In clauses of purpose the form used depends on the conjunction introducing the clause. — КиберПедия 

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In clauses of purpose the form used depends on the conjunction introducing the clause.



 

1. After the conjunctions that, so that, in order that, so the quasi-subjunctive forms may (might) + infinitive or can (could) + infinitive are used. Only might and could are used if the action in the subordinate clause, though following the action in the main clause, refers to the past. But when the action refers to the present or future, both forms of each verb are possible (may or might, can or could).

 

I tell you this so that you may understand the situation.

She left the lamp on the window-sill, so that he might see it from afar.

She gave him the book that he might have something to read on the journey.

 

2. After the negative conjunction lest (чтобы не) should + infinitive is generally used.

 

The girl whispered these words lest somebody should overhear her.

He was afraid to look behind lest he should see something there which ought not to be there.

 

The subjunctive mood in adverbial clauses of concession

 

§ 92. Concessive clauses may either be joined to the main clause asyndetically, or else be introduced by a connective (however, whoever, whatever, whenever), a conjunction (though, although, even if, even though); also by a phrase, such as no matter how, no matter when.

If the action refers to the present or future the quasi-subjunctive form may + infinitive or present subjunctive is used in the subordinate clause. If the action refers to the past may + perfect infinitive or perfect continuous infinitive, or might + infinitive is used. Forms with should + infinitive, would + infinitive, and non-factual tense forms are also possible, though less typical.

 

He can be right, no matter whether his arguments be convincing or not.

Tired as he may be he will always help me.

Though he might have been suspicious he gave no sign.

No matter how he might try he couldn’t do it.

Much as I would like to help, I didn’t dare to interfere.

 

When a concessive clause is joined asyndetically, there is usually inversion. The front position is occupied by the part, that states the circumstance despite which the action in the main clause is carried out. Thus it lends a concessive meaning to the clause. In the following sentences the concessive meaning is focused on the part of the predicate:

 

Come what may, we shall remain here. Cost what it may, I’ll give you the sum you ask. Tired as he might be, he continued his way. - Чтобы ни случилось ... - Сколько бы это ни стоило... - Как бы он ни устал ...

 

The focus of the concessive meaning may fall on the nominal or adverbial part of the clause.

 

Whoever he may be, he has no right to be rude. Whatever you may say, our decision remains unchanged. Whichever of the two roads we may take, the distance is great.   Wherever we might go, we found the same gloomy sight. Whenever I may ask him a question, he always has a ready answer. Не will not convince us however hard he should try. - Кто бы он ни был ... - Чтобы ты ни говорил ... - По какой бы из двух дорог мы ни пошли ... - Куда бы мы ни пошли ... - Когда бы я ни задал ему вопрос ... - ... как бы сильно он ни пытался.

 

Concessive clauses introduced by even if, even though are built up on the same pattern as conditional clauses and the same subjunctive mood forms are used in the subordinate clause.

 

Even if it were true, he couldn’t say so.

Even though he had proposed, nothing has changed since that day.

 

Concessive meaning may be rendered by the indicative mood in the same patterns of clauses, if the fact despite which the action is carried out is a real one.

 

Cold as it is, we shall go out. (it is really cold)

Tired as he was, he continued his work.

Though he was 36, he looked very old.

It was not meant to offend you, no matter how ironic it sounded.

 

The subjunctive mood in simple sentences

 

§ 93. Besides cases when the subjunctive mood forms are used in simple sentences to express an unreal action as a consequence of an implied condition (see § 88), these forms are also used in simple sentences of the following kind:

 

1. In exclamatory sentences beginning with if only to express a wish. They follow the same pattern as conditional clauses, and would + infinitive, past subjunctive, non-factual tense forms are used.

 

If only it were true!

If only I knew what to do!

If only I had listened to my parents!

If only it would stop raining!

If only we could have stopped him!

 

2. In exclamatory sentences to express an emotional attitude of the speaker to real facts (surprise and disbelief). Here should + infinitive is used.

 

And this should happen just on this day!

That it should be you of all people!

 

3. In questions expressing astonishment or indignation the analytical form should + infinitive is used:

 

Why should you and I talk about it?

How should I know?

Why should you suspect me?

Why should you not do it?

The traditional use of the subjunctive mood in formulaic expressions

 

§ 94. These forms remained as survivals of old usage and they are used as wholes, in which no element of structure can be omitted or replaced.

Most of them have a religious origin and express a wish or a prayer: God bless you! (Bless you!) God save the king! Heaven forbid! The Devil take him!

In many cases, however, formulaic expressions may be expanded by variable elements (parts of the sentence or clauses), thus making productive patterns in Modern English. They vary in their meaning, although mostly express a wish. Among them are:

 

1. Forms used in slogans: Long live the Army! Long live patriotism! Long live the fighters for peace! Long live heroes!;

 

2. Forms used in oaths, curses, and imprecations: Manners be hanged! Confound your ideas! Confound the politics!

 

Far be it from me to spoil the fan! Far be it from me to conceal the truth! Far be it from me to argue with you! Far be it from me to talk back! - Чтобы я хотел испортить вам настроение! - Чтобы я скрывал правду! - Чтобы я стал спорить! - Чтобы я грубил!

 

Forms with may + infinitive, unlike modern forms with the same verb, retain the old word order:

 

May success attend you! May you be happy! May he win!

The subjunctive mood forms with had better, had best, would rather, would sooner are used in sentences denoting wish, admonition, preference, advice. Very often they are used in a contracted form: You’d better go at once. You had best take note of my direction if you wish to make sure of it.

Formulaic expressions with concessive meaning are used in complex sentences as concessive clauses:

 
 


Happen what may, Come what will, Come what may, Cost what it may,   we shall not yield.

 

The formulaic expression as it were (так сказать) is used as parenthesis, emphasizing that the content of the sentence is highly figurative or non-real:

 

... there is, as it were, a transparent barrier between myself and strong emotion.

He is my best friend, my second self, as it were. Table III The subjunctive mood forms    
Types of Sentences   Synthetic Forms   Analytical Forms   Non-Factual Tense Forms
Simple sentence   Ideas be hanged! If only that were true! May it come true! I should like to see this film. If I only knew!  
Complex sentence with a subject clause   It is required that all be present.   It is important that all should come. It is likely he may come. It is time the boy came.  
Complex sentence with a predicative clause   He looks as if he were surprised.   It looks as if the weather may change. The order is that we should move. It seems as if every­body knew. It looks as if he had known it long ago.
Complex sentence with an appositive clause     The order that we should move surprised us.    
Complex sentence with an object clause   I wish he were here.   He ordered that we should come. We feared lest he should find it out. I wish he would come. I wish I knew it. I wish I had never met him.  
Complex sentence   The stranger looked       He glanced at me as if he
with an adverbial   at me as if he were       knew.  
clause of comparison   surprised.       The girl spoke as if she  
            had learned it all by  
            heart.  
Complex sentence with   It is true whether it be   Tired as he might be, he    
an adverbial concessive   convincing or not.     continued his way.    
clause     Though he might be tired, he continued        
        his way.      
        He will not manage it    
        however hard he should try.        
        Whatever faults the book may        
        have, it is interesting enough.      
        He would not have come   even if we had warned  
          him.    
           
Complex sentence with       I tell you this so that you may        
an adverbial clause of       understand the situation.        
purpose       We put the matches away lest    
        the baby should find the box.      
Complex sentence with   If I were you ...   I should not object to it.        
an adverbial conditional       I should come ...   if I knew the address    
clause       I should have called on you    
        yesterday ...   if I had known the address    
        Should I meet him, I shall tell    
        him about it.    

 




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