Исчисляемые существительные имеют формы единственного и множественного числа. — КиберПедия 

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Исчисляемые существительные имеют формы единственного и множественного числа.



Единственное число характеризуется отсутствием окончаний: a cat, a table, a teacher, a day.

- Множественноечисло образуется путем присоединения окончания –s или –es к форме ед.ч.

a cat – cats [s] a boy – boys [z] a box – boxes [iz]

a month – months a bird – birds a rose – roses

a book books a brother – brothers a page – pages

- a class – classes a fox – foxes a bush – bushes an inch – inches a match – matches

- a story – stories an army – armies

- a hero – heroes a potato – potatoes

- a knife – knives a life – lives a wife - wives

- a man – men a woman – women a foot – feet

a tooth – teeth a goose – geese a mouse – mice

- a sheep – many sheep a deer – many deer a fish – many fish

- a child – children an ox – oxen

- an Englishman – Englishmen (но a German – Germans)

this is — these are that is — those are there is — there are it is — they are

Только ед.ч.: friendship, peace, money, ink, sugar, weather, advice, business, hair, information, knowledge, news, progress, people, cattle, police, the poor, the rich, the wounded

Только мн.ч.: trousers, spectacles, eye-glasses, scissors, clothes, contents, goods, wages,

riches

2. Имя существительное (только одушевленные сущ.) имеет 2 падежа:

Общий и притяжательный.

my sister (my sisters) - my sister’s book (my sisters’ books)

the teacher (the teachers) - the teacher’s pen (the teacher’s pens)

Kate - Kate’s brother

Dickens - Dickens’ novels

 

1. Образуйте множественное число.

A star, a mountain, a tree, a shilling, a king, the waiter, the queen, a man, the man, a woman, the woman, an eye, a shelf, a box, the city, a boy, a goose, the watch, a mouse, a dress, a toy, the sheep, a tooth, a child, the ox, a deer, the life, a tomato.

 

2. Поставьте следующие предложения во множественное число.

1. This man is an engineer. 2. That woman is my sister. 3. This child is my son. 4. That goose is big. 5. This mouse is white. 6. This man is a doc­tor. 7. That woman is my cousin. She is a teacher 8. That girl is my niece. She is a pupil. 9. This girl has a blue sweater. 10. This boy has a good coat. 11. My uncle has a large flat. 12. There is a table in the room. 13. I have a good pen. My pen is in my pocket. 14. There is a flower in the vase. 15. This child's foot is sore. 16. This room is very large. 17. There is a match in the box. 18. Has this lady a knife? 19. There is a man and a woman in the street. 20. This lady is that gen­tleman's wife. 21. This shoe is too large for my foot. 22. The child is sitting on a bench. 23. My tooth is white. 24. This key is made of steel. 25. A potato is a vegetable and a cherry is a fruit. 26. This is my friend's study.

 

3. Поставьте следующие предложения во множественное число.

1.What is that child's name? 2. The cat has caught a mouse. 3. There was a lady, a gentleman, a boy and a girl in the room. 4. In the farm-yard we could see an ox, a sheep, a cow and a goose. 5. Is this worker an Englishman or a German? — He is a Frenchman. 6. Why don't you eat this po­tato? 7. This strawberry is still green. 8. The with­ered leaf has fallen to the ground. 9. Can you see a bird in that tree? 10. Does your tooth still ache? 11.1 held up my foot to the fire to warm it. 12. His child studies very well. 13. This man works at our office. 14. There is a new house in our street. 15. This story is very interesting. 16. I have hurt my foot. 17. The wolf has been shot. 18. He keeps his toy in a box. 19. Put this knife on that table.

4. Перефразируйте следующие словосочетания и предложения. Употребляя притяжательный падеж.

1. The room of my friend. 2. The questions of my son. 3. The wife of my brother. 4. The table of our teacher. 5. The poems of Pushkin. 6. The voice of this girl. 7. The new club of the workers. 8. The letter of Pete. 9. The car of my parents. 10. The life of this woman. 11. The handbags of these wom­en. 12. The flat of my sister is large. 13. The chil­dren of my brother are at home. 14. The room of the boys is large. 15. The name of this girl is Jane. 16. The work of these students is interesting.



 

 

АРТИКЛЬ

Перед каждым нарицательным существительным должен стоять артикль. Артикль употребляется, если перед существительным стоит притяжательное или указательное местоимение, другое существительное в притяжательном падеже, количественное числительное или отрицание no (не not).

Неопределенный артикль a (an – перед гласными a, e, i, o, u, y) может употребляться только с исчисляемыми существительными, стоящими в единственном числе. Перед неисчисляемыми существительными или существительными во множественном числе неопределенный артикль опускается. Определенный артикль the употребляется как с исчисляемыми, так и с неисчисляемыми существительными, как с единственным, так и с множественным числом.

E.g. This is a book. The book is interesting. (исчисляемое в ед.ч.)

This is meat. The meat is fresh. (неисчисляемое)

These are ___ books. The books are good. (мн.ч.)

Если предмет упоминается впервые, перед ним ставится неопределенный артикль. Упоминая этотже предмет вторично, мы ставим перед ним определенный артикль.

E.g. This is a book. The book is interesting.

Определенный артикль ставится если:

- упомянутый предмет является единственным в мире The sun is shining brightly.

- этот предмет является определенным по ситуации Put the book on the table.

Имена собственные употребляются, как правило, без артиклей: Mary, Moscow, England, Asia, Oxford Street

Определенный артикль употребляется с именами собственными в следующих случаях:

- названия рек, морей, океанов, озер, горных цепей, каналов, заливов, проливов, пустынь, групп островов

E.g.: the Oka, the Baltic Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Ontario (но Lake Ontario), the Urals, the English Channel, the Sahara, the Bermudas

- названия сторон света the North, the South, the East, the West

- названия английских и американских газет и журналов

- названия некоторых стран и местностей the Russian Federation (the RF), the USA, the UK, the Congo, the Netherlands, the Crimea, the Ukraine, the West Indies



- названия некоторых исторических зданий the Kremlin, the British Museum, the Tower of London

- названия кораблей, гостиниц, кинотеатров

- фамилии во множественном числе для обозначения семьи в целом – всех членов семьи

Запомните:

- Если перед существительным стоит вопросительное или относительное местоимение, артикль опускается What ___ colour is your hat?

- Перед обращениями артикль опускается What are you doing, ___ children?

- Перед названиями университетов артикль не ставится at ___ St. Petersburg University, from ___ Oxford University

I have a … He has a … I see a … This is a … That is a… I am a … She is a … He is a … at a quarter past five in a loud voice in a low voice in an angry voice in a thin voice in a … voice to have a good time a lot of to go for a walk What a good day! What a long story! What a day! such a … after a while in a day (week, month, year) a great deal in the middle in the corner to the right to the left in the morning in the afternoon in the evening to play the piano the play the guitar What’s the use? to the cinema (theatre, shop, market) at the cinema (theatre, shop, market) the same The fact is that … in the country to the country the rest of the … in ___ front at ___ night to go to ___ bed to go to ___ work to go to ___ school to go ___ home to leave ___ home for ___ work at ___ half past five in ___ September on ___ Sunday after (from) ___ work after (from) ___ school to have (cook, make, prepare) ___ lunch (breakfast, tea, dinner, supper) after (before, at, for) ___ breakfast (lunch, tea, dinner, supper) to watch ___ TV ___ Chemistry ___ English to play ___ chess to play ___ football out of ___ doors from ___ morning till ___ night all ___ day long on ___ horseback on ___ board a ship in ___ fact it’s ___ high time to take ___ care of to take ___ aim from ___ place to ___ place It was ___ morning (daytime, evening, night) at ___ sunrise (sunset) in (to) ___ town by ___ bus (tram, train, car, plane, ship) in ___ spring (summer, autumn, winter) for ___ life

 

 

1. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

1. For … breakfast I have … coffee with … milk and … sugar. I have … jam too. 2. There are … different things on … dinner-table. 3. … lamp is on … table. 4. What do you have for … lunch at … school on … Wednesday? 5. They have … large flat. There are … four rooms in … flat. 6. When my … grandfather was … young man, he studied … physics. 7. Do you speak … English? 8. We had … lessons on … Mathematics yesterday. 9. Do you play … piano? 10. There is … big black piano in … lining-room. 11. It was … hot day. … sun was shining brightly in … blue sky. … wolf and … lamb meet at … stream. 12. Moscow is situated on … Moscow River. 13. In … Siberia there are many long rivers: … Ob, … Irtysh, … Yenissei, … Lena and … Amur. 14. … Altai Mountains are higher than … Urals.

 

2. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

1. Several rivers run into … sea at … New York. … most important is Hudson River which flows into … Atlantic Ocean. 2. Let’s go to … shop. I must buy … bread and … milk. 3. … lot of … tourists from … different countries come to … St. Petersburg. They want to see one of … most beautiful cities in ... world. 4. What do you do in … evening? – I often play … chess with my … grandfather. 5. Yesterday at ... lesson of … geography … teacher told us … very interesting … things about … famous travelers. 6. I am thirsty. Give me … water, please. 7. What … bus do you take to get to … work? 8. Whose … pen is this? 9. We have … good library. 10. Our books are in … big bookcases. 11. There is … tea in … glass. 12. Who cooks … dinner in your … family? 13. There is … new school at … corner of our street.

 

3. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

1. Where is … soup? - … soup is in … big saucepan on … gas-cooker. 2. There is … little brown coffee-table in our … room in … front of … sofa. 3. We have … big dog. …dog is very clever. 4. My friend has … very good computer. 5. … Moscow is a river that moves very slowly. There is … canal called … Moscow-Volga Canal which joins … Moscow to … Volga. 6. In … May … days are …longer than in … April. 7. Bill was … very rich man. He was … richest man in … village. 8. Pete is … tallest boy in our class. 9. When we want to write … letter, we take .. piece of … paper and … pen. We first write our … address and … date in … right-hand corner. Then on … left-hand side we write … greetings. On … next line we begin … real letter. 10. Do you like to play … guitar? 11. What … game does your sister like? – She likes to play … tennis.

 

4. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

1. Here is … large window. Through … window we can see ... room. Opposite … window there is … door. On … door there is … curtain. In … corner of … room there is … round table. 2. Do you speak … Spanish? 3. My uncle is ... great specialist in … biology. 4. I study … English. I attend … English classes in … evening. On … days when I have no … classes, I stay at ... home and do some work about the house. I have … dinner with my … family. After … dinner I talk to … members of my … family, watch … TV and read … books, … newspapers and … magazines. I go to … bed late at … night. 5. Which was … most difficult exercise in … test-paper? 6. February is … shortest month of … year. 7. There are many … seas and … lakes on … map. 8. I want to go to … New York some … day.

 

5. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

…. Africa is … very large continent lying to … south of … Europe and to … south-east of … Asia to which it is joined by … Isthmus of Suez. Less than one hundred years ago … men knew almost nothing of … middle of … continent. … travelers from … Europe made … ling journeys into … center but met with … terrible difficulties, for … continent is covered with … forests full of … fearful wild animals. Some travelers died of … hunger or … thirst or … strange illnesses, others were killed by … lions, still … others by … natives: but nevertheless bold men were found ready to go along … rivers into … heart of … Africa. The merchants who came from … European countries had much to sell, and here were … millions of … people ready to buy

6. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

… English is spoken practically all over … world. It is spoken as … mother tongue in … Great Britain, …United States, …Canada, …Australia, and …New Zealand. …lot of …people speak … English in … China, … Japan, … India and … other countries. It is one of … 6 official languages of … United Nations. It is studied as … foreign language in many … countries. England’s … history helps to understand … present condition of … English. Many English … words were borrowed from … language of Angles and … Saxons. Hundreds of French … words came into English. These French words didn’t crowd out corresponding … Anglo-Saxons words. Some words came into … English directly from …Latin, which was … language of … church and … universities in … Middle Ages.

 

7. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

… official name of … country we usually call England and Great Britain is … United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. … United Kingdom is situated on … group of islands lying just off … Mainland of north-western . Europe. … British Isles include Great Britain, … Ireland and … number of smaller islands. … total area of … British Isles is 355 000 square km. Many ages ago … British Isles formed … part of … continent. … Rocky highlands of ... Scotland resemble … Norwegian coast. Another evidence that … islands were … part of … continent is … shallow ness of … water between them and … mainland. Now Great Britain is separated from … continent by … English Channel, … narrowest part of which is called … Strait of Dower. … British Isles are surrounded by … shallow waters of … Irish Sea and … North Sea, … Norwegian Sea, … North Channel and … Atlantic Ocean.

 

8. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

Wales is … Country in … west of …Great Britain. It is mainly … mountainous land with … chiefly agricultural economy and an industrial and coal-mining areas in … south. …landscape is beautiful. Many … English people move to … Wales when they retire. Cardiff, … large city in the south, was chosen as … capital of Wales in … 1955, mainly because of its size. Since 1536, Wales has been governed by … England and … heir to … throne of England has … Title of Prince of Wales, but ...Welsh people have strong since of … identity. There is … Welsh National Party which wants … independence from … United Kingdom and … Welsh language is still in certain parts of … country. Welsh is … ancient Celtic language, similar to Breton, spoken in Brittany, France. In … 60’s Welsh was given … equal status with English as … official language and is used in … law courts. It is taught in … schools and some … TV program are broadcast in Welsh.

 

9. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

Jules Verne was born in 1828 in … France. … Young Jules was interested in … machinery, sailing and writing. Together with his brother Paul, he explored … river near their home in … old sailboat Jules’ father was … lawyer and he wanted his son to continue … his career. So Jules was sent to … Paris to study law. However, he decided soon that his main … interest was writing. He joined …club of scientific writers. This group was interested in … Balloons so Jules soon wrote … adventure story called “Five Weeks in a Balloon”. His favorite subject at school was … geography, so he wanted to describe in his books as many parts of … world as possible. Jules Vern’s books are still popular now because they are good adventure …stories. But in his books Verne also forecast … many inventions that we have now. He believed that someday … people would have … airplanes, … submarines, … Television, and powerful weapons.

 

10. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

… Modern life is impossible without … traveling. To understand how try this is you only have to go to … railway station, ... port, or … airport. There you will see hundreds of …people hurrying to catch …. train, … ship or … plain. Of course, … fastest way of traveling is by …air. You can have …breakfast in Moscow, … dinner – in London, …Paris or Berlin and supper in New York on … same day. Traveling by … train is slower than by plane but it also has its … advantages. You can see … country you are traveling through and not only … clouds as when you are flying. Modern trains have very comfortable seats which make even … longest journey enjoyable. That is why many people prefer to travel by … train. Traveling by … sea is also very popular. In … board of … large ship or … small river boat you can visit … foreign countries and different … parts of your own country.

 

11. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

… world’s greatest international sports games are known as … Olympic Games. … Olympic ides means … friendship and … cooperation among …people of … world. … Olympic Movement proved that real peace can be achieved through …sport. The Olympic emblem is five interlinked …rings: blue, yellow, black, green and red. Any national … flag contains as least one of these colors. … original Olympic games began in ancient … Greece in 776 B.C. These games were … part of …Festival held very fourth year in … honor of God Zeus at …place called Olympia. It was … great athletic festival, including … competitions in wrestling, foot race and chariot race, rowing and others. … games were for men only. … Greek women were forbidden not only to participate but also to watch … Olympics. … first modern Olympic games were held in …Athens in 1896. Then they were resumed in … London after … Second World War. Since then the Olympics are held every fourth … year in …different countries.

 

12. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

… Americans are very fond of …sport. … most popular sports in … USA are … football, which is played from … April to October, baseball, played from September to December, … basketball, played from October to April and … ice hockey, played in most northern … cities from October to March.

American football derives from … English game of … rugby. It started at … Harvard University in … 1870’s. It is … game for two teams of eleven men on … field. … object of … game is to have … control of … ball and to score points by carrying it across … goal-line. Baseball is … team game derived from …English game of cricket. It is played with … bat and ball two teams of nine … players each, on … field with four … bases. Baseball is … national game in … USA and it is very popular in Canada too. Basketball is ... game which nowadays is popular all over … world. It was invented in … 1891. During … 20’s … first US league championship was organized. In … 70’s … American Championship was divided into two leagues: … ABA (American Basketball Association), which does not exist any longer and which played with … blue, red and white ball and … NBA (National Basketball Association).

 

13. Поставьте артикль там, где необходимо.

At present … British royal family is by Queen Elizabeth. When .. Queen was born on … 21st of April 1926, her … grandfather, … King George V, was on … throne and her uncle was his heir. … death of her grandmother and … abdication of her uncle brought her father to … throne as King George VI.

As … child she studied constitutional history and … law as well as … art and … music. In addition she learned to ride and acquired her enthusiasm for … horses. As she grew older she began to take in … public life, making her first broadcast at … age of 14.

… marriage of … young Princess Elizabeth to Philip, Duke of Edinburgh too place in November 1947. She came to the throne after her father’s death in 1952 and was crowned in … Westminster Abbey in June 1953. Among Queen Elizabeth’s many duties are … regular visits she makes to foreign … countries, and especially those of … Commonwealth, whose … interests and … welfare are very important to her. . … Queen has allowed … BBC to make a documentary film about … every day of … royal family.

 

МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ

  1. личные 2. притяжательные 3. возвратные

 

  Единственное число
    I – me you he – him she – her it My - mine Your-yours his her - hers its myself yourself himself herself itself
  Множественное число
  We - us you they - them   Our - ours Your - yours Their - theirs   ourselves yourselves themselves
 
  1. Указательные местоимения: this – these; that – those; such; the same
  2. Неопределенные местоимения: some, any, much, many, (a) few, (a) little, all, both, each, every, either; other – another; somebody, someone, something, anybody, anyone, nothing, everything, one
  3. Отрицательные местоимения: no, no one, none, nobody, nothing, neither
  4. Вопросительные местоимения: who, whom, whose, which, what
  5. Относительные местоимения: who – whom, whose, which, that, what
  6. Взаимные местоимения: each other, one another





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