Scan the text and make the list of court sentences in order of their strictness.
TYPES OF PUNISHMENT
Punishment for people who break the law is decided in a court of law. In the US federal, state and local governments each have their own systems of law and punishment. The Constitution forbids “cruel and unusual punishment”, but it is the responsibility of the Supreme Court to decide whether a punishment is “cruel and unusual”. In Britain, the Scottish legal system is different from that in England and Wales, but methods of punishment are similar throughout Britain.
When an accused person is found guilty of a crime the judge decides what punishment he or she should suffer. In both Britain and the US the least serious offences are punished by fines which must be paid to the court. Fines or fixed penalties (= fines at a level decided in advance) are often imposed for minor traffic offences such as parking illegally.
If a fine is not considered adequate, a person may be sentenced to do community service (= work without pay in hospitals, homes for old people, etc.) or be put on probation (= required to have regular meetings with a social worker over a set period). When the crime committed is more serious, the convict person is likely to be given a prison sentence. If it is their first offence the sentence may be suspended (= only carried out if the person is found guilty of another crime) and the person is allowed to remain free on a conditional discharge.
If a person is given a prison sentence its length depends on how serious their crime is and on their past record. If a person thinks the sentence is too severe he or she has the right to appeal against it in a higher court, which has the power to reduce the sentence. As a reward for good behavior prisoners are often given remission (= are released early). Others get parole, which means that they can go free as long as they do not commit any further crimes. In the US the number of people on probation has increase in recent years, as there is not always room in prison for all those given a prison sentence. A variety of non-custodial punishments (= ones not requiring time in prison) have been tried in both Britain and the US, including electronic tagging. This punishment requires people to stay in their homes and wear a device that informs the police if they leave.
In Britain the maximum sentence that can be handed down by a judge is a life sentence, which in fact usually means spending about 20–25 years in prison. Convicted murderers are given life sentences. The most serious punishment in the US is the death penalty. Not all states allow capital punishment, and in those that do there may be years of appeals before it is carried out.
I. Find the English equivalents for the following words and word combinations; memorize them; use them in your own sentences.
1. нарушать закон
2. запрещать жестокие и необычные наказания
3. методы наказания
4. признать виновным в совершении преступления
5. понести наказание
6. общинные работы (как вид наказания)
7. досрочное освобождение
8. получить условное осуждение
9. пожизненное заключение
10. приговор, отсроченный исполнением
11. смертная казнь
12. высшая мера наказания
II. Arrange the following words into three groups: a) names of crimes, b) people who break the law, c) punishment; translate them into Russian.
Theft, probation, criminal, drunken driving, offender, hi-jacking, rapist, fine, burglar, death penalty, imprisonment, smuggling, mugger, community service, bribery, blackmailer, suspended sentence, incarceration, pickpocket, kidnapper, fraudster, murderer, robbery, arsonist, terrorism.
III. Find the headline matching each of the five newspaper articles; render the contents of the articles in Russian.
Sacking of net user fair
Rise in youth crime feared
Three men appeared before magistrates in Hertford accused of murdering PC Frank Mason, who died during an armed hold-up at a bank in Hemel Hempstead. Charles McGhee, 30, of Luton; Perry Wharrie, 28, of Lee, South London; and James Hurley, 26, of Luton; and a fourth man, Robert McFarland, of Luton, accused of disposing of property to impede the arrest of the three, were all remanded in custody for three days.
A man appeared in Marylebone magistrates court in London yesterday, accused of escaping police custody at a hospital 13 months ago. Alan Knowlden, 36, was also charged with conspiring to commit armed robbery. He was remanded in custody to appear at a Lambeth Magistrates Court next Friday.
Thefts and burglaries could rise 40% in the next few years because of an increase in the number of young men.
The trial in Belgium of 26 British football fans on charges arising out of the 1985 Heysel Stadium disaster will open in Brussels today, and be adjourned until the autumn. Belgian defence lawyers will appeal for a suspension because they have not had sufficient access to evidence.
An employee who secretly surfed the Internet at work to book a holiday has been sacked for using a company computer for personal reasons. She had made over a hundred holiday searches during office hours over a period of 4 days.
IV. Read the headlines below, and then make news reports. Write:
1. Where/when it happened.
2. What happened.
3. What the criminal/victim said.
A) 75-year-old Caught Shoplifting in Supermarket.
B) Local Girl’s Evidence Got Mugger Two Years Prison.