______________________________________________ 157

39. Расскажите, что вы знаете об угольных пластах (рис. 3 и 4). В своем рассказе дайте ответы на следующие вопросы:

1. What do Figures 3 and 4 show?

2. What figure shows the seam which consists only of coal
bands?

3. Is the coal seam (Fig. 3) horizontal or inclined?

4. Is the shape of the seam typical of igneous rocks or sedimen­
tary rocks? What do you know about the structure of sedimentary
rocks?

5. Can you explain why the coal seam shown in Fig. 4 is called
complex? What does the seam consist of?

6. What mineral substances may separate coal beds? What do we
call them?

7. What is thicker, coal bands or rock partings?

40. Прочитайте текст В и кратко передайте его содержание по-русски.

ТЕКСТ В

l.For along time coal has been the principal fuel, the main source of thermal and electric energy. Now it continues to play an important part in the economy.

2. Coal is the product of vegetable matter that has been formed
from the remains of plants and animals accumulated in swamp areas
millions of years ago. Although some coals were deposited
4,000,000,000 years ago during the Silurian period, most coals were
formed during the Upper and Lower Carboniferous geological
epochs about 250,000,000 years ago.

3. Coal formation processes are similar to those of sedimentary
rocks. Various coal seams can be studied and related geologically to
the sedimentary rocks with which they are associated. Coal contains
varying amounts of carbon and volatile material as well as impurities
such as sulphur, phosphorus, incombustible rock material and
moisture.

4. The physical characteristics of coal concern the structural
aspects of the coal bed and texture. Structurally coal beds are charac­
terized by the same irregularities in thickness, uniformity and
continuity as other strata of sedimentary origin. Thickness varies
greatly. Coal beds may consist of essentially uniform continuous


158_____________________________________________ Unit 6

strata or like other sedimentary deposits may be made up of bands or benches of varying thickness. The benches may be separated by thin layers of clay, shale, pyrite or other mineral matter, commonly called partings. Like other sedimentary rocks coal beds may be structurally disturbed by folding and faulting.

5. Many classifications of coal have been suggested: by geologic
age, coking properties, commercial application and chemical
composition.

6. There exist four main types of coal: anthracite, bituminous,
subbituminous, lignite and brown coal. When speaking about the
classification of coal based on its nature as rock mineral, scientists
distinguish (различать) the following rock varieties or lithotypes
such as vitrain, clarain, durain and fiisain. These are the four
constituents (составная часть) of coal.

7. Although the utilization of coal varies widely with rank, three
general fields of coal utilization may be distinguished. They are
combustion (domestic, industrial, railroads and public utilization),
gasification and carbonification (high-temperature coke for
metallurgical uses and low-temperature coke for producing smokeless
fuel).

41. ») В каждом абзаце текста В найдите предложение, передающее его
основную мысль.



6) Укажите, • каком абзаце текста В идет речь о структурной харак­теристике угла.

42. Расскажите содержание текста В, используя следующие вопросы:

1. What has coal been formed from?

2. What rocks can coal be related to?

3. What does coal contain?

4. What is the structural characteristic of coal?

5. What factors can the classification of coal be based on?

6. What is the role of coal in the national economy of Russia?

43. Определите, который из четырех заголовков наиболее соответствует
содержанию текста В:

1. The Origin of Coal.

2. The Classification of Coal.

3. Coal as Fossil Fuel.

4. Coal and Its Industrial Application.

44. Расскажите, что нового вы узнали из текста В. Какие факты вам
были уже известны?


Unit 6______________________________________________ 159

ДИСКУССИЯ Энергия и жизнь

Для успешного участии в дискуссии вам необходимо ознакомиться с со­держанием статьи и использовать вашу эрудицию по обсуждаемой проблеме.

Слова для понимания текста:

hearth[ha:6] — камин to cope with— справляться с ...

bunker— угольный ящик smoke — дым

soot— сажа share— часть, доля

revival— возрождение reinforce— усиливать, подкреплять

exhaustion[ig'zaistfan] — истощение






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