Additional texts for reading
Text 1. The history of development
Of education in our Republic
Read the text and do the exercise that follow it
Before 1917 Belarus used to be a backward province of Russia and the major part of the population was illiterate. There were no higher educational establishments or research institutions on the territory of Belarus. Some research was done by three stations which employed only 12 specialists.
During the early years of the Soviet power Belarusian State University, Vitebsk Veterinary Institute, Gorki Institute of agriculture as well as many secondary vocational schools were founded. By 1932 compulsory primary education was introduced throughout the country. Illiteracy among adults and youth was done away with.
Today the educational establishments train highly qualified personnel for the needs of the national economy. The right of people to universal secondary education is guaranteed by the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus. A continuity of study at all stages is being realized in the republic. Teachers and students are free in the choice of educational forms and methods if they correspond to the state educational standards.
Not long ago there appeared new types of educational establishments such as gymnasiya, lyceum, experimental schools, colleges as well as private kindergartens, non-state-owned secondary and higher schools.
Use the text to choose the right variant:
1. Before 1917 most Belarusian people were ...
2. Compulsory education throughout the country was introduced ...
– during 1917
– in early years
– by 1932.
3. Not long ago there appeared new types of educational ...
Text 2. Teachers’ training in Belarus
Read the text and answer the questions that follow it.
Study the following vocabulary before reading the text:
to be eligible – иметь право
rewarding – вознаграждение
Over 500000 teachers are employed in the educational system of Belarus. The specific conditions for the development of education in various regions of the country called for a flexible approach to teachers training. At present pedagogical schools and teacher training colleges train teachers for the country’s schools. Pedagogical schools train elementary school teachers who get general secondary education and special pedagogical training. These schools accept young people who have finished an eight-year school and have passed the entrance exams. The course of study is four years. All those who complete their studies and pass the final exams receive diplomas which give them the right to teach in elementary school, as well as the right to enter any university-level school after having completed three years of teaching in an elementary school.
Teachers’ training colleges are university-level educational establish-ments. They train teachers in all specialities for the school system. In many teachers’ training colleges teachers are trained not in one but in two subjects such as mathematics and physics, biology and chemistry, geography and biology, etc. Graduates receive diplomas and are eligible to teach either one or two subjects in a secondary school.
Mozyr State Teacher’s Training University is one of the institutions of such kind. It has an efficient teaching staff. Among them there are academicians, Doctors of Sciences, Candidates of Sciences. Only within the recent years hundreds of monographs, textbooks and other academic works have been published by the scientists of the University. The University has some problem laboratories. Researches carried out in these laboratories are of vital importance for national economy and for the development of science and culture of the country. The results of research are used in study process.
Answer the questions on the text:
1. What establishments train teachers in our country?
2. Are teachers trained only on one subject?
3. What can you say about Mozyr State Teacher’s Training University?
Text 3. COMPREHENSIVE EDUCATION IN SCOTLAND
Read and translate the text with a dictionary.