I. Modal verbs of probability. — КиберПедия 

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I. Modal verbs of probability.



Modal verbs.

 

1. Modal verbs of probability, present and future.

 

The main modal verbs that express probability are described here in order of certainty. Will is the most certain, and might/could are the least certain.

1) Will.

a) Will and won’t are used to predict a future action. The truth or certainty of what is asserted is more or less taken for granted.

e.g. His latest book will be out next month.

b) Will and won’t are also used to express what we believe or guess to be true about the present. They indicate an assumption based on our knowledge of people and things, their routines, character and qualities.

e.g. Leave the meat in the oven. It won’t be cooked yet.

It’s Monday morning, so I guess right now Sarah will be taking the children to school.

2) Must and can’t.

a) Must is used to assert what we infer or conclude to be the most logical or rational interpretation of the situation. We do not have all the facts, so it is less certain than will. Must in this meaning is not used to speak about the future.

e.g. You say he walked across the Sahara Desert! He must be mad!

You must be joking! I simply don’t believe you!

b) The negative of this use is can’t.

e.g. She can’t have a ten-year-old daughter! She’s only twenty-one herself!

3)Should.

a) Should expresses what may reasonably be expected to happen. Expectation means believing that things are or will be as we want them to be. This use of should has the idea of if everything has gone according to plan.

e.g. Our guests should be here soon (if they haven’t got lost).

This homework shouldn’t take you too long (if you’ve understood what you have to do).

We should be moving into our new house soon (as long as nothing goes wrong).

b) Should in this use has the idea that we want the action to happen. It is not used to express negative or unpleasant ideas.

e.g. You should pass the exam. You’ve worked hard (NOT You should fail the exam).

May, might and could.

a) May expresses the possibility that an event will happen or is happening.

e.g. We may go to Greece this year. We haven’t decided yet.

“Where’s Ann?” “She may be having a bath, I don’t know”.

b) Might and could are slightly more tentative and slightly less certain than may.

e.g. It might rain. Take your umbrella.

You could be right. I’m not sure.

c) Couldn’t is not used to express a future possibility. The negative of could in this use is might not.

e.g. You might not be right.

d) Couldn’t has a similar meaning to can’t above, only slightly weaker.

e.g. She couldn’t have a ten-year-old daughter! She’s only twenty-one herself!

 

2. Modal verbs of probability in the past.

All the modal verbs above can be used with the perfect infinitive to speak about probability in the past. They express the same varying degrees of certainty. Again, will have done is the most certain, and might/ could have done is the least certain.

e.g. “I met a tall girl at your party. Very attractive.” “That’ll have been my sister, Patsy.”

It must have been a good party. Everyone stayed till dawn.

The music can’t have been any good. Nobody danced.

Where’s Pete? He should’ve been here ages ago.

He may have got lost.

He might have decided not to come.

He could have had an accident.

Other uses of modal verbs.

Obligation and advice.

a) Must expresses strong obligation. Other verb forms are provided by have to.

e.g. You must try harder.

You’ll have to do this exercise again.

I hate having to get up early.

b) Must expresses the opinion of the speaker.

e.g. I must get my hair cut.

You must do this again. (Teacher to student)

Have to expresses a general obligation based on a law or rule, or based on the authority of another person.

e.g. Children have to go to school until they’re sixteen.

Mum says you have to tidy you room.

c) Mustn’t expresses negative obligation. Don’t have to expresses the absence of obligation.

e.g. You mustn’t steal. It’s very naughty.

You don’t have to go to England if you want to learn English.

d) Should and ought to express mild obligation or advice. Should is much more common. Ought to is not used in questions.

e.g. You should go to bed. You look very tired.

You ought to take things easier.



e) Should (ought to) + the perfect infinitive is used to refer to a desirable action in the past that didn’t happen.

e.g. You should’ve listenedto my advice. I was right all the time.

Shouldn’t (oughtn’t to) + the perfect infinitive is used to refer to an undesirable action in the past that did happen.

e.g. You shouldn’t have told him he was a loser. It was callous.

f) Need is a modal verb, with no 3rd person form. It is used mainly in questions and negatives. The meaning is similar to have to.

e.g. Need you ask? The Prime Minister neednot worry.

Need tois a normal verb.

e.g. Sarah needs tobe more careful. You don't need toworry. Do I need tofill in this form?

g) Didn't need todescribes a past situation, where something was not necessary, so it was not done.
e.g. Kate looked after the children, so we didn't need to takethem to the nursery.

Needn't have donedescribes a past situation, where something happened or was done, but it was not necessary.

e.g. I needn't have gone so early to the office. The meeting was cancelled.

Permission.

a) May, can and could are used to ask for permission.

e.g. May I use your phone?

Can/could I go home?

b) May is used to give permission, but it sounds very formal. Can and can’t are more common.

e.g. You can use a dictionary in this exam.

You can’t stay up till midnight.

c) To talk about permission generally, or permission in the past, we use can, could or be able to.

e.g. Children can (are allowed) to do what they want these days.

Ability.

a) Can expresses ability. The past is expressed by could. Other forms are provided by be able to.

e.g. I can speak three languages.

I could swim when I was three.

I’ve never been able to understand her.

b) To express a fulfilled ability on one particular occasion in the past, could is not used. Instead we use was able to or managed to.

e.g. She was able to survive by clinging onto the wrecked boat.

The prisoner managed to escape by climbing onto the roof.

c) Could + the perfect infinitive is used to speak about an unrealized past ability. Someone was able to do something in the past, but didn’t try to.

e.g. I could have gone to university, but I didn’t want to.

d) Could (and might) can be used to criticize people for not doing things.

e.g. You could (might) have helped me instead of just sitting there!

Request.

Several modal verbs express a request.

e.g. Can/could/will/would you help me?

Willingness and refusal.

a) Will expresses willingness. Won’t expresses a refusal by either people or things.

e.g. I’ll help you.

She says she won’t get up until she’s had breakfast in bed.

The car won’t start.

b) The past is expressed by wouldn’t.

e.g. My mum said she wouldn’t give me any more money.

 

III. Consolidation.

1. Fill in the blanks with can (be able), may or must:

 

1. "Will you know where to go?" "Yes, thank you. I ... always ask my brother."

2. "Didn't she hear our shouting?" "She says she heard nothing." "She ... have wandered a long way."

3. What ... he have meant when he said it?

4. He hesitated and said, "I ... go to South America. As a tea planter." I said,"I ... be wrong, Jason, but I don't think they grow tea in South America."



5. He ... have flown off after he dropped us. He ... not land here. Not in a plane with wheels.

6. "I'd give anything to meet that fellow." "We ... see what ... be done."

7. Cindy ... have laughed aloud. Instead, she nodded.

8. You ... hardly have been more surprised than I was.

9. The old man cupped his ear in his palm. "I think I ... be getting deaf. I ... not hear you."

10. "There was someone on the phone for you," he said. "Oh, who?" "I don't know, he didn't say. Some man." "It ... have been Mike." "I know Mike. It wasn't Mike." "Oh. Then I ... not think who it ... have been."

11. I went straight from the station to the club and played bil­liards. It ... have been after eleven when I reached the flat.

12. She was beginning to want to ask him in but she knew that she ... not do it yet.

13. It's a most interesting story. He ... not possibly have invented it. You ... have told him something.

14. I've other things to attend to which ... be put through immedi­ately.

15. I admire your mother's looks. She ... have been a lovely girl.

16. The apples are very good. You ... eat them all.

17. My wife ... leave the hospital in a week's time.

18. My wife ... to leave the hospital a few days ago.

19. I'm trying to think where he ... have gone.

20. Of course it occurred to me that if he had found the watch as he said, it ... have been lying in the garden for more than a year.

21. He began absently to eat one of the buttered biscuits. He'd lose his appetite if his wife didn't hurry up. She ... be talking to Frau Schmidt.

22. A day or two later Mrs Strickland sent me a note asking if I ... go and see her that evening after dinner.

23. "I don't know why he did it." "It ... have amused him."

24. "You know, I'm a bit of a writer myself in a small way." "What are you writing? A novel?" "Oh, come off it. I ... not write a novel. No, it's a sort of history of the regiment, as a matter of fact."

25. "He's up in Barbie's room. He's decorating it with shells. He ... have brought in a ton."

26. "She's gone out. Something awful ... have happened." "How ... she have got out? The door is locked."

27. I'm going to tell him that he ... not do any building here.

28. They say the driver .,. have been going fifty miles round that blind corner for the body to have been thrown and injured like it was.

29. She looked unusually pale and gloomy. I wondered what ... have upset her.

30. "... you drive a car, Mooey?" "Yes, indeed I ... ," he answered.

31. You ... be very prosperous, Eustace, to own a car like that,

32. Obviously Haviland had worked late the night before, as he ... have done for several nights in a row, because he looked drawn and pale.

33. The water of the pool ... have been heated for it steamed gently in the beams of the lamps.

34. Mr Hardy takes a lot of aspirin. He ... have had at least twelve tablets during the day.

35. The man danced very well. He ... have spent hours taking lessons, Jack thought.

 

2. Must(n't), need(n't)f should(n't) and don't have to

Choose the correct form.



4. You mustn't / don't have to conduct any chemistry experiments unless you are wearing safety glasses.

5. There are a lot of books which Anna did not have to read / need not have read as part of her university course, but which she decided to read out of interest.

6. We don't have to / We'd better not talk for too long. These calls are expensive.

7. I went to see the dentist yesterday, but luckily / didn't need to have /1 needn't have had any painful treatment!

8. You didn't have to tell me /shouldn't have told me about the party. Now it's not a surprise!

9. Some people believe that the government does not have to / should not allow genetically modified crops to be grown on a large scale, as they could spread out of control.

10. These books are on the wrong shelf. They shouldn't/ mustn't be here.

11. The report concluded that the rescuers should not have attempted / didn't have to attempt to move the injured passengers before medical help arrived.

12. Please put the paper cups and plates in the bin. We mustn't / don't have to leave the room in a mess.

13. There is plenty of time. We mustn't be /don't have to be at the cinema until 8.00.

 

Render the following text into English using modal verbs and at least 15 active words and expressions (including the idioms). Suggest your own explanation of the mystery. Make sure you use the modal verbs of probability.

НОВОСТИ ИЗ БЕРМУДСКОГО ТРЕУГОЛЬНИКА

Бермудский треугольник - область, которая ограничена воображаемой линией, связывающей Флориду, Бермуды и Пуэрто-Рико, - был местом, где довольно часто пропадали корабли, самолеты и люди. Один из самых загадочных случаев произошел во время короткого авиационного перелета на остров Терк (Багамы).

Когда Хелен Каско приближалась на своей "Сесне-172" к острову, диспетчерская передала ей разрешение на посадку. Но Каско не отвечала, хотя ее канал не был занят. Через некоторое время наземный персонал аэропорта услышал, как Каско сказала своему пассажиру: "Я, наверно, сбилась с пути. Мы должны уже быть у острова Терк, но под нами внизу ничего нет. Ни аэродрома, ни домов, ничего". Диспетчеры отчаянно пытались и дальше связаться с Каско, но она их наверняка не слышала. Тут Каско произнесла свою последнюю фразу: "Отсюда вообще можно выбраться?!" Никаких следов самолета, никаких останков пилота и пассажира не было обнаружено.

Это странное исчезновение можно объяснить по-всякому: и похищением, и козням современных пиратов, и просто человеческими ошибками. Существует также гипотеза, что в середине Бермудского треугольника находятся огромный водоворот или дыра, которые засасывают в себя корабли или самолеты, приближающиеся к ним.

Можно также допустить, что под Бермудским треугольником находятся овеянные легендами пирамиды Атлантиды, служащие вроде бы источниками энергии, которые время от времени просыпаются и начинают действовать, внося сбои в функционирование систем кораблей и самолетов.

Люди, которые видят во всех этих происшествиях агрессию коварных инопланетян, склоняются, естественно, к гипотезе, что указанные существа каким-то образом вмешиваются в магнитное поле Бермудского треугольника и притягивают людей и их машины, для того чтобы их исследовать.

Сообщениями об исчезновениях в Бермудском треугольнике никого не удивишь, а вот появления исчезнувших судов чрезвычайно редки. В июле 1975 года член научного экипажа яхты «Нью-Фридом» сфотографировал невероятно сильную грозу над треугольником. Когда он просмотрел проявленные пленки, то с испугом увидел, что на расстоянии примерно сотни миль от яхты плывет корабль. Но ученый знал, что в ту ночь поблизости от их корабля не могло находиться ни одно другое судно.

 

READING & SPEAKING

Discussion

Modal verbs.

 

1. Modal verbs of probability, present and future.

 

The main modal verbs that express probability are described here in order of certainty. Will is the most certain, and might/could are the least certain.

1) Will.

a) Will and won’t are used to predict a future action. The truth or certainty of what is asserted is more or less taken for granted.

e.g. His latest book will be out next month.

b) Will and won’t are also used to express what we believe or guess to be true about the present. They indicate an assumption based on our knowledge of people and things, their routines, character and qualities.

e.g. Leave the meat in the oven. It won’t be cooked yet.

It’s Monday morning, so I guess right now Sarah will be taking the children to school.

2) Must and can’t.

a) Must is used to assert what we infer or conclude to be the most logical or rational interpretation of the situation. We do not have all the facts, so it is less certain than will. Must in this meaning is not used to speak about the future.

e.g. You say he walked across the Sahara Desert! He must be mad!

You must be joking! I simply don’t believe you!

b) The negative of this use is can’t.

e.g. She can’t have a ten-year-old daughter! She’s only twenty-one herself!

3)Should.

a) Should expresses what may reasonably be expected to happen. Expectation means believing that things are or will be as we want them to be. This use of should has the idea of if everything has gone according to plan.

e.g. Our guests should be here soon (if they haven’t got lost).

This homework shouldn’t take you too long (if you’ve understood what you have to do).

We should be moving into our new house soon (as long as nothing goes wrong).

b) Should in this use has the idea that we want the action to happen. It is not used to express negative or unpleasant ideas.

e.g. You should pass the exam. You’ve worked hard (NOT You should fail the exam).

May, might and could.

a) May expresses the possibility that an event will happen or is happening.

e.g. We may go to Greece this year. We haven’t decided yet.

“Where’s Ann?” “She may be having a bath, I don’t know”.

b) Might and could are slightly more tentative and slightly less certain than may.

e.g. It might rain. Take your umbrella.

You could be right. I’m not sure.

c) Couldn’t is not used to express a future possibility. The negative of could in this use is might not.

e.g. You might not be right.

d) Couldn’t has a similar meaning to can’t above, only slightly weaker.

e.g. She couldn’t have a ten-year-old daughter! She’s only twenty-one herself!

 

2. Modal verbs of probability in the past.

All the modal verbs above can be used with the perfect infinitive to speak about probability in the past. They express the same varying degrees of certainty. Again, will have done is the most certain, and might/ could have done is the least certain.

e.g. “I met a tall girl at your party. Very attractive.” “That’ll have been my sister, Patsy.”

It must have been a good party. Everyone stayed till dawn.

The music can’t have been any good. Nobody danced.

Where’s Pete? He should’ve been here ages ago.

He may have got lost.

He might have decided not to come.

He could have had an accident.

Other uses of modal verbs.

Obligation and advice.

a) Must expresses strong obligation. Other verb forms are provided by have to.

e.g. You must try harder.

You’ll have to do this exercise again.

I hate having to get up early.

b) Must expresses the opinion of the speaker.

e.g. I must get my hair cut.

You must do this again. (Teacher to student)

Have to expresses a general obligation based on a law or rule, or based on the authority of another person.

e.g. Children have to go to school until they’re sixteen.

Mum says you have to tidy you room.

c) Mustn’t expresses negative obligation. Don’t have to expresses the absence of obligation.

e.g. You mustn’t steal. It’s very naughty.

You don’t have to go to England if you want to learn English.

d) Should and ought to express mild obligation or advice. Should is much more common. Ought to is not used in questions.

e.g. You should go to bed. You look very tired.

You ought to take things easier.

e) Should (ought to) + the perfect infinitive is used to refer to a desirable action in the past that didn’t happen.

e.g. You should’ve listenedto my advice. I was right all the time.

Shouldn’t (oughtn’t to) + the perfect infinitive is used to refer to an undesirable action in the past that did happen.

e.g. You shouldn’t have told him he was a loser. It was callous.

f) Need is a modal verb, with no 3rd person form. It is used mainly in questions and negatives. The meaning is similar to have to.

e.g. Need you ask? The Prime Minister neednot worry.

Need tois a normal verb.

e.g. Sarah needs tobe more careful. You don't need toworry. Do I need tofill in this form?

g) Didn't need todescribes a past situation, where something was not necessary, so it was not done.
e.g. Kate looked after the children, so we didn't need to takethem to the nursery.

Needn't have donedescribes a past situation, where something happened or was done, but it was not necessary.

e.g. I needn't have gone so early to the office. The meeting was cancelled.

Permission.

a) May, can and could are used to ask for permission.

e.g. May I use your phone?

Can/could I go home?

b) May is used to give permission, but it sounds very formal. Can and can’t are more common.

e.g. You can use a dictionary in this exam.

You can’t stay up till midnight.

c) To talk about permission generally, or permission in the past, we use can, could or be able to.

e.g. Children can (are allowed) to do what they want these days.

Ability.

a) Can expresses ability. The past is expressed by could. Other forms are provided by be able to.

e.g. I can speak three languages.

I could swim when I was three.

I’ve never been able to understand her.

b) To express a fulfilled ability on one particular occasion in the past, could is not used. Instead we use was able to or managed to.

e.g. She was able to survive by clinging onto the wrecked boat.

The prisoner managed to escape by climbing onto the roof.

c) Could + the perfect infinitive is used to speak about an unrealized past ability. Someone was able to do something in the past, but didn’t try to.

e.g. I could have gone to university, but I didn’t want to.

d) Could (and might) can be used to criticize people for not doing things.

e.g. You could (might) have helped me instead of just sitting there!

Request.

Several modal verbs express a request.

e.g. Can/could/will/would you help me?

Willingness and refusal.

a) Will expresses willingness. Won’t expresses a refusal by either people or things.

e.g. I’ll help you.

She says she won’t get up until she’s had breakfast in bed.

The car won’t start.

b) The past is expressed by wouldn’t.

e.g. My mum said she wouldn’t give me any more money.

 

I. Modal verbs of probability.

 






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