признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием –s
и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т. е. Служит ли оно:
1. Показателем 3–его лица ед. числа глагола в Present Indefinite;
2. Признаком мн. числа имени существительного;
3. Показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Builders assemble a house from prefabricated units.
2. The designer’s pay was very low.
3. A sanitary engineer protects the quality of water.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, обращая внимание
на особенности перевода на русский язык определений, выраженных именем
1. Factory machinery produces different sorts of metals.
2. There are various steel instruments in the workshop.
3. Students don’t pay for use of laboratory facilities.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы
сравнения и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Ductile materials have greater strength than brittle ones.
2. We use plastics where the older materials (timber or glass) are not satisfactory.
3. Copper was the most applicable metal in the prehistoric times.
4. The shortage of timber towards the end of the 15th century in England led to
IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения на русский язык,
обращая внимание на перевод неопределённых и отрицательных
1. Primitive building required no tools.
2. Some buildings were simple in construction but very beautiful.
3. Any beam carries some load.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные
формы глаголов и укажите их инфинитив; переведите предложения на
1. Every year thousands of qualified building workers come to construction sites.
2. Wood provided primitive man with shelter, weapons and transportation.
3. Architects will employ glass in the construction of office blocks and industrial
VI. Прочитайте, перепишите и письменно переведите текст на русский язык.
The Arbat District
The Arbat is Moscow`s famed district. There are many architectural landmarks here. For example, Konstantin Melnikov’s house in Krivoarbatory Pereulok, which is a tangible manifesto of the 20th century domestic architecture. K. Melnikov was born to the family of an industrial worker in Moscow in 1890. He finished school and got a job at the Zalessky and Chaplin Commercial House in Moscow. The company co-owner, Chaplin, a prominent engineer, noticed the talented boy and helped him enter the Moscow school of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in 1905. In the early 1920s Melnikov started his search for new methods in architecture. Those were innovative years in the arts. The Russian architectural school was one of the starting points of abstract art, which dominated the world’s culture in the 20th century. This was also true of the new architecture. Among others, Le Corbusier did his pioneering work in Russia.
The situation in architecture was unusual. Melnikov did not simply reject neo-classicism, he created designs with new spatial compositions, artistic forms and images. His first designs were unique. They stunned and even shocked his colleagues in 1922-1923. His works were innovative and had their own original characters. K. Melnikov supervised the building of the Soviet pavilion in Paris for the International Decorative Art Exhibition. His work provoked a sensation and it is still a landmark in world architecture. In Moscow he built five original garages for lorries and coaches, and seven worker clubs. In 1927–1929, he constructed his private studio home. The critics labelled it as an example of “formalism” and “fetishism”.
The building consisted of two vertical cylinders joined together. The builders used only whole bricks (no broken halves or thirds of a brick) to form a structure with 200 hexagonal apertures, of which Melnikov left only 60 to serve as windows. He made the ceilings without using any beams. Only planks formed a network of square cells. His principle in making ceilings is characteristic for many modern American wooden buildings. The heating system of the house was also innovative for that time. The architect used air to ventilate the entire structure.
It was only after Stalin’s death that Melnikov once again began to attract public attention in this country. He managed to become one of the world’s amazing architects. He died in 1974.
VII. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. Did Melnikov work in the style of neo-classicism or reject it?
2. Melnikov’s first designs stunned and even shocked his colleagues in 1922-1923, didn’t they?
3. Did the architect use beams to make the ceilings of his house?