CRIME IN RUSSIA
The level of crime 1)__________ (cause) alarm in Russia today. The problem of being protected against criminals’ actions occupies the 2)_________ (two) place in the system of 3)__________ (person) priorities of Russian 4)_________ (city), after their social and economic problems (living standards, the timeliness of wage payments, 5)_________ (employ), etc).
Such a worsening of the criminal situation to a significant degree reflects the changes in the public life of the country as a whole. Analysts 6)______ (suggest) that the increase may be partly due to the 7)____________ (economy) downturn in Russia and the breakdown of some family 8)________ (value) within society.
However, the state of crime in Russia with respect to the basic 9)______ (indicate), even after taking into account the large share of crime that remains 10)___________ (record), approximately corresponds to the state of crime in 11)___________ (develop) Western countries. Even taking into account unreported crimes, not more than 7 million crimes 12)_______ (commit) in Russia in 2002, which is two times below the average level for the USA (14 million) and approximately corresponds to the level of crime in Germany (over 6 million crimes a year) and in England (5 to 6 million crimes), whose 13)_________ (populate) are much 14)___________ (small) than that of Russia.
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In the 20th century came a new type of crime, known as “white-collar”, or corporate, crime. “White-collar” crimes are crimes committed by business people, professionals, and politicians in the course of their occupation. Examples include conspiring with other corporation to fix prices of goods or services in order to make artificially high profits, bribing officials to obtain manufacturing licenses, constructing buildings or roads with cheap, defective materials. The term “white-collar crime” is also used to describe fraud and embezzlement. This constitutes crime for profit by the individual against the organization. Well-educated people with good incomes commit crimes, usually out of greed. They sometimes use their education and talents in illegal ways to get bigger profits.
Environmental crimeincludes the dumping and illegal transportation of hazardous waste, the smuggling of ozone-depleting substances, and illegal logging and trading in timber. Pollution, deforestation, flooding and climate change, which affected the whole world, are just some of the results. The Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) says we need to recognize that environmental crime is a time-critical issue and also a source of corruption. To combat environmental crime, we should target nations where environmental crime is highest and financed specialized units to deal with.
The explosive growth in the use of computers in the business world in the past few years has brought with it a corresponding increase in computer misuse. Computer crimes fall mainly into three broad categories: simple schemes that have been subjects of litigations are stealing a competitor’s computer program; paying an accomplice to delete adverse information and insert favorable false information into the defendant’s credit file; and a disgruntled ex-employee’s inserting a “virus” into his former employer’s computer to destroy its records. Losses due to computer misuse may be as high as $35 to $40 billion per year (including thefts of funds, losses of computer programs and data, losses of trade secrets, and damage done to computer hardware). But these estimates may not be reliable as a substantial amount of computer crime is never discovered and a high percentage of that which is discovered is never reported because companies do not want publicity.
I. Find the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations; memorize them.
1. преступление, совершенное служащим или лицом, занимающим высокое общественное положение
2. совершать преступления из корысти
3. получать искусственно завышенную прибыль
4. преступное разрушение окружающей среды
5. продажа товаров по искусственно заниженным ценам для вытеснения конкурентов
6. предмет тяжбы, судебного спора
7. незаконная заготовка и транспортировка леса
8. злоупотребление компьютерами
9. кража компьютерных программ, денежных средств
10. запуск вируса
11. уничтожение лесов
12. источник коррупции
II. Translate into Russian the following word-combinations with the key-word “computer”. Make up sentences with these phrases.
Computer misuse, computer crimes, use of computers in the business world, stealing a competitor’s computer program, former employer’s computer, losses due to computer misuse, computer programs and data, computer hardware/software.
III. Complete the following sentences.
1. Crimes are acts that … .
2. Crime is found … .
3. People are most likely to commit a criminal act … .
4. Crimes are classified according to … into two groups: … .
5. Such crimes as … are called serious crimes.
6. Such crimes as … known as petty crimes.
7. “White-collar” crimes are crimes … .
8. Well-educated people with good incomes commit crimes because …
9. Environmental crimeincludes … .
10. To combat environmental crime, we should … .
11. Computer crimes fall into three broad categories … .
12. A large amount of computer crimes are never discovered or reported because … .
Reviewing What We Learned
- What is a crime? Be ready to give more than one definition. Make up your own one.
- What classifications of crimes do you know?
- What determines the difference between a felony and a misdemeanor? Give examples of felonies and misdemeanors.
- What are modern crimes?
- What are the elements of a crime?
- How different crimes could be penalized by?
- How can you define the criminal situation of your country (city)?
Legal Skills in Action
The appellants were convicted of manslaughter. Three were doctors whose patients died, the other was an electrician who had wired up a central heating system which killed. Their appeals raised the legal basis of involuntary manslaughter by breach of duty.
What are the ingredients of involuntary manslaughter by breach of duty which need to be proved?
You want to show that object has a larger importance than subject.
I. Change the following sentences from active to passive. Keep the same tense with each change:
1. The police asked each of us about his movements on the night of the crime.
2. No one can do anything unless someone gives us information.
3. They will say nothing more about the matter if someone returns the stolen gun.
4. A thief stole my dog and brought him back only when I offered $ 20 reward for him.
5. The judge gave him two weeks to pay the fine.
6. An uneasy silence succeeded the shot.
7. The lawyer gave him the details of his uncles will.
8. The suspect will give his evidence next week.
9. The detective is investigating this serious criminal case now, he is still collecting evidence against criminals.
10. I think the judge will pass the sentence tomorrow.
11. I cannot meet you tomorrow morning. I shall be representing Jack Green before the Court.
12. The jury is still discussing the verdict.
13. The investigator has collected evidence on the case.
14. The state and public organizations had discussed the Draft of the new Constitution before it became the law.
15. If you come to the court late in the afternoon the judge will have declared his decision.
16. The night court has dismissed the prisoner’s appeal.
17. The court was still examining all the details of the murder at the time.
18. Somebody might have stolen your car if you had left the keys.
II. Rewrite the following newspaper report using passive forms of the verbs underlined.
Daring Raid at Local Hotel
Thieves (1) held the manager of the Ridgeway Hotel at gunpoint last night during a daring raid in which they (2) took nearly 50,000 from the hotel safe. They also (3) broke into several of the bedroom and (4) removed articles of value. The thieves made their escape through the kitchen, where they (5) damaged several pieces of equipment. They (6) injured the chef when he tried to stop them and (7) left him lying unconscious on the floor. Police (8) arrested the thieves early this morning.
III. Use the world in capitals in each line making it passive in the correct tense form.
Arthur’s life of crime
At his last trial, nobody believed in Arthur’s innocence.
He ___________ of the theft of a valuable Chinese vase, ACCUSE
and ___________ also with ten other offences. CHARGE
The value of the stolen good __________ to be over 10,000. SAY
Arthur said in his own defence that the vase __________ into PUT
his car accidentally.
It __________ by him that the Chinese vase was a fake, and POINT OUT
was almost worthless.
The judge didn’t believe Arthur’s story. Arthur __________ he TELL
was a hardened criminal and that he deserved a severe punishment.
Then Arthur _________ by the judge to five years imprisonment. SENTENCE
Arthur just smiled. He had spent most of his life in prison and
so he ___________ to it. USE
IV. Present Continuous Passive
A dead body has been found, and the police have arrived on the scene.
Say what is happening.
Use the passive form of the present Continuous.
Example: The body is being examined.
Choose the correct answer.
1. The event ________ before they arrived home.
a) reported b) had been reported c) was being reported d) has been reported
2. I ___________ a letter by an unknown person yesterday.
a) gave b) have been given c) was given d) have given
3. Robert Gibbs, the great plane robber __________ the police yesterday.
a) was arrested by b) arrested c) has arrested d) arrested by
4. My suitcase __________ from the hotel room.
a) stole b) has stolen c) was stolen d) was being stolen
5. Last night I __________ by the police as I was driving home.
a) stopped b) have been stopped c) was stopped d) have stopped
6. We hope that an agreement ___________ .
a) was arrived b) arrived c) will be arrived at d) will arrive
7. Your key must __________ before 11:30 a.m.
a) return b) be returning c) be returned d) have returned
8. Because of an extremely high accident rate, restrictions on teenagers’
driving ___________ at the next City Council meeting.
a) will discuss b) are discussed c) will be discussing d) will be discussed
9. Many of the early British settlers in Australia were criminals who were able not ___________ by agreeing to live on and develop the land there.
a) be imprisoned b) to imprison c) to be imprisoned d) being imprisoned
10. The government has announced that taxes ___________.
a) are raised b) will raise c) will be raised d) had been raised
11. I was announced that the international treaty against weather warfare ___________ and had gone into effect.
a) would have been ratified b) is ratified c) had been ratified d) was ratified
12. The house where the dead man was found ____________ by the police to prevent it from being entered and the evidence interfered with.
a) is guarded b) will guard c) is been guarded d) is being guarded
13. A police car came when the injured man ___________ the road.
a) was being carried off b) was been carrying off c) has been carried off d) was carried off
14. The notorious spy ___________ from the country.
a) was being deported b) was deported c) deported d) has deported
15. Your brother ___________ unless he pays his fine.
a) will release b) will be released c) is released d) will not be released
16. The police are watching a house in London; they think the house __________ by people who sell drugs.
a) is used b) was used c) is being used d) has used
17. She returned home to find her house _______________.
a) has been burgled b) was burgled c) had been burgled d) is burgled
18. Accidents ____________ often by carelessness.
a) cause b) are caused c) are causing d) have been caused
19. The juvenile problems ___________ still __________.
a) have discussed b) are being discussed c) were discussed d) discussed
20. The criminal code ____________ by the end of the month.
a) will have been published b) will publish c) are publishing d) is published
CRIMES AND PUNISHMENT