Ex. 2. Read the sentences and translate them into Russian, paying attention to italicized predicates in the form of the Perfect Tense. — КиберПедия 

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Ex. 2. Read the sentences and translate them into Russian, paying attention to italicized predicates in the form of the Perfect Tense.

1. I have taken somebody else’s suitcase by mistake.

2. The reason for the freight train derailment hasn'tbeenfound yet.

3. The train was late because a tree hadfallen across the line.

4. The new American turbo-train has covered a 230-mile distance in 3 hours 15 minutes with 4 stops between Boston and New York.

5. After Bessemer hadinvented а new method of steel-making, the price of steel was greatly reduced.

6. For many years, railway track hasbeenlaid and repaired by hard manual labor.

7. The train crew was informed that the departure time hadbeenchanged.

8. Recently, there hasbeen an increase in rail traffic because many products are coming in from abroad.

9. The depot at Derby Road had been disused since 1966 when the last steam locomotives were withdrawn from service.

10. Since 1931, a famous train, the Red Arrow hasoperated on the St.Petersburg-Moscow line, leaving Moscow at 23:55 daily and arriving in Saint Petersburg at 07:55 the next morning and vice versa.

11. By the time the train reached its destination, Paul hadmade friends with many of his traveling companions.

12. Wehaveheard on the radio today that the train fares will be increased in summertime.

13. Until recently, the price difference between the first and second class tickets on the Spanish Railways hadbeenamounted to 81%. This difference hasbeengreatly reduced and now first class fare is only 30% more expensive than second class.

14. In 1825, there were only 2 locomotives available for use on a public railway; by the turn of the century, their number had increased to 70,000.

15. Investigators (следователи) were photographing the wreckage from all angles, and searching for a data recorder that had been aboard the freight train.


Ex. 3. Put the verbs into the required tense form. Read the sentences and translate them into Russian.

1. Israel Railways (to order – Present Perfect Active) three four-car double-deck trains from Bombardier Transportation at a cost of Euros 16 million.

The air-conditioned trains comprising a power car and three trailers (to introduce – Future Simple Passive) in the Tel Aviv area.

2. The train (to stop – Past Simple Active) at all the stations, and long before we (to get – Past Simple Active) to London, every seat (to occupy – Past Perfect Passive) and people (to stand – Past Continuous Active) in the corridors.

3. It (to calculate – Present Perfect Passive) that East Japan Railway Company (to sell – Present Simple Active) 1,000 ton of tickets annually.

Now, these tickets (to collect and to re-use – Present Continuous Passive) in the manufacture of cardboard and toilet paper.

4. When we (to come – Past Simple Active) to the station, the train (to arrive / already – Past Perfect Passive) and the passengers (to hurry – Past Continuous Active) to take their seats in the carriages.

5. China (to have – Present Simple Active) the world’s sixth longest railroad system. By the mid-1970s, all of its major manufacturing centers and provincial capitals (to link – Past Perfect Passive) by railway network. Railwayconstruction (to begin –Past Simple Active)in China late in the 19th century. By the beginning of the World War II, more than 25,000 km of track (to lay –PastPerfectPassive) down, mainly in the eastern and northeastern parts of the country. During the war, many railway lines (to destroy –PastSimple Passive). Rail construction (to resume –PastSimple Passive)after 1949 and it (to continue –PresentPerfectActive) ever since.

6. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (to make – Present Perfect Active) a loan (ссуда) of $US120,000 to the Russian Ministry of Railways for the railway rehabilitation project.

7. New Zealand’s most serious rail disaster (to happen – Past Simple Active) on Christmas Eve 1953. The railway bridge at Tangiwai (to collapse– Past Simple Active) when a Wellington-Auckland express passenger train (to cross – Past Continuous Active) it. 151 lives (to lose – Past Simple Passive).

8. The Blue Train (to run – Present Perfect Active) between Cape Town and Pretoria, South Africa, since 1939. It (to derive – Present Simple Active) its name from its blue locomotives, railroad cars, and leather seats.


Ex. 4. Put the verbs into the required tense form. Translate the text and be ready to answer the general questions given below.

Stourbridge Lion

In the U.S., the first steam locomotive, the Stourbridge Lion, (to make – Past Simple Active) a trial trip in Pennsylvania in 1829.

On the day of a test trip, a lot of people (to come – Past Simple Active) to the small Pennsylvania town to see the first run of the steam locomotive. The driver (not to let – Past Simple Active) anyone ride with him because the locomotive (not to test – Past Perfect Passive) before. The signal to start (to give – Past Simple Passive) and the wheels (to begin – Past Simple Active) to turn slowly.

A horseman (to go – Past Continuous Active) in front of the locomotive and (to shout – Past Continuous Active) that the train (to come – Past Continuous Active). People on horses and in carriages (to ride – Past Continuous Active) near the train. All along the route, men (to wave – Past Continuous Active) their hats and boys (to cheer1 – Past Continuous Active) as the Lion (to thunder2– Past Continuous Active) past.

When they (to go – Past Perfect Active) for some time, Allen, who (to operate – Past Continuous Active) his locomotive, (to ask – Past Simple Active) the horseman to go away. He (to put – Past Simple Active) steam on and (to run – Past Simple Active) his locomotive at a fantastic speed of 12 miles per hour. Who would have believed that anything so big could move so fast without a horse to pull it!

But the locomotive (to be – Past Simple Active) too heavy for the track and the trip (not to repeat – Past Simple Passive).


Notes: 1to cheer – кричать "Ура";

2to thunder – зд: проходить (проезжать) с грохотом.


1. Was the first steam locomotive tested in 1829?

2. Did many people come to see the first run of the steam locomotive?

3. Was the steam locomotive called the Stourbridge Tiger?

4. Had the locomotive been tested before that historic run?

5. Were there any passengers on this train?

6. Did the driver let his mate ride with him?

7. Were men waving their hats as the Lion was thundering past?

8. Was the Lion moving at a speed of twelve miles an hour?

9. Was the steam locomotive pulled by a horse?

10. Was the trip repeated?


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