1. Two or more locomotives are used for pulling trains consisting of eighty freight cars.
2. The braking system can bring a train traveling at 300 km/h to a complete standstill in 65 seconds, during which time the train covers about 3.5 km.
3. Using special mechanical devices for loading and unloading freight cars led to reducing hard manual labor.
4. Russian trains run on 76 direct international lines linking Moscow with Paris, Berne, Copenhagen, Rome, Berlin and so on.
5. The transport committee studied the problem of increasing the number of trains operating on the commuter network.
6. Double deck passenger cars are used for carrying more commuters in densely-populated (густонаселённый) areas while using fewer cars.
7. As the seats in Metro cars are placed in rows on both sides of the carriage, the passengers can easily take their seats without causing trouble to other people.
8. The Moscow railway junction, the largest terminal in our country, is equipped with up-to-date devices providing coordinated operation of all the services.
9. In India, foreign tourists are able to buy an Indrail Pass permitting unlimited travel for a specific time period.
10. While testing the new locomotive, both driver and the engineer noticed malfunctioning (работать неисправно) of the motor.
11. Switches (стрелка) are used for directing a train onto another section of track, for example, a siding line or a parallel running line.
12. Around $1.2 billion will be spent on modernizing the 270 km suburban network of Sao Paolo, Brazil. This includes buying new trains, refurbishing existing rolling stock, renewing signaling equipment, constructing new railway stations, rebuilding old ones and laying new tracks.
13. A dining car is a passenger car serving as a restaurant in long-distance trains. To passengers traveling long distances, it offers greater comfort than eating brought-along food on the train. In addition, the ever-changing views of the countryside may increase the pleasure of the meal. However, dining cars are becoming increasingly rare. They are often replaced by bar cars selling snacks and pre-packaged meals.
Ex. 4. Read the sentences and translate them, paying attention to the Infinitive in the function of:
a) subject (подлежащее)
1. To put this train into service will be possible only after a series of special tests.
2. To use steel rails instead of wooden ones was a great step forward.
3. To increase train speeds without improving the stability of track is impossible.
4. It is necessary to provide regular maintenance to rolling stock.
5. It is more economic and energy efficient to transport freight by railway than by road.
6. As the rail joint (рельсовый стык) is the weakest part of the track, it is necessary to use longer rails.
b) predicative (именная часть составного сказуемого)
1. The function of railway signals is to keep the trains at some distance from one another.
2. The task of the Exро Express line was to carry 30 000 passengers per hour.
3. The aim of using several locomotives in one train is to carry extremely heavy loads.
4. The function of the automatic engine driver is to start and stop the train, to select the speed of running and to run the train strictly to the timetable.
5. The task of traffic police is to provide safety on roads.
c) attribute (определение)
1. The new tunnel to be constructed here will be the longest one in the country.
2. Containers to be used for the transportation of dangerous articles must be carefully tested.
3. Tank cars to be filled with milk will be put in the middle of the train.
4. The drawbridge to be repaired does not meet the modern traffic requirements.
5. New passenger cars to be introduced by the end of the year will be equipped with an up-to-date system of air-conditioning.
6. New York was the second city in the world to build the subway.
7. Designed by Peter Cooper in 1830, the Tom Thumb was the first American-built steam locomotive to be operated on a public railroad.
8. The Baltimore & Ohio was the first railroad in the U.S. to offer passenger service in 1830.
d) adverbial modifier (обстоятельство)
4. An unusual loco built for running on ice has been developed in Great Britain in 1860 and sent to Russia to carry freight оn sledges across frozen lakes.
5. Since the beginning of the 1990s, new high-speed railway lines in Spain have been built to standard gauge to allow these mainlines to link to the European high-speed network.
6. To control the operation of trains moving in different directions and at different speeds, railroads have developed complex systems of communications and signaling.
7. The first self-propelled vehicle had to stop every 100 yards to make more steam, because the supply of steam lasted only 15 minutes.
8. To maintain the required temperature when transporting perishable (скоропортящийся) goods, the refrigerator car is equipped with refrigerating-heating system.
9. The train was too heavy to be hauled by one locomotive.
10. The Tacoma Bridge collapsed because its structure was not strong enough to withstand (выдерживать) the wind of 42 miles per hour.
Ex. 5. State the syntactic function of the Infinitive. Translate the sentences.
1. It is impossible to stop quickly the train running at a such high speed.
2. In the 1980s, the major western European countries began to develop high-speed passenger systems to compete with air travel.
3. One of the problems to be solved by State Railway of Thailand is to improve passenger service through modernizing its wagon fleet.
4. The Moscow-Yaroslavl railway was the first mainline in Russia to be built without foreign investments.
5. To produce strong concrete for ties, it is necessary to use а minimum of water.
6. In planning a railway route, the main factors to be taken into account (принимать во внимание, учитывать) are the cost of constructing a line, the cost of operating it and the probable volume of traffic.
7. Decommissioned (списанные) locos are sometimes used to heat passenger cars and defrost railroad switches in winter.
8. The new instruments to be introduced on the substations will increase the reliability of the electric machines and other apparatus.
9. A design office in St. Petersburg was the first in the world to develop the super-long escalators.
10. Besides the public railways, there are many industrial railways in Russia. For example, a lumber (лесоматериалы, пиломатериалы) company uses its private industrial railway to transport logs from a forest to its sawmill.