The world’s longest railroad — КиберПедия 

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The world’s longest railroad



The world’s first transcontinental railroad was completed in North America in 1869. The Russian Trans-Siberian railroad, whose construction started 20 years later, was a much more ambitious project in incomparably more difficult natural conditions. Siberia covers nearly a quarter of Asia. It is a land of mighty rivers, endless swamps and high mountains. The idea of building a railroad through this wilderness emerged in the mid-19th century. The railroad was built in stages. May 1, 1891, is regarded as the official start of the construction project.

The first section, Chelyabinsk-Ob, was relatively easy, requiring little excavation work. Construction proceeded at record-breaking rates. To overcome the shortage of manpower, the committee bought steam shovels abroad. Work on the central part started in 1893 in two places, the Ob and the Yenisei, and moved east from both sites. The construction engineers encountered permafrost, which they did not yet know how to deal with. Embankments collapsed and bridge supports faltered. There was also a shortage of timber for sleepers, since the taiga forest wasn’t used to produce quality sleepers. The delivery of rails, sleepers and other things needed for the construction of the railroad was largely carried out through the Arctic Ocean and up the Siberian rivers.

The number of workers employed in the project ranged from 10,000 at the start to 10,0000 at the peak of the work. Many of the workers were convicts sent to Siberia for various crimes. Omsk and Krasnoyarsk flourished following the construction of the railroad.

Work on the line from Lake Baikal to Sretensk was started in 1895 and ended in 1900. Although October 1901 is often regarded as the date of the completion of the Trans-Siberian project, work on the railroad continued. There were several more lines that had to be completed. Different projects were to lay a line around Lake Baikal on two icebreakers that were disassembled and brought by rail. The line had a total of 39 tunnels along the shore of the lake, much of which was saved by the intervention of an important Russian statesman Stolypin. He hadn’t allowed the building of the line to be abandoned.

The rate of the construction of the line was twice as fast as that of railroad construction in the USA. The cost of the entire railroad was considerably less than half a billion rubles, which was an insignificant part of the state budget at the time. This was due to the efficient planning and work of the talented engineers, most of whom were Russians.

 

V. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. How can you describe Siberia?

2. Was the construction of the first Russian Trans-Siberian railroad a necessity?

3. What was carried out through the Arctic Ocean?

IV вариант

I. Перепишите следующие предложения; определите в каждом из них глагол–

сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите

предложения на русский язык. Обратите внимание на перевод пассивных

конструкций.

a) 1. They have tiled the prefabricated bathroom from top to bottom with light-

coloured plastic tiles.

2. The house walls are of sufficient thickness to carry the loads as well as their own

weight.

3. The workmen will have erected this building by the end of the decade.

 

b) 1. Hundreds of dams, reservoirs, and pump stations are erected by our

hydrotechnicians.

2. The list of standard flats was extended and their planning was also improved.

3. The amenities and planning of homes are improved regularly.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения с определительными и

дополнительными придаточными предложениями. Обратите внимание на

бессоюзные придаточные предложения. Переведите предложения на русский

язык.

1. Bricks owe their shape to the property of the clay they are made from.

2. the material we call lumber is timber which has been sawed into smaller pieces.

3. It is doubtful the pyramids of Egypt could have appeared without the existence of



roads.

4. Sanitary engineers can find new methods to treat dirty water.

 

 

III. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них

модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский

язык.

 

1. The engineers must find new ways to purify water.

2. The house ought to be painted as often as possible.

3. Full-fledged builders can develop new building materials and building methods.

4. We have to elaborate comprehensive programmes for the urgent industrial

development of towns.

5. The use of aluminium in structures may well expand even more in the near

future.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

 

Construction Works

 

The first houses were built for the purpose of protecting their owners from the weather and, therefore, were very simple – a roof to keep off the rain and snow, and walls to keep out the wind.

The buildings erected now are divided into two broad classifications: they are either for housing or for industrial purposes. As far as the materials are concerned, the buildings are divided into stone (or brick), wood and concrete types.

Brick is an artificial material made of clay then burnt to harden it. Natural stone (rubble masonry) is used for footing and the foundation for external walls carrying the load. The buildings made of stone or brick are durable, fire-proof and have poor heat conductivity.

The tiers or levels which divide a building into stages or stories are called floors. They may be of timber, but in stone buildings they are made of ferro-concrete details in great and small sizes. The coverings or upper parts of buildings constructed to keep out rain and wind and to preserve the interior from exposure to the weather, are called roofs. They should tie the walls together and give strength and firmness to the construction.

Every building must be beautiful in appearance and proportional in various parts. The interior is planned to meet the requirements of the residents while the exterior must be simple, without any excesses. All buildings are provided with all house facilities: water, electricity, and ventilation and heating systems. Getting water into the house is called plumbing.

 

V. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What can preserve a house from exposure to the weather?

2. What are house facilities?

3. Is brick an artificial or natural material?

 

Контрольная работа № 3

 

Проработайте следующие разделы по учебнику:

1. Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice) видо-временных форм Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect.

2. Функции глаголов to be, to have, to do.

3. Неопределенная форма глагола (The Infinitive). Функции инфинитива в предложении: а) подлежащего, б) части сказуемого, в) дополнения, г) определения, д) обстоятельства.

4. Объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты.



5. Значения слов: as, because, because of, due to, for, since, either … or, neither … nor, both … and.

 

Вариант I

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-

временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения.

1. We can’t use timber for either carpenters’ or joiners’ work immediately after it has been felled.

2. In respect to the number of constituents, plastics are classified as simple and complex.

3. Large-scale mechanization is being introduced into the construction practice by all possible means.

4. Wood can be easily shaped and fastened together with nails and screws.

 

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.

 

1. When excavation work was started, a large layer of sand had to be removed in order to bring the ruins to light.

2. When an architect designs a beam or a column for a structure, the first step is to estimate the greatest load it may be required to support.

3. Wood has some valuable chemical properties which do make it an important material for industry.

4. Some artificial building materials don’t possess valuable and diverse properties.

 

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на функцию инфинитива.

 

1. To be used for brick-making clay must possess certain characteristics.

2. Concrete must be kept warm for several days before the builders cool it.

3. The live load to be used in computations depends upon the use or human occupancy of the building (furniture, equipment, snow on the roof and movable partitions).

4. The dead load of a building to be taken into consideration is that of floor materials, columns, walls and partitions.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие

предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные

обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 

1. Limestone is believed to have been formed in some previous geological age from the shells of sea animals.

2. We know the ocean to be a great storehouse of every known chemical element – iron, copper, aluminium, etc.

3. In some cities, stone is reported to be brought from long distances.

4. Pre-stressing makes concrete resist greater stresses.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения,

обращая внимание на перевод выделенных слов.

 

1. Granite is valuable as a support where great strength is required, for granite can withstand a pressure of 20,000 pounds per square inch.

2. Granite was only employed for massive masonry due to its great hardness.

3. Neither swelling nor shrinking are characteristic of plywood.

 

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

Plywood

Plywood is a modern invention. Articles of furniture constructed of timber laminated on the plywood principle were discovered in Egyptian tombs over thousand five hundred years old. The greatest development in the production of plywood, however, took place in the twentieth century.

Formerly, plywood was used for packing purposes only, but now it serves as a valuable structural and ornamental material.

For some classes of work plywood is given preference to other wood products owing to its great strength, stability and resistance to changes that occur in wood due to climatic and atmospheric conditions. It neither swells nor shrinks and is resistant to splitting in any direction.

Plywood owes its stability to its construction principle. Wood consists of cells and is an elastic material, therefore it is subject to changes according to the differing moisture content in the atmosphere to which it is exposed. The structure of wood is such that when it dries, it must shrink; on the other hand, when wood absorbs moisture, it will swell to a greater or lesser degree. Both shrinking and swelling are much more considerable across the grain than with the grain. Wood has great strength and comparatively few changes in a radial direction and this factor forms the secret of the stability of plywood.

Plywood is formed by several plies of wood glued together so that the grain of any one ply is at a right angle to the adjacent ply. Such products have an absolutely uniform construction and expansion in all directions, and will make shrinkage and swelling exactly counterbalanced.

The stability of plywood greatly depends upon gluing which is the other component of the manufacturing process.

The types of glues employed in the plywood industry must all be resistant to moisture and splitting. All veneers must be properly flattened and dried before gluing. After gluing, the plywood is pressed and dried again. Thus, the strong and valuable product is obtained.

 

VII. Ответьте письменно на вопросы по содержанию текста:

1. What purposes does plywood serve?

2. What is plywood?

 

Вариант II

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-

временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения.

 

1. The properties of bitumen have been known and exploited for some centuries.

2. When we design beams, the loads are never known accurately, because the size of the beam, and consequently its weight, are unknown.

3. These days artificial marble is being widely used to face the columns of buildings.

4. Old houses will be replaced by new ones in Moscow quite soon.

 

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.

 

1. In almost any engineering structure, certain parts have to resist forces of compression.

2. Durability is the property which has made concrete the most useful structural material.

3. We don’t use mass concrete in housing construction.

4. Ferro-concrete is to become the most useful building material in designing bridges.

 

 

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на функцию инфинитива.

 

1. Gray granites are brought to construction sites to be used for building.

2. To obtain a clear, bright red brick, the clay should be free from impurities.

3. Buildings to be made of brick should not be higher than 6 storeys.

4. A decorator`s most difficult task is to show the beauty of the marble.

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие

предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные

обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 

1. Clay is considered to be mouldable and plastic.

2. Hydrogen bubbles in the concrete mixture make it rise.

3. A concentrated load is assumed to act at a definite point, such as a column which rests on a beam.

4. A distributed load lets the force act over a considerable length of the beam.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения,

обращая внимание на перевод выделенных слов.

 

1. Broken stone was in great use, for it had been found that limestone moistened and crushed into pieces makes a good road.

2. Limestone may gradually approach cement in character, due to their original composition.

3. Neither wood nor plywood is used in fire-resistant structures.

 

 

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

Stone

 

Almost all the famous monuments of classic times, of the Medieval and Renaissance periods and of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, were erected from stone, since stone alone could contribute the qualities of strength, beauty, dignity and durability worthy of monumental architecture. Stone walls carried the loads, and stone foundations supported the entire building. Since the development of steel and concrete, and their employment in the foundations and structural members of buildings, the use of stone has been confined to the facing of the outer shells of walls and to the embellishment of the interiors.

Stone is often used in modern structures and is highly valued because of its never failing beauty and durability. Stone for construction purposes must possess certain important characteristics. These characteristics are: appearance, economy, durability and strength. The appearance of the stone is its suitability in colour, texture, ageing qualities and general characteristics according to the type and style of the building designed.

In colour and texture there is a wide range of choice from brilliant hues to dull, from warm tones to cold, as well as from coarseness and roughness of texture to extreme fineness and density. The appearance of stone is often of importance, especially in the facework of buildings. In order that the appearance should be preserved, a well-weathering stone should be selected. Weathering includes all those changes which occur as a result of the actions of heat and cold, rain, hail, snow, wind, exposure to air, and other atmospheric and chemical processes in rocks and other substances.

From the practical point of view, durability is the most important consideration in the selection of stone, suitability depending both upon the lasting qualities of the stone itself and upon the locality where it is erected.

Rocks of the same general kind as limestone, sandstone and marble, differ very much in durability, some being soft and porous and others dense and hard.

The physical structure of a stone is of the greatest importance, the ability of a stone to resist atmospheric actions depending to a great extent upon it.

White chalk and marble are nearly of the same composition, yet the latter will resist an ordinary atmosphere for a long time, whereas the former will be rapidly destroyed.

Different classes of stone are used in building, the most common of them being granites, slates, sandstones and limestones.

It is found that stones which are crystalline in structure weather better than those that are non crystalline. If the chemical composition and the other qualities of two stones are the same, then the stone which has the closer and finer grain of the two is more durable than the other.

 

VII. Ответьте письменно на вопросы по содержанию текста:

1. What qualities must stone possess for construction purposes?

2. What classes of stone are used in construction?

 

Вариант III

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-

временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения.

 

1. Since the development of steel and concrete the use of stone has been confined to the facing of a building.

2. Plastics are divided in respect to their properties into rigid, semi-rigid, soft and plastic.

3. Many ambitious projects to construct new buildings and do it economically are being made at this design office now.

4. New types of glues will be employed in the plywood industry to make it resistant to moisture and splitting.

 

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.

 

1. We don’t know if the ancient roads had any smooth surface.

2. It is doubtful that stone walls have to be made considerably thicker than walls of the same height in brick.

3. In certain classes of buildings, office buildings for example, there is always to be the possibility of the relocation of partitions.

4. Some rocks didn’t have to be replaced, because they withstood the action of frost and snow erosion.

 

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на функцию инфинитива.

1. Brick is not suitable for underground work to be made.

2. Nowadays it is not necessary to make all structures in stone.

3. Stucco is a plaster applied to the exterior of buildings to form a finishing coat.

4. Loads may be either gradually or suddenly applied.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие

предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные

обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 

1. We observe prefabricated units be delivered here every day.

2. The work of a superintendent seems to be the most essential on the construction site.

3. Terra-cotta is considered to be fireproof and non-resistant to acids.

4. We know the front of Moscow University to have been decorated with small, artistic, ceramic details.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения,

обращая внимание на перевод выделенных слов.

 

1. Brick is used as a substitute for other materials that are found in a natural state, for it is more suitable for building purposes.

2. Decay in granite is generally due to the presence of unstable minerals.

3. The modern factory building is usually constructed of either steel or reinforced concrete.

 

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

Rock

Everywhere beneath the soil which covers the surface of the earth we find rock; the term “rock” is applied to any bed layer or mass of the earth’s crust. Rocks are made of mineral matter whose form is the result of the action of geological processes. The deepest of them are rocks of crystalline structure. Rocks are either simple minerals or aggregations of minerals. A rock may consist of one mineral species, as limestones, or of several ingredients, as granite. By minerals, we mean these natural substances which occur in nature, each having definite physico-chemical properties and a particular crystalline form.

The material constituting the Earth’s crust may be primarily divided into stratified and unstratified rocks. Stratified rocks are those formed by the disintegration of igneous rocks and containing the remains of animal and vegetable matter. Unstratified rocks comprise the deep-lying portions of original igneous rock formed by the cooling of the earth’s crust, and the lava and other materials ejected by volcanoes.

Stratified rocks are not always in even layers of the same thickness and of the same material: the layers vary enormously in thickness and even in one particular district may be much thicker in one part than in another. Again, the original igneous rocks may have differed in composition in some strata; certain ingredients are absent, which are numerous in others.

We may now briefly describe some of the principle rocks according to the materials they consist of and the uses they are put to. Many of approximately different kinds of rocks were formed from similar ingredients which, according to the depth at which they occur, and the pressure, heat or chemical action which they were subjected to, have assumed different characters. Of these we know argillaceous rocks to consist mainly of clay, arenaceous are composed chiefly of siliceous or sandy matter, and calcareous rocks are a tiny character composing the remains of once living creatures.

 

VII. Ответьте письменно на вопросы по содержанию текста:

1. Where do we find rock?

2. How can we divide the material constituting the Earth’s crust?

 

Вариант IV

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-

временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения.

 

1. It looks as if the primary function of these masonry walls has been changed.

2. There was a time when the height of a building was limited to four or five storeys.

3. The original decoration is still seen in the entrance hall and on the front staircase.

4. These days excavations are being made to reach a bed of rock on this city territory.

 

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.

1. It is doubtful that many of us do realize the wide range of the properties of steel.

2. No secondary material should be used for bearing structures.

3. These problems were connected with the new type of foundations that had to be built.

4. In almost any engineering structure, certain parts are to resist forces of compression.

 

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на функцию инфинитива.

 

1. Terra-cotta is coloured to be used as a decorative material.

2. To make structural tile we must have clay.

3. The quality of brick depends on the chemical and mineralogical composition of the clay to be used.

4. A quite urgent demand of the present day life is to reconstruct, restore and rebuild old dilapidated buildings in the city.

 

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие

предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные

обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 

1. Granite may be expected to contain from one- to two-fifths quartz crystals.

2. We know brick to be of common use for general domestic building in London.

3. The best weathering limestones are known to be dense, uniform and homogeneous in structure.

4. They suggested the timber to be treated by mechanical and biological methods.

 

V. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения,

обращая внимание на перевод выделенных слов.

 

1. The home of today is more sanitary and healthful than before, because houses are easier to keep clean.

2. Colour in water may change due to mineral or organic matter it contains.

3. Both gluing and pressing are important steps in the manufacturing process of plywood.

 

VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.

 

Limestone

 

The term limestone applies to any stone the greater proportion of which consists of carbonate of lime. It is usually of a grayish colour, but all colours of limestone from white to black have been found. Scientists test natural rock to see if it is limestone by pouring cold, diluted hydrochloric acid on it. If the stone gives off bubbles of carbonic gas, we can be sure it contains carbonate of lime. Sometimes this carbonate of lime is pure and sometimes it is mixed with sand, clay or other substances. Other limestones, such as dolomites, contain a very large proportion of carbonate of magnesia.

The best weathering limestones are known to be dense, uniform and homogeneous in structure and composition, with fine, even small, grains and of crystalline texture. Many of the most easily worked limestones are very soft when first quarried, but harden upon exposure to the atmosphere.

There is a great variation in texture to be found amongst limestones, which may be taken to include the purer forms such as chalk and the less pure such as arenaceous, agrillaceous, or dolomitic limestones.

Ordinary limestone can be scratched by a knife, but it is strong. It is a good stone for foundations and walls where a high polish is not needed. It makes an excellent building stone because it can be carved easily. Limestone is widely used not only as a building stone of first importance, but for many industrial purposes. Large quantities are being quarried for the making of quick-lime and cement and, though soft when first taken from the ground, it weathers hard upon exposure. It is a hard and long-lasting building stone which can be easily shaped with saws, planes and even lathes. These buff or grey stones are sometimes placed over the rough stonework of a building to make an attractive surface. It is also used for floor tile, sills, steps and trimming stone. The denser varieties can be polished and for that reason are sometimes classified as marble, the dividing line between limestone and marble being difficult to determine.

One can see houses built in limestone everywhere. The Houses of Parliament are a fine example of a building constructed in limestone (dolomite), which unfortunately decays rapidly under the influence of the London atmosphere.

 

VII. Ответьте письменно на вопросы по содержанию текста:

1. What colour can limestone be?

2. What varieties of limestone can be classified as marble?

 

Контрольная работа № 4

Проработайте следующие разделы по учебнику:

1. Простые и сложные формы герундия, его функции в предложении. Герундиальный оборот.

2. Причастие (Participle I, II). Его функции в предложении. Причастные обороты: зависимый, независимый, объектный.

3. Сослагательное наклонение.

4. Условные предложения I, II и III типов.

 

 

Вариант I

 

I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на функции герундия в предложении.

 

1. London was the first city that faced the problem of slums, because of its being one of the oldest industrial cities.

2. Designing a building is a fascinating activity.

3. Mortar is a mixture of lime and sand used for binding together bricks and stone.

4. While drying, cement becomes a hard mass.

 

II. a) Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и

Participle II. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Concrete being a brittle material, it has practically no strength in tension.

1. The knowledge of how to make durable concrete was discovered long ago.

2. Selected use of red granite, bluestone, oak panelling, and sand-finished plaster are found throughout old constructions.

3. The distribution of water in irrigated areas is based on annual plans.

 

b) Перепишите и переведите предложения, принимая во внимание, что

причастные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 

1. Because wood is not fire-resistant, steel and concrete are more commonly used for fire-resistant structures.

2. Rocks of the same general kind differ greatly in durability, some being soft and porous and others dense and hard.

3. Having considered all the requirements that the structure has to meet, the engineer selected the necessary material.

III. Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая

внимание на перевод сослагательного наклонения.

 

1. It would be impossible to protect metal from corrosion without a film.

2. It is essential that concrete be placed in its final position before the cement reaches its initial set.

3. It is important that the concrete be compacted efficiently during the placing.

 

IV. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на

особенности перевода условных предложений I, II и III типов.

 

1. The erecting of large modern buildings would not have been possible if new building materials hadn’t been used.

2. If ordinary bricks hadn’t high volume weight and low thermal conductivity, they would be satisfactory in building practice.

3. Granite is very durable, if it is not used in a wet climate.

 

V. Прочтите, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Marble

Marble is limestone that is hard enough to take polish. It is used for buildings’ interiors and for statues. The finest marble is white, and is called statuary marble. All marble is composed of crystals of the minerals calcite or dolomite, which, when pure, are perfectly white. Coloured marbles result from the presence of other minerals or small amounts of staining matter mixed with the calcite or dolomite. Black, grey, pink, reddish, greenish marbles are used in the designs of buildings and in monuments.

Being generally a more expensive material than the various sedimentary rocks used as blocks in building construction, marble is normally employed only as a facing material for walls and floors. The marble used is a species of veneer about 3/4 inch thick, which can be arranged to form patterns as well as wood veneers. Marble chips are irregular small graded pieces of marble used for making artificial stone.

Ancient people made their finest buildings of either granite or marble, just as men do today. The Egyptians worked chiefly in granite. The Greeks were skillful in carving and design, and found marble more suited to their needs. Their temples stand as monuments to their skill and materials. The Romans copied the forms of Greek sculpture and architecture and also used marble with great skill. Marble continues to be a favourite in architecture. One of the most beautiful monuments in the world, the Indian Taj Mahal, is an imposing structure of white marble.

In the building of Moscow University on Vorobyov Hills, both natural and artificial marble were used to face the round columns in the main building and the walls in the lecture halls.

The stations of the Moscow and St. Petersburg metros give us fine examples of marble workmanship.

 

VI. Письменно ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1. Can we polish marble?

2. Where is the Taj Mahal situated?

 

Вариант II

 

I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на функции герундия в предложении.

 

1. Wood is preferred to other building materials because of its being easily

transported.

2. After heating a mixture of limestone and clay we pulverize it to produce a fine

powder.

3. The principle mechanical properties of wood are hardness and shock resisting

ability.

4. Even in winter you can achieve a proper strength gain in concrete, if you succeed in keeping the material warm and moist.

 

 

II. a) Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и

Participle II. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. Combining the sculptural modelling of the rococo era with ornaments, the

architects reached perfection in the construction.

2. Natural illumination, provided by the placement of windows, gently guides visitors through the museum.

3. The museum-going public is fascinated by the sparkling of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg.

4. It is curious that in erecting constructions, the Mexicans employed concrete in their building techniques.

 

b) Перепишите и переведите предложения, принимая во внимание, что

причастные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 

1. Steel and concrete have displaced wood and brick in many types of structures, the engineers developing new equipment and techniques for using them.

2. At lower levels limestone is found, this also consisting largely of the remains of creatures and plants.

3. The development of industry having resulted in the building of factories, railways and the like, there arose the possibility of making building materials of great strength.

 

III. Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая

внимание на перевод сослагательного наклонения.

 

1. It is essential that the water used for mixing cements, limes and plasters be

reasonably clean.

2. Without aluminium blocks the construction would be heavier and not so strong.

3. We wish architects and designers made new homes convenient for carrying out

domestic duties.

 

IV. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на

особенности перевода условных предложений I, II и III типов.

 

1. If building materials hadn’t undergone great changes, no progress in building would have been possible.

2. Were the cement used in concrete of poor quality, the material would not be durable.

3. Concrete is very durable, provided the mixing process is properly carried out.

 

V. Прочтите, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Terra Cotta

The use of clay by the Greeks was widely varied and extensive. Among the manifold purposes to which terra cotta was put by the Greeks may be mentioned parts of public and private buildings such as bricks, roof-tiles, drain and flue tiles, architectural ornaments, etc. Wall tiles were probably first made in Syria and Persia. Several potteries in Asia Minor produce wall tiles of traditional Persian patterns and colours which are of great beauty.

Terra cotta is the term of Italian derivation meaning baked or burned earth. In Sicily and southern Italy, a fashion prevailed of nailing slabs of terra cotta over the surface of the stonework (a legacy from the epoch of wooden buildings which required protection from the weather).

The effort of all the terra cotta makers during recent times has been to produce a building material capable of resisting the acids and soot contained in the atmosphere of our great towns. They have been very successful in this effort as they are able to produce building materials of pleasant colour and texture which is practically acid-resisting. It can be allowed to weather and, unlike other materials, its original colour and appearance can be restored by a single washing with soap and water.

Floor arches, roof slabs, interior partitions, light exterior walls and furring and backing of masonry walls are extensively constructed of structural terra cotta. For the fireproofing of steel it has proved one of the most effective and practical materials employed.

Furthermore its excellent qualities of insulation make it a most suitable building material. Its use in walls and floors greatly assists in maintaining a suitable temperature inside the building. Architectural terra cotta was employed in Greece and Rome and during the Renaissance for such architectural purposes as roof tiles, ornamental facing plaques, tracery, gutters and cornices.

It has high fire-resistance and insulating qualities, it is light in weight and its surface is practically non-absorbant. The colours are obtained by means of minerals and metal oxides producing coloured silicates, the true effect not being apparent until after the piece is fired. Practically any colour can be obtained, polychrome of 2 or more colours being greatly developed in recent years.

In facing the front of the building of Moscow University, small artistic ceramic details were used together with large reinforced concrete panels finished with cream-coloured ceramics and large assembled cornices.

 

VI. Письменно ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1. What can restore terra cotta’s original colour and appearance?

2. What are the main valuable qualities of terra cotta?

 

Вариант III

 

I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на функции герундия в предложении.

 

1. Modern rapid-hardening cements are capable of binding very heavy raw materials such as sand and crushed rocks together.

2. Lime doesn’t occur in nature, but is readily prepared by heating marble or limestone to a high temperature.

3. Developing new designs in structures is very important these days.

4. We know of concrete walls and piers rising in the remotest corners of the country.

 

II. a) Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и

Participle II. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The air-conditioning systems are installed in our offices.

2. Being widely distributed, stone is available as a building material.

3. Now plastics, which are artificial materials, can be applied to almost every branch of building.

4. Sawdust mixed with mineral matter forms a hard strong material applicable for many purposes.

 

b) Перепишите и переведите предложения, принимая во внимание, что

причастные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 

1. Brittle materials may be highly elastic, a good example being glass.

2. By minerals, we mean natural substances which occur in nature, each having definite physico-chemical properties.

3. Being applied in all building operations, timber is one of the most important materials.

 

III. Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая

внимание на перевод сослагательного наклонения.

 

1. It is important that a stone be homogeneous in its structure.

2. It would be impossible to simplify the production of aluminium without using the electrothermal method.

3. We wish every civil engineer knew geology better.

 

IV. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на

особенности перевода условных предложений I, II и III типов.

 

1. Had not the building machines undergone great changes, no progress in building would have been possible.

2. It would be difficult to lay a wall if the bricks were of irregular form.

3. If the structure is more than one storey high, some means must be found for supporting the floor.

 

V. Прочтите, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

 

Glass

Industrial art has had no more beautiful and useful material to aid its progress throughout the ages than glass. Many sciences could scarcely have existed or could not have developed greatly without its assistance. It can be produced either colourless, or tinted with any hue, and either transparent or opaque. Its opacity may be either partial or complete. It is smooth and shiny on its surface and in fracture.

The period of the invention of glass cannot now be traced and how it was discovered is unknown.

A fanciful story told by the Roman writer Pliny tells how Phoenician (Финикийские) merchants discovered the art of glass making. According to this legend, as the merchants were returning from Egypt, they landed on the coast of Palestine, camped on a sandy beach of the river and there built a fire. Having placed some blocks of nitre under their cooking vessels to protect them from the fire, they saw the substance melt, mingle with the sand, and form a liquid stream of glass.

The history of architecture is described as the centuries-old struggle for light, the struggle for the window. In primitive houses light would be admitted through the doorway and an outlet in the roof, and it is interesting to note that in the ancient world, particularly in public buildings, light was generally received from above. So the earliest window was probably a modification of the doorway.

The introduction of glass into windows was hastened by the spread of civilization into Nothern and Western Europe, but the scarcity and high cost of window glass meant that only the rich made use of it and these were, of course, mostly represented by the church.

The window has for more than a thousand years been fighting for the greatest possible dimensions against the limitations imposed by building materials and methods of construction. At various times it triumphed over these limitations, notably in the wooden house of the Middle Ages. In the nineteenth century the introduction of iron-frame construction made possible the complete liberation of the window.

The use of glass as a building material is dependent upon its hardness, imperviousness and durability, its mechanical strength and its thermal, optic and acoustic properties. Glass is subjected principally to atmospheric conditions. In towns, ammonia, sulphurous and sulphuric acids may be present in the atmosphere. All of these are destructive. We may regard glass as being the best weathering material employed in building. Imperviousness to moisture and excellent weathering properties, combined with the ease of manufacture in large sizes, make glass the ideal prefabricated facing material for the exteriors of some modern buildings.

 

VI. Письменно ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1. What makes glass the ideal facing material?

2. Could many sciences have developed greatly without the assistance of glass?

Вариант IV

 

I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая

внимание на функции герундия в предложении.

 

1. Cement is a material capable of adhering to and uniting into a cohesive mass.

2. Pre-stressing creates a concrete capable of taking tension without cracking.

3. The revival of the old method is attributed to the fact of people noticing the strength of naturally formed concrete under water.

4. They finished placing concrete.

5. A thermoplastic material is one having the property of softening when heated and of hardening and becoming rigid again when cooled.

 

II. a) Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и

Participle II. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

 

1. The theatre is praised by the experts as a milestone in city architecture.

2. The Opera House, with its striking architecture, is the symbol of Sydney, together with the bridge across the natural harbour.

3. Offering visitors an added level of comfort and enjoyment, a new cafe doubles as a lecture and reception area.

4. An expanded temporary gallery provides flexible space for special exhibitions.

 

b) Перепишите и переведите предложения, принимая во внимание, что

причастные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

 

1. The durability and hardness of building materials are the most important properties, the engineers determining them for any structural purpose.

2. The great weight above compressed the different ingredients, the process being assisted by chemical action.

3. Having compared the durability of various types of steel, the engineers found out their advantages and disadvantages.

 

III. Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая

внимание на перевод сослагательного наклонения.

 

1. It is necessary that this crane be used on our construction site.

2. Without the construction of buildings it would be impossible to imagine the life of people.

3. We wish there were more bridges and parks in town.

 

IV. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на

особенности перевода условных предложений I, II и III типов.

 

1. If granite were used in a wet climate, it would decompose.

2. If we attempted to use lime as a plaster or motor unmixed with other materials, wide cracks would occur on account of the shrinkage of the lime while hardening.

3. If the grain and the cement uniting them are both of strong material, the stone will be very durable.

 

V. Прочтите, перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Plastics

A prominent place in new building materials is occupied by those which are being produced from chemicals, such as a synthetic linoleum in a great choice of colours, and many others. Although the chief development in plastics has taken place quite recently it should be recognized that these substances have quite a long history. Resins and wax-like substances were known to the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, and the properties of pitch and bitumen have been known and exploited for some centuries.

The future of plastics is assured. It is interesting to consider the various devices demanded by modern life and to consider how many of them could be made from plastic substances. In plastics, we have a great variety of synthetic substances which can be moulded under heat and pressure, extruded through holes of small diameter or drawn into fibres. Sheets of great hardness, which can be cut by a saw or so flexible that they can be used for articles of clothing, can be produced from plastics. We are now reaching the stage when we can ask for a plastic substance that will have particular plasticity, ease of working and electrical properties.

Adhesives and coatings are the two principal building uses of plastics as auxiliaries to other materials. A large group of adhesives is used in plywood.

Metal-to-metal bonding with high-strength resin adhesives is becoming increasingly common, for example in fabricating aluminium alloy and stainless-steel aircraft. This application is finding increasing use in metal building panels.

Coatings, both protective and decorative, have undergone marked improvement as synthetic resins have entered the field. These resins are successfully replacing traditional oil paints and are widely used for metal coating and other uses. They have been applied on a large scale in painting the house facades in St. Petersburg for instance.

Laminated panels are widely used for table tops, counters and wall surfacing. Ordinary wallpaper is being replaced on an increasing scale by “pavinol-glass”, a fabric with a plastic coating. This kind of wall covering is hygienic and non-flammable, it wears well, resists the effect of moisture and is made in a wide range of colours and patterns.

Laminated plastics – plain white or in imitation of wood – are used for walls in kitchens and bathrooms, and if desired as panels in living rooms.

VI. Письменно ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1. What are the two principle uses of plastics?

2. What is replacing ordinary wallpaper?

 






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