1. Antivirus software: advantages and disadvantages
2. The most known antivirus companies: short review
3. The main Russian antivirus companies.
4. Virus mechanism: how does it work?
5. Creation of viruses: why do we do it?
Presentation requirements: format – MS Power Point, number of slides from 10 to 15, animation (optional, but recommended), presentation plan from 5 to 10 points, performance time from 5 to 7 minutes.
Ex.1. Read and translate the text:
More and more the operations of our businesses, governments, and financial institutions are controlled by information that exists only inside computer memories. Anyone clever enough to modify this information for his own purposes can reap substantial1 rewards. Even worse, a number of people who have done this and been caught at it have managed to2 get away without punishment.
These facts have not been lost on criminals or would-be criminals3. A recent Stanford Research Institute study of computer abuse was based on 160 case histories, which probably are just the tip of the iceberg. After all, we only know about the unsuccessful crimes. How many successful ones have gone undetected is anybody's guess.
Here are a few areas in which computer criminals have found the pickings4 all too easy.
Banking. All but the smallest banks now keep their accounts on computer files. Someone who knows how to change the numbers in the files can transfer funds at will5. For instance, one programmer was caught having the computer transfer funds from other people's accounts to his wife's checking account. Often, traditionally trained auditors don't know enough about the workings of computers to catch what is taking place right under their noses.
Business. A company that uses computers extensively offers many opportunities6 to both dishonest employees and clever outsiders. For instance, a thief can have the computer ship the company's products to addresses of his own choosing. Or he can have it issue checks to him or his confederates for imaginary supplies or services. People have been caught doing both.
Credit Cards. There is a trend towards using cards similar to credit cards to gain access to funds through cash-dispensing terminals7. Yet, in the past, organized crime used stolen or counterfeit credit cards to finance its operations. Banks that offer after-hours or remote banking through cash-dispensing terminals may find themselves unwillingly subsidizing8 organized crime.
Theft of Information. Much personal information about individuals is now stored in computer files. An unauthorized person with access to this information could use it for blackmail9. Also, confidential information about a company's products or operations can be stolen and sold to unscrupulous10competitors. (One attempt at the latter came to light when the competitor turned out to be scrupulous and turned in the people who were trying to sell him stolen information.)
Software Theft. The software for a computer system is often more expensive than the hardware. Yet this expensive software is all too easy to copy. Crooked computer experts11 have devised a variety of tricks for getting these expensive programs: printed out, punched on cards, recorded on tape or otherwise delivered into their hands. This crime has even been perpetrated from remote terminals that access the computer over the telephone.
Theft of Time-Sharing Services12. When the public is given access to a system, some members of the public often discover how to use the system in unauthorized ways. For example, there are the "phone freakers" who avoid long distance telephone charges by sending over their phones control signals that are identical to those used by the telephone company.
Since time-sharing systems often are accessible to anyone who dials the right telephone number, they are subject to the same kinds of manipulation.
Of course, most systems use account numbers and passwords to restrict access to unauthorized users. But unauthorized persons have proved to be adept at obtaining this information and using it for their own benefit13. For instance, when a police computer system was demonstrated to a school class, a precautious student noted the access codes being used; later, all the student's teachers turned up14 on a list of wanted criminals.
Perfect Crimes. It's easy for computer crimes to go undetected if no one checks up on what the computer is doing. But even if the crime is detected, the criminal may walk away not only unpunished but with a glowing recommendation from his former employers.
Of course, we have no statistics on crimes that go undetected. But lots of them were detected just by accident, not by systematic audits or other security procedures. The computer criminals who have been caught may have been the victims of uncommonly15 bad luck. For example, a certain keypunch operator16 complained of having to stay overtime to punch extra cards. Investigation revealed that the extra cards she was being asked to punch were for fraudulent transactions. An undercover narcotics agent17 stumbled on another case. An employee was selling the company's merchandise on the side and using the computer to get it shipped to the buyers.
Unlike other embezzlers18, who must leave the country, commit suicide, or go to jail, computer criminals sometimes brazen it out19, demanding not only that they not be prosecuted but also that they be given good recommendations and perhaps other benefits, such as severance pay20. All too often, their demands have been met.
Why? Because company executives are afraid of the bad publicity that would result if the public found out that their computer has been misused. They cringe at21 the thought of a criminal boasting in open court of how he juggled the most confidential records right under the noses of the company's executives, accountants, and security staff. And so another computer criminal departs with just the recommendations he needs to continue his exploits elsewhere.
1. substantial – существенный
2. They managed to do it – Им удалось сделать это.
3. would-be criminal – потенциальный преступник
4. find the pickings – найти возможность поживиться
5. at will – по желанию
6. opportunities – возможности
7. cash-dispensing terminal – терминал выдачи наличных (банкомат)
8. unwillingly subsidize – невольно способствовать
9. blackmail – шантаж
10. unscrupulous – недобросовестный, беспринципный, нечистоплотный
11. Crooked computer expert – нечестный эксперт по компьютерам
12. Time-Sharing Services – Службы с разделением времени
13. their own benefit – их собственная выгода
14. turn up - оказаться
15. uncommonly – необычно, необычайно
16. keypunch operator – оператор штамповщик (банковских карт)
17. undercover narcotics agent – агент нарко-контроля под прикрытием
18. embezzler – расхититель, казнокрад
19. brazen it out – выкручиваться, изворачиваться
20. severance pay – выходное пособие
21. cring eat – содрогаться при (мысли)