1. A genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using recombinant DNA technology.
2. Transduction is a process by which some bacteria are naturally capable of taking up DNA to acquire new genetic traits.
3. In conjugation, DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another via a temporary connecting tube of protein called a pilus.
4. «Knocked out organisms have a specific gene that has been functionally destroyed.
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Утверждено на заседании кафедры
протокол № ___ от «__» ___________ 2016 г.
Зав. кафедрой:_________________ Бимагамбетова Г.А.
Утверждено на заседании УМС факультета
протокол № ___ от «__» ___________ 2016 г.
председатель УМС факультета_____________ Айманова Е.Е.
Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова
Кафедра Биологии и экологии
Шифр, специальность 5В011300 - «Биология»
Предмет « Профессионально-ориентированный английский язык»
Билет № 9
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The term «Biosphere» was coined by Russian scientist Vladimir Vernadsky in the 1929. The biosphere is the life zone of the Earth and includes all living organisms, including man, and all organic matter that has not yet decomposed. Life evolved on earth during its early history between 4,5 and 3,8 billion years ago and the biosphere readily distinguishes our planet from all others in the solar system. The chemical reactions of life (e.g., photosynthesis-respiration, carbonate precipitation, etc.) have also imparted a strong signal on the chemical composition of the atmosphere, transforming the atmosphere from reducing conditions to and oxidizing environment with free oxygen. The biosphere is structured into a hierarchy known as the food chain whereby all life is dependent upon the first tier (i.e. mainly the primary producers that are capable of photosynthesis). Energy and mass are transferred from one level of the food chain to the next with an efficiency of about 10 %. All organisms are intrinsically linked to their physical environment and the relationship between an organism and its environment is the study of ecology. The biosphere can be divided into distinct ecosystems that represent the interactions between a group of organisms forming a trophic pyramid and the environment or habitat in which they live.
Links to other components:
Atmosphere: Life processes involve a vast number of chemical reactions some of which either extract or emit gases from and to the atmosphere. For example, photosynthesis consumes carbon dioxide and produces oxygen whereas respiration does the opposite. Other examples of biogenic gases in the atmosphere include methane, dimethylsulfide (DMS), nitrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, etc.).
Hydrosphere: Water is essential for all living organisms on the Earth and has played a key role in the evolution and sustenance of life on our planet. The biosphere as we know it would not exist without liquid water (for example, consider Mars). Water is also important for transport the soluble nutrients (phosphate and nitrate) that are needed for plant growth, and for transporting the waste products of life’s chemical reactions.
Geosphere: The geosphere and biosphere are intimately connected through soils, which consist of a mixture of air, mineral matter, organic matter, and water. In fact, one could consider soil as composed of all four spheres (atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere). Plant activity such as root growth and generation of organic acids are also important for the mechanical and chemical breakdown (weathering) of the geosphere.
Anthrosphere: Human population poses a threat to the biosphere by habitat destruction, especially by the destruction of tropical rainforests (deforestation). This process is driving thousands of species each year to extinction and reducing biological diversity
Answer the question: how is the biosphere connected with other components? Point out the information that was new to you.
1. The biosphere as one of the Earth’s compartments.
2. The biosphere functioning.
3. The origin of the word «biosphere» and its brief history.
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