| 1. to access – получать доступ
3. challenge – сложная задача, проблема
4. contractor – подрядчик
prime contractor – генеральный подрядчик
5. todismantle– разбирать (машину), демонтировать (оборудование)
6. emergency – аварийная ситуация, чрезвычайная ситуация
in case of emergency – в случае необходимости
7. tomaintain– содержать в исправном тех.состоянии; эксплуатировать
maintenance– содержание; эксплуатация
maintenance work– техническое обслуживание; текущий ремонт
8. to mean(meant, meant) – значит, означать
9. means –способ средство
means of transport–средство транспорта
bymeansof–при помощи, посредством
10. passage – переход
11. reason – причина, повод
12. shuttle train – челночный поезд
13. to tunnel (= to bore a tunnel) – проходить (прокладывать) тоннель
Ex. 5. Read the sentences and translate them into Russian.
1. Nowadays the London Underground is the most popular means of city transport because it is cheap, convenient, quick and safe.
2. The maintenance cost of a diesel loco is three times greater than that of an electric loco.
3. They decided to dismantle the machine and start again from scratch (=from the very beginning).
4. The Shuttle is a train that carries cars and their passengers through the Channel Tunnel between England and France. A typical passenger shuttle train consists of twenty-six wagons. A half of them are double-deck carriages for carrying cars of average size.
5. A contractor is a person or company that agrees to do work or provide goods for another company.
6. Workers are carrying out necessary maintenance work on the main line to Cambridge.
7. The engines shut off automatically in an emergency.
8. A tunnel is a passage built underground, for example to allow a road or railway to go through a hill, under a river, etc.
9. Special drilling equipment is being used to tunnel under the sea bed.
10. For many years, railway track has been laid and maintained by hard manual labor. Now this work is being done by means of up-to-date track machines and mechanisms.
11. The inter-car gangways (переход) invented in about 1880 enabled passengers and train crew to access from one part of the train to the other and so made possible the introduction of the dining car.
12. The main reasons for the accident were the poor condition of the track and exceeding the speed limit.
13. The high-speed train running between Hiroshima and Kokura was entered in the Guinness Book of Records for the highest average speed – 261.8 km/h.
14. A long tunnel was bored through the mountain but laying railway tracks in this tunnel wasn’t planned.
15. The train derailment would not have taken place if the track had been maintained properly.
Ex. 7. Read the sentences, replacing the Russian words with their English equivalents.
1. Can anyone explain the причина for the train delay?
2. Before a technician демонтировать the explosive device, a nearby restaurant, a post office and City Hall had been evacuated.
3. The railway became самое важное средство транспорта thanks to изобретение паровоза.
4. The Highways Department is responsible for the construction and cодержание в технически исправном состоянии of bridges and roads.
5. A челнок is a plane, bus, or train that makes regular short поездки between two places.
6. В случае необходимости, press the alarm button.
7. The dispatcher can communicate with the loco driver over long distances посредством a radiotelephone.
8. The task of the путевая бригада is to содержать the railway путь in good состояние.
9. In 1981, French National Railways began running TGV between Paris and Lyon at средний speeds of about 270 km/h on маршруты specially built for this service.
10. The word "transport" or "transportation" означать “to carry people or goods from place to place”.
Ex. 7. Complete the sentences with a required word from the list.
| 1. Then, for no apparent ___, the train suddenly stopped.
2. The government has declared a state of ___ following the earthquake.
3. The contract defines the apportionment (пропорциональное распределение) of risks between employer and ___.
4. A car is quite a big expense, especially when you consider ___.
5. Destruction of the environment is one of the most serious ___ we face.
6. The ___ citizen in the developed countries uses over 155kg of paper per year.
7. We walked down a narrow ___ to the back of the building.
8. A railway is divided into sections, usually four or six miles in length and each section is ___ by a section gang (путевая бригада).
9. In the U.S., railroads became the dominant ___ in the last half of the 19th century.
10. The engine has to be ___ to repair the damage.
11. If the tunnel were ___, the railroad would be 30 km shorter.
12. The cost of transporting passengers and goods can be reduced ___ increasing the length and weight of trains.
|| b) average
d) by means of
k) means of land transport