Утверждено на заседании кафедры — КиберПедия 

Индивидуальные и групповые автопоилки: для животных. Схемы и конструкции...

Механическое удерживание земляных масс: Механическое удерживание земляных масс на склоне обеспечивают контрфорсными сооружениями различных конструкций...

Утверждено на заседании кафедры



протокол № ___ от «__» ___________ 2016 г.

Зав. кафедрой:_________________ Бимагамбетова Г.А.

Утверждено на заседании УМС факультета

протокол № ___ от «__» ___________ 2016 г.

председатель УМС факультета_____________ Айманова Е.Е.

Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Шифр, специальность 5В011300 - «Биология»

Предмет « Профессионально-ориентированный английский язык»

 

Билет № 4

 

1. Прочитать и перевести текст, выполнить задание к тексту.

 

Internal anatomy of the leaf

From top surface downward, note the...

Cuticle - a non-cellular, waxy sheet of cutin secreted by the epidermis

Epidermis - this one-cell thick layer of "skin" tissue lacks chloroplasts.

palisade mesophyll - layer of photosynthetic parenchyma (chlorenchyma) of a tall, columnar shape.

spongy mesophyll - second layer of photosynthetic parenchyma (chlorenchyma), this one with copious air spaces to facilitate transpiration.

· vein system (xylem on top; phloem on bottom);

· lower epidermis - contains most of the stomata’s;

· lower cuticle - usually a thinner layer than the upper layer.

The epidermis consists from generalized epidermal cells, trichomes and guard cells. Metabolically active and often composed of diverse cell types, this is the plant's first line of defense against environmental insult.

The typical epidermal cell is flattened and elongate, though the ratio of length to width may vary across species. Note the lack of chloroplasts in the cells!The epidermal cells secrete and are covered by a waxy cuticle. Because of its tight structure and the waxy cuticle, the epidermis provides strength and form to the leaf Stomata’s. Gas exchange pores, stomata’s are located primarily on the underside of leaves in most plant species, but may also occur on the top. In some species, stomata’s occur only on the upper surface. Opening and closing of stomata’s occurs in response to light conditions, environmental humidity, and water content of the plant body in general. Hydrophyte - plant evolved to thrive in very wet conditions, xerophyte / xeriphyte - plant evolved to thrive in very dry conditions, mesophyte - plant evolved to thrive in moderate conditions (with respect to water).

 

Give Russian equivalents of these expressions among the words and word combinations of the words/expressions:

1. structure; composition; framework;

2. irrelevant; inappropriate; off the point;

3. to enlarge; raise; enhance; multiply;

4. motivation; encouragement; reason; inducement;

5. flow; stream;

6. a long cylinder, closed at one end, used in chemical experiments;

7. replacement; changeover; switch.

 

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Утверждено на заседании кафедры

протокол № ___ от «__» ___________ 2016 г.

Зав. кафедрой:_________________ Бимагамбетова Г.А.

Утверждено на заседании УМС факультета

протокол № ___ от «__» ___________ 2016 г.

председатель УМС факультета_____________ Айманова Е.Е.

Западно-Казахстанский Государственный Университет им. М. Утемисова

 

Естественно-географический факультет

Кафедра Биологии и экологии

Шифр, специальность 5В011300 - «Биология»

Предмет « Профессионально-ориентированный английский язык»

 

Билет № 5

 

1. Прочитать и перевести текст, выполнить задание к тексту.



 

Human anatomy structure

The human body includes the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thoraxand abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet. Every part of the body is composed of various types of cells, the fundamental unit of life.

At maturity, the estimated average number of cells in the body is given as 37.2 trillion. This number is stated to be of partial data and to be used as a starting point for further calculations. The number given is arrived at by totalling the cell numbers of all the organs of the body and cell types. The composition of the human body is made up of a number of certain elements including carbon, calcium and phosphorus. The study of the human body involves anatomy and physiology. The human body can show anatomical non-pathological anomalies known as variations which need to be able to be recognised. Physiology focuses on the systems and their organs of the human body and their functions. Many systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain homeostasis.

The human body consists of many interacting systems. Each system contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis, of itself, other systems, and the entire body. A system consists of two or more organs, which are functional collections of tissue. Systems do not work in isolation, and the well-being of the person depends upon the well-being of all the interacting body systems. Some combining systems are referred to by their joint names such as the nervous system and the endocrine system known together as the neuroendocrine system.

The nervous system consists of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system. The brain is the organ of thought, emotion, memory, and sensory processing, and serves many aspects of communication and controls various systems and functions. The special senses consist of vision, hearing, taste, and smell. The eyes, ears, tongue, and nose gather information about the body's environment. The musculoskeletal system consists of the human skeleton (which includes bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage) and attached muscles. It gives the body basic structure and the ability for movement. In addition to their structural role, the larger bones in the body contain bone marrow, the site of production of blood cells. Also, all bones are major storage sites for calcium and phosphate. This system can be split up into the muscular system and the skeletal system. The circulatory system or cardiovascular system comprises the heart and blood vessels (arteries,veins, and capillaries). The heart propels the circulation of the blood, which serves as a "transportation system" to transfer oxygen, fuel, nutrients, waste products, immune cells, and signalling molecules (i.e.,hormones) from one part of the body to another. The blood consists of fluid that carries cells in the circulation, including some that move from tissue to blood vessels and back, as well as the spleen and bone marrow.

 

Find Russian equivalents of these expressions among the words and word combinations of the words/expressions: the thorax and abdomen, the neuroendocrine system, the human skeleton, bones, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, muscles blood.

 

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